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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 21, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006

**Power Engineering Letters
**

Prony Analysis Technique for Estimation of the Mean Curve of Lightning Impulses

E. A. Feilat, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents a novel technique for the determination of the parameters of the lightning impulse. Prony analysis is applied to analytical lightning impulse waveforms with oscillations and/or overshoots to decompose the waveform into its modal components. The mean curve of the lightning impulse is then reconstructed using a double exponential model after removing all high-frequency and damped components from the simulated impulse. Three cases of lightning impulse waveforms were investigated, including standard lightning impulse, lightning impulse with front and peak oscillations, and lightning impulse with overshoot. The simulation results show that the technique is applicable and easy to implement. Index Terms—Digital signal processing, high-voltage testing, lightning impulse, mean curve, Prony analysis, simulation.

Next, a mean curve of the lightning impulse is reconstructed as a sum of only the highest two exponential modes after removing the other high-frequency and exponential modes of the ﬁtting signal. II. PRONY ANALYSIS DECOMPOSITION TECHNIQUE Prony analysis has been shown to be a viable technique to model a linear sum of complex exponential to signals that are uniformly sampled [4]. It gives an optimal ﬁt to the measured signal in the sense of the least-squared error (LSE) technique. samples of the input signal are recorded as Assuming , then is approximated as a linear combination of distinct modes

I. INTRODUCTION OWER transmission and distribution systems are subjected to overvoltages caused by lightning surges yielding to unequal voltage stress distribution along the insulation and may lead to breakdown of the insulation system. It has therefore become necessary to evaluate the insulation behavior under lightning impulse voltages. The lightning impulse is generally characterized in terms of its peak value, front time , and timeto-half-value . A standard lightning impulse is a full lightning s and s with impulse having % for % for , and % for the peak tolerances of [1]. These parameters can be calculated easily for an value analog or digital recorded smooth lightning impulse. However, when the impulse is superimposed by oscillations or overshoot caused by the inductance of the tested load, then it becomes difﬁcult to estimate these parameters. International standards require that the parameters are to be determined manually from a mean curve that can be obtained graphically by the high-voltage testing operator, or determined mathematically using signal processing techniques applied to digitally recorded data [1]. Several signal processing techniques have been proposed to estimate the mean curve of lightning impulses with oscillations and/or overshoot including wavelets, Kalman ﬁltering, and nonlinear regression-based techniques [2], [3]. In this paper, the Prony analysis decomposition technique has been used for the exact ﬁtting of typical analytical lightning impulses by estimating all modal contents of the light impulse.

P

(1) where is the amplitude, is the damping factor, is the is the sampling time, and is the initial angular frequency, phase angle and . The distinct eigenvalues ’s and amplitudes ’s can be estimated using the LSE minimization technique of the squared error over samples of the (2) Equation (2) can be solved following the three steps of Prony analysis method. Step 1) Construct a linear prediction model (LPM) (3) Repeating (3) times to form the LPM . The least-square estimate of A can be obtained using the pseudoinverse of matrix . Step 2) Find the roots (eigenvalues) of the characteristic polynomial associated with the LPM of Step 1) (4) where .

Manuscript received October 25, 2005. Paper no. PESL-00090-2005. The author is with the Electrical Power Engineering Department, Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology, Yarmouk University, Irbid 211-63, Jordan (e-mail: eafeilat@yu.edu.jo). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRD.2006.881984

0885-8977/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE

Fig. Case 3 Lightning Impulse With Front Oscillations Fig. Mean curve estimation of lightning impulse with overshoot. NO. Likeobtained in Step 2) by solving (2) or wise. 1 shows the Prony ﬁt. 1. The mean curve was also reconstructed from the two estimated exponential modes with parameters that are exactly as those of Table I. the estimated signal may be expressed as (5) For accurate estimation of the Prony LPM (5) to the simulated . TABLE I ESTIMATES OF THE MODAL PARAMETERS OF THE MEAN CURVE Step 3) Estimate the amplitude and phase angle of each mode . The distorted impulse was generated using the expression (9) and s. and s( MHz). . and s. Mean curve estimation of the standard lightning impulse. the mean curve and residue of the standard lightning impulse.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 3 shows the estimated mean curve and residue of a lightning impulse with front and peak oscillations. the mean curve of the lightning impulse is reconstructed only from the highest double exponential modes after removing all other exponential and frequency components of the estimated lightning impulse (6) III. . the least-square estimate of B can be obtained using the pseudoinverse of matrix . Estimates of the parameters of the are listed in Table I. 21. Mean curve estimation of a lightning impulse with front oscillations. 3. Fig. B. Case 2: Lightning Impulse With Overshoot The mean curve of a lightning impulse with overshoot is analyzed in this case. The results are s. the number of samples (measured) lightning impulse and the number of modes are varied until perfect ﬁtness is obtained. 4. SIMULATION RESULTS A. and The parameters of the standard lightning impulse ( ) were calculated as prescribed in [3] using the mean curve where Fig. C. 2. Case 1: Standard Lightning Impulse Three hundred ﬁfty samples of a discrete signal representing a standard lightning impulse were generated using the following equation: (7) . The number of modes where is adjusted to . . Accordingly. The mean curve is constructed from two exponential modes with parameters estimated exactly as in Table I. The where and number of samples and modes are adjusted to . An exact Prony ﬁt was obtained. s. Exact Prony ﬁtness was obtained as shown in Fig. As all of the modal components of the lightning impulse are obtained. VOL. 2. OCTOBER 2006 2089 Fig. It can be seen that mean curve with the mean curve perfectly ﬁts the generated impulse. The distorted impulse was generated using the expression (8) and .

. The simulation results indicate that the technique is applicable. oscillations and overshoot. CONCLUSION A new technique for estimating the mean curve of a lightning impulse with oscillation and/or overshoot based on the Prony analysis has been presented. Leonowicz. 4. “Wavelet analysis for estimation of meancurve of impulse waveforms superimposed by noise. 2003. 21. “Exponential ﬁtting algorithms for digitally recorded high voltage impulse parameters evaluation. 116–121.” IEEE Trans. 1993.. J.” IEEE Trans. 4. pp. vol. T. and W. vol. Janischewskyj. Ind. 8. and J. Kuffel. pp. 16. pp. IEEE Std. 3. NO. Oct. OCTOBER 2006 IV. Gururaj. Lobos. [2] L. Power Del. 50. The application of the proposed method on digitally recorded data and data superimposed with noise is under investigation. no. 1727–1735. Electron. no.” IEEE Trans. Satish and B. The mean curve is constructed from a double exponential model after removing all high-frequency components from analytical distorted lightning impulses. Power Del. M. 4. VOL. “Advanced spectrum estimation method for signal analysis in power electronics.2090 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 1995. 1–6. Jan. Li. no.. vol. 2001.. [3] Y. Rezmer. [4] Z. 1. I. Jul. REFERENCES [1] IEEE Standard Technique for High-Voltage Testing.

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