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Scope and applications

SIIRTEC NIGI Double-Pipe and MultiTube Heat Exchangers are used for heating, cooling, vaporising or regenerating a fluid by means of another fluid, where lower capacities and limited exchange surfaces are involved.

Easy installation, easy access to inside tubes for cleaning and maintenance. Possibility of reuse for different duty conditions. Modular design easily stackable. By connecting hairpin elements in different ways, in series or parallel combinations, they can switched easily and economically to different duty requirements.

T1 t2

How they work

t'2 T2 t1

Symbols: T1 = inlet heating fluid temperature T2 = outlet heating fluid temperature t1 = inlet heated fluid temperature t2 = outlet heated fluid temperature achievable by true counterflow exchangers t'2 = outlet heated fluid temperatureattainable by standard "shelland tube" exchanger with several tube-side passes

Double-Pipe and Multi-Tube exchangers accomplish the "true counterflow condition", i.e. the two fluids flow in opposite directions. This true counterflow condition ensures the highest thermal efficiency and the minimum surface area. Furthermore it allows a very wide range of applications, making it possible to treat fluids having very close temperatures. Where duty conditions are subject to change periodically or are expected to change in the future, a set of SIIRTEC NIGI hairpin elements may be the most flexible solution to the problem, instead of a specially designed heat exchanger.


Hairpin Heat Exchangers generally include two types:

A Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger The shell pipe includes only one tube, finned or bare.

B Multi-Tube Heat Exchanger The shell pipe includes a bunch of pipes, finned or bare.

A DOUBLE-PIPE consists basically of: one single-tube hairpin, longitudinally finned or bare, with a gland welded at each end; fins are cut and twisted at regular distances to increase heat transfer efficiency; two shell pipes, welded to a common mating flange at one end and to a double couple of inlet/outlet flanges at the other end; a complete set of connection rings and gaskets; a return bend head cover, complete with studs and nuts; two exchanger supporting saddles, one of them welded to the shell pipes. A MULTI-TUBE consists basically of: One U-tube bundle, longitudinally finned or bare, complete with a tube-sheet at each end; fins cut and twisted as above; two shell pipes, welded to a common mating flange at one end and to a double couple of inlet/outlet flanges at the other end; a complete set of connection rings and gaskets; a return bend head cover, complete with studs and nuts; two exchangers supporting saddles, one of them welded to the shell pipes.


Separated Head Closures The pipe junction tightness may be major problem for these types of exchangers, particularly when special fluids are involved. In order to prevent leaking and contamination between the two process fluids, our Double-Pipes and Multi-Tubes can be equipped, on request, with separated head closures, thus ensuring an absolute separation of the two fluid flows. Typical sections of separated head closures are indicated here below.

Double Pipe separated head closures

Multi Tube separated head closure: Double Tube Sheet type

Multi Tube separated head closure: Unique Tube Sheet type

The materials to be used for the manufacturing of Double-Pipes and Multi-Tubes shall be defined in accordance with the characteristics of the fluids involved. We can provide any material required for any specific duty, from carbon steel to stainless steel, chromemoly, admiralty, aluminium brass, cupro-nickel, etc.

SIIRTEC NIGI's concept for sizing Hairpin Heat Exchangers is to carry out a "tailor-made" calculation, strictly according to customer's requirements, rather than adapt standard modules. This means optimising the unit efficiency by selecting the most appropriate combination between pipe and fin type, dimensions and number of components. The following dimension tables give an idea of how many combinations may be selected, in order to find the most appropriate solution. We can carry out any Double-Pipe or Multi-Tube application in accordance with any internationally recognised code (e.g. ASME, ISPESL, SNCC, STOOMWEZEN, TV, PED). Pipe
No. of

Examples: * a 3/4" IPS Pipe, with No. 24 1"-high Fins, has a total surface of: 0.083 + 1.219 = 1.303 m /m * a 2" IPS Pipe, with No. 40 1/2"-high Fins, has a total surface of: 0.190 + 1.016 = 1.206 m2/m

Pipe Dia. (Inch)

1/2 OD 3/4 OD 7/8 OD 1 OD 3/4 IPS (1.050 OD) 1 IPS (1.320 OD) 1 1/2 IPS (1.900 OD) 2 IPS (2.375 OD) 2 1/2 IPS (2.875 OD) 3 IPS (3.500 OD) 3 1/2 IPS (4.000 OD) 4 IPS (4.500 OD)

Outer Surface [m 2/m] 0.040 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.084 0.105 0.152 0.190 0.229 0.279 0.319 0.359

8 16 16 24 24 24 32 40 48 56 56 64

No. of


1/4 0,051 0,102 0,152 0,203 0,254 0,305 0,356 0,406 0,457 0,508 0,610 0,711 0,813

3/8 0,076 0,152 0,229 0,305 0,381 0,457 0,533 0,610 0,686 0,762 0,914 1,067 1,219

Fin Height, in inch. 1/2 3/4 1 0,102 0,203 0,305 0,406 0,508 0,610 0,711 0,813 0,914 1,016 1,219 1,422 1,626 0,152 0,305 0,457 0,610 0,762 0,914 1,067 1,219 1,372 1,524 1,829 2,134 2,438 0,203 0,406 0,610 0,813 1,016 1,219 1,422 1,626 1,829 2,032 2,438 2,845 3,251

1 1/4 0,254 0,508 0,762 1,016 1,270 1,524 1,778 2,032 2,286 2,540 3,048 3,556 4,064

1 1/2 0,305 0,610 0,914 1,219 1,524 1,829 2,134 2,438 2,743 3,048 3,658 4,267 4,877

4 8 *12 16 *20 24 28 32 36 40 48 56 64

*On request Diameters and surfaces refer to standard production.

Fin Surface [m 2/m]

Required design information Duty Type of fluids (shell side & tube side); Corresponding characteristics of each fluid: - Flow rate; - Density; - Viscosity; - Molecular weight; - Specific heat; - Latent heat; - Thermal conductivity; - Inlet and outlet temperature; - Operating pressure; - Pressure drop; - Fouling factor. Air temperature; Design pressure and temperature; Code requirements.

The main data of each SIIRTEC NIGI Hairpin Element can be identified by a set of letters and numbers as indicated below.
DP = Double Pipe MT = Multi Tube No. of tubes (for MT only). Add F if they are finned. (Do not indicate anything for DP) Shell outside Diameter, in inches Tube outside Diameter, in inches Finned length, in inches. or: Bare tube straight length, in inches






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