E & M - Basic Physical Concepts

Electric force and electric field
Electric force between 2 point charges:
|F| = k
|q1| |q2|
r
2
k = 8.987551787 ×10
9
Nm
2
/C
2

0
=
1
4 π k
= 8.854187817 ×10
−12
C
2
/Nm
2
q
p
= −q
e
= 1.60217733 (49) ×10
−19
C
m
p
= 1.672623 (10) ×10
−27
kg
m
e
= 9.1093897 (54) ×10
−31
kg
Electric field:

E =

F
q
Point charge: |E| = k
|Q|
r
2
,

E =

E
1
+

E
2
+ · · ·
Field patterns: point charge, dipole, plates, rod,
spheres, cylinders,. . .
Charge distributions:
Linear charge density: λ =
∆Q
∆x
Area charge density: σ
A
=
∆Q
∆A
Surface charge density: σ
surf
=
∆Q
surf
∆A
Volume charge density: ρ =
∆Q
∆V
Electric flux and Gauss’ law
Flux: ∆Φ = E ∆A

=

E · ˆ n∆A
Gauss law: Outgoing Flux from S, Φ
S
=
Qenclosed

0
Steps: to obtain electric field
–Inspect

E pattern and construct S
–Find Φ
s
=

surface

E · d

A =
Qencl

0
, solve for

E
Spherical: Φ
s
= 4 π r
2
E
Cylindrical: Φ
s
= 2 π r E
Pill box: Φ
s
= E ∆A, 1 side; = 2 E ∆A, 2 sides
Conductor:

E
in
= 0, E

surf
= 0, E

surf
=
σ
surf

0
Potential
Potential energy: ∆U = q ∆V 1 eV ≈ 1.6 ×10
−19
J
Positive charge moves from high V to low V
Point charge: V =
k Q
r
V = V
1
+V
2
= . . .
Energy of a charge-pair: U =
k q1 q2
r12
Potential difference: |∆V | = |E ∆s

|,
∆V = −

E · ∆s, V
B
−V
A
= −

B
A

E · ds
E = −
d V
dr
, E
x
= −
∆V
∆x

fix y,z
= −
∂V
∂x
, etc.
Capacitances Q = C V
Series: V =
Q
Ceq
=
Q
C1
+
Q
C2
+
Q
C3
+ · · ·, Q = Q
i
Parallel: Q = C
eq
V = C
1
V +C
2
V + · · ·, V = V
i
Parallel plate-capacitor: C =
Q
V
=
Q
E d
=

0
A
d
Energy: U =

Q
0
V dq =
1
2
Q
2
C
, u =
1
2

0
E
2
Dielectrics: C = κC
0
, U
κ
=
1
2 κ
Q
2
C0
, u
κ
=
1
2

0
κE
2
κ
Spherical capacitor: V =
Q
4 π
0
r1

Q
4 π
0
r2
Potential energy: U = − p ·

E
Current and resistance
Current: I =
d Q
dt
= nq v
d
A
Ohm’s law: V = I R, E = ρJ
E =
V

, J =
I
A
, R =
ρ
A
Power: P = I V =
V
2
R
= I
2
R
Thermal coefficient of ρ: α =
∆ρ
ρ0∆T
Motion of free electrons in an ideal conductor:
a τ = v
d

q E
m
τ =
J
nq
→ρ =
m
nq
2
τ
Direct current circuits V = I R
Series: V = I R
eq
= I R
1
+I R
2
+I R
3
+ · · ·, I = I
i
Parallel: I =
V
Req
=
V
R1
+
V
R2
+
V
R3
+ · · ·, V = V
i
Steps: in application of Kirchhoff’s Rules
–Label currents: i
1
, i
2
, i
3
, . . .
–Node equations:

i
in
=

i
out
–Loop equations: “

(±E) +

(∓iR)=0”
–Natural: “+” for loop-arrow entering − terminal
“−” for loop-arrow-parallel to current flow
RC circuit: if
d y
dt
+
1
RC
y = 0, y = y
0
exp(−
t
RC
)
Charging: E −V
c
−Ri = 0,
1
c
d q
dt
+R
d i
dt
=
i
c
+R
d i
dt
= 0
Discharge: 0 = V
c
−Ri =
q
c
+R
d q
dt
,
i
c
+R
d i
dt
= 0
Magnetic field and magnetic force
µ
0
= 4 π ×10
−7
Tm/A
Wire: B =
µ
0
i
2 π r
Axis of loop: B =
µ
0
a
2
i
2 (a
2
+x
2
)
3/2
Magnetic force:

F
M
= i

×

B →q v ×

B
Loop-magnet ID: τ = i



B, µ = i Aˆ n
Circular motion: F =
mv
2
r
= q v B, T =
1
f
=
2 π r
v
Lorentz force:

F = q

E +q v ×

B
Hall effect: V
H
=
FM d
q
, U = − µ ·

B
Sources of

B and magnetism of matter
Biot-Savart Law: ∆

B =
µ
0
4 π
i ∆

׈r
r
2
, B =
µ
0
4 π
q v׈r
r
2
∆B =
µ
0
4 π
i ∆y
r
2
sin θ, sin θ =
a
r
, ∆y =
r
2
∆θ
a
Ampere’s law: M =

L

B · ds = µ
0
I
encircled
Steps: to obtain magnetic field
–Inspect

B pattern and construct loop L
–Find M and I
encl
, and solve for

B.
Displ. current: I
d
=
0
d ΦE
dt
=
0
d (E A)
dt
=
d QA
dt
Magnetism in atom:
Orbital motion: µ = i A =
e
2 m
L
L = mv r = n¯h, ¯h =
h
2 π
= 1.06 ×10
−34
J s
µ
orbit
= nµ
B
, µ
B
=
e ¯ h
2 m
= 9.27 ×10
−24
J/T
Spin: S =
¯ h
2
, µ
spin
= µ
B
Magnetism in matter:
B = B
0
+B
M
= (1 + χ) B
0
= (1 + χ) µ
0
B0
µ
0
= κ
m
H
Ferromagnetic: χ 1 Diamagnetic: −1 χ < 0
Paramagnetic: 0 < χ 1, M =
C
T
B
Faraday’s law
E = −N
d φB
dt
, φ
B
=
_

B · d

A,
E =
_

E · ds,

E =

FM
q
Lenz law: Induced

B opposes change of Φ
B
d φB
dt
=
d (B A

)
dt
=
d B
dt
A

+B
d A

dt
Moving rods:
d A
dt
= v,
d A
dt
=
d
dt
_
1
2
R · Rθ
_
Rotating loop:
d A

dt
=
d
dt
(A cos ωt)
Cutting B lines → change φ
B
→E
ind
→E
ind
Maxwell equations:
_

E · d

A =
Q

0
,
_

B · d

A = 0 ,
_

E · ds = −
d φB
dt
,
_

B · ds = µ
0
[I +
0
d φE
dt
]
Inductance
Mutual: E
2
= −M
21
d i1
dt
, M
21
= M
12
=
N2 φ21
i1
Self: E = −L
d i
dt
, L =
N φ
i
, V
L
= L
d i
dt
Long solenoid: L =
N B A
i
, B = µ
0
ni
Energies: U
L
=
1
2
Li
2
, u
B
=
1
2 µ
0
B
2
U
C
=
1
2 C
q
2
, u
E
=
1
2

0
E
2
LC: V
L
+V
C
= 0 ⇒L
d i
dt
= −
q
C
q = q
0
cos(ω t + δ),
ω =
_
1
LC
, U
C
+U
L
= U
C max
= U
Lmax
= U
0
Decay Equations:
d y
dt
= −a y, y = y
0
exp(−a t)
LR: E = V
L
+Ri,
d VL
dt
+
RVL
L
= 0,
V
L
= E exp
_

Rt
L
_
, i =
E
R
_
1 −exp
_
−Rt
L
__
LRC:
Q ≈ Q
0
e

R
2 L
t
cos ω
d
t, ω
d
=
_
1
LC

_
R
2 L
_
2
Underdamped, critically damped & overdamped
AC Circuits
Impedance: [Ohm ≡ Ω] Z ≡
_
R
2
+ (X
L
−X
C
)
2
Inductive X
L
= ω L, Capactive X
C
=
1
ω C
Mean value:
¯
f(t) =
1
T
_
T
0
f(t) dt
[sin ω t]
rms
= [sin
2
ω t]
1
2
= [
1
2
(1 −cos 2 ω t)]
1
2
=
1

2
Electromagnetic waves
Properties of em waves:
E = E
m
cos(k z −ω t), B =
E
c
v =
d z
dt
=
ω
k
= λf =
λ
T
, n =
c
v
speed of light: c =
1

0
µ
0
= 2.99792458 ×10
8
m/s

B ⊥

E, propagating along:

E ×

B
u = u
E
+u
B
, u
E
= u
B
Poynting vector:

S =

B
µ
0
,
¯
S =
¯
I =
ErmsBrms
µ
0
Intensity: I =
P
A
=
∆U
A∆z
d z
dt
= uc
Energy conservation:
_

S · d

A =
d U
dt
+P
R
Complete absorption: Momentum p =
U
c
Pressure: P =
F
A
=
∆p
∆t
1
A
=
∆U
c ∆t
1
A
= u =
S
c
Complete reflection: P =
2 U
c
, P =
2 S
c
Reflection and Refraction
Index of refraction:
n1
n2
=
v2
v1
=
λ2
λ1
Snell’s law: n
1
sin θ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
Critical angle: n
2
> n
1
, n
2
sin θ
c
= n
1
sin 90

Total reflection: θ > θ
c
Mirrors and lenses
1
p
+
1
q
=
1
f
Ray tracing rules:
Mirror: At symm pt S, reflected symmetrically through
center of sphere, undeflected. Parallel to axis, converges
toward F (or diverges away from F), f =
R
2
.
Lens: Through center of lens, undeflected. Parallel to
axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F)
Image: q > 0 (real), q < 0 (virtual)
Focal point F: at p = ∞, q = f
f = ±|f|, “+” convergent, “−” divergent
Magnification: M =
h

h
= −
q
p
Refraction at spherical surface:
n1
p
+
n2
q
=
n2−n1
R
R is coordinate of center with origin at S, with
S the symmetry point of surface on the axis
Lens maker:
1
f
=
_
n2
n1
−1
__
1
R1

1
R2
_
Two media: M =
h

h
= −
q
p
n1
n2
Huygen’s principles:
Points in wave front are sources of next wavelets
Forward tangent surface is next wave front
Interference
Maxima φ = 0, 2 π, 4 π, · · ·; Minima φ = π, 3 π, 5 π, · · ·
Double slits: I
average
= I
0
cos
2
_
φ
2
_
, φ = k ∆.
sin θ =

d
, tan θ =
y
L
, for small θ, θ ≈ sinθ ≈ tan θ
Phasor diagram:

A =

A
1
+

A
2
+

A
3
+ · · ·
A
x
= A
1x
+A
2x
+A
3x
+· · ·, A
y
= A
1y
+A
2y
+· · ·
a
sin α
=
b
sin β
=
c
sin γ
First minimum for N slits: φ =
2 π
N
Thin film: φ = k ∆+|φ
1
reflected
−φ
2
reflected
|, ∆ = 2 t
φ
reflected
= π (denser medium); =0 (lighter medium)
Diffraction
Single slit: I = I
0
_
sin
β
2
β
2
_
2
, β = k∆, ∆ = a sin θ
Resolution criterion: θ
criterion
= 1.22
λ
D
Grating: Principle maxima ∆ = mλ
Polarization
Brewster (n
1
< n
2
): n
1
sinθ
br
= n
2
sin(
π
2
−θ
br
)
Polarizer: E
transmit
= E
0
cos θ, I = I
0
cos
2
θ
Unpolarized light:
∆I
∆θ
=
I0
2 π
Transmitted Intensity: ∆I

= ∆I cos
2
θ
I

=
I0
2 π
_
2 π
0
cos
2
θ dθ =
I0
2
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3
This print-out should have 36 questions.
Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page – find all choices
before answering. V1:1, V2:1, V3:1, V4:1,
V5:2.
Four Charges in Square JMS
23:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
001 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Consider charges in a square again, but this
time with a different assignment of charges
(shown in the figure below).
Q
D
= q
Q
A
= q
Q
C
= −q
Q
B
= q
O
a
Find E
O
at O.
1. E
O
= 4
k q
a
2
correct
2. E
O
=

2
k q
a
2
3. E
O
= 2

2
k q
a
2
4. E
O
=
k q
a
2
5. E
O
=
1

2
k q
a
2
6. E
O
=
1
5

2
k q
a
2
7. E
O
=
1
4

2
k q
a
2
8. E
O
= 3
k q
a
2
9. E
O
= 3

2
k q
a
2
10. E
O
=
1
3

2
k q
a
2
Explanation:
The magnitudes of all four E-components at
O are equal to E
A
= 2 k
q
a
2
. Draw a diagram,
similar to the one in the explanation to part
1, to show the directions of the field vectors
at O.
You should find that the contributions from
B and D cancel, whereas the contributions
from A and C add. This means the magnitude
of the total field is
E = (2) (2) k
q
a
2
= 4 k
q
a
2
.
Charged Arc JMS
, , , < 1 min, .
002 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A uniformly charged circular arc AB of radius
R is shown in the figure. It covers a quarter
of a circle and it is located in the second
quadrant. The total charge on the arc is
Q > 0.
x
y
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
∆θ
θ
R
x
y
I II
III IV
B
A
O
∆s ≡ R∆θ
The direction of the electric field vector

E
at the origin, due to the charge distribution,
is
1. in quadrant IV. correct
2. along the positive x-axis.
3. along the positive y-axis.
4. along the negative y-axis.
5. along the negative x-axis.
6. in quadrant I.
7. in quadrant III.
8. in quadrant II.
Explanation:
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4
The electric field for a positive charge is
directed away from it. In this case, the electric
field generated by each ∆q will be directed
into quadrant IV, so the total electric field
will be in the same quadrant.
Charge Inside a Box 02
24:02, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
003 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A cubic box of side a, oriented as shown, con-
tains an unknown charge. The vertically di-
rected electric field has a uniform magnitude
E at the top surface and 2 E at the bottom
surface.
a
E
2 E
How much charge Q is inside the box?
1. Q
encl
= 0
2. Q
encl
= 2
0
E a
2
3. Q
encl
=
0
E a
2
correct
4. Q
encl
=
1
2

0
E a
2
5. Q
encl
= 3
0
E a
2
6. Q
encl
= 2
E

0
a
2
7. Q
encl
=
E

0
a
2
8. Q
encl
= 3
E

0
a
2
9. Q
encl
= 6
0
E a
2
10. insufficient information
Explanation:
Electric flux through a surface S is, by con-
vention, positive for electric field lines going
out of the surface S and negative for lines
going in.
Here the surface is a cube and no flux goes
through the vertical sides. The top receives
Φ
top
= −E a
2
(inward is negative) and the bottom
Φ
bottom
= 2 E a
2
.
The total electric flux is
Φ
E
= −E a
2
+ 2 E a
2
= E a
2
.
Using Gauss’s Law, the charge inside the box
is
Q
encl
=
0
Φ
E
=
0
E a
2
.
Concentric Conductors JMS
24:04, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
004 (part 1 of 3) 10 points
Consider a solid conducting sphere with a
radius a and charge Q
1
on it. There is a
conducting spherical shell concentric to the
sphere. The shell has an inner radius b (with
b > a) and outer radius c and a net charge
Q
2
on the shell. Denote the charge on the in-
ner surface of the shell by Q

2
and that on the
outer surface of the shell by Q

2
.
Q
1
, a b , Q

2
Q

2
, c Q
1
Q
2
P
Find the charge Q

2
.
1. Q

2
= Q
1
+Q
2
correct
2. Q

2
= Q
1
−Q
2
3. Q

2
= Q
2
−Q
1
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 5
4. Q

2
= 2 (Q
1
+Q
2
)
5. Q

2
= 2 (Q
1
−Q
2
)
6. Q

2
= 2 (Q
2
−Q
1
)
7. Q

2
=
Q
1
+Q
2
2
8. Q

2
=
Q
2
−Q
1
2
9. Q

2
=
Q
1
−Q
2
2
10. Q

2
=
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
2
Q
1
−Q
2
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Gauss’ Law
Sketch a concentric Gaussian surface S
(dashed line) within the shell.
r
Since the electrostatic field in a conducting
medium is zero, according to Gauss’s Law,
Φ
S
=
Q
1
+Q

2

0
= 0
Q

2
= −Q
1
But the net charge on the shell is
Q
2
= Q

2
+Q

2
,
so the charge on the outer surface of the shell
is
Q

2
= Q
2
−Q

2
= Q
2
+Q
1
.
005 (part 2 of 3) 10 points
Find the magnitude of the electric field at
point P
_

E
P
≡ E
P
_
, where the distance
from P to the center is r =
a +b
2
.
1. E
P
=
4 k
e
Q
1
(a +b)
2
correct
2. E
P
= 0
3. E
P
=
4 k
e
Q
2
(a +b)
2
4. E
P
=
4 k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
5. E
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
(a +b)
2
6. E
P
=
2 k
e
Q
2
(a +b)
2
7. E
P
=
2 k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
8. E
P
=
4 k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
9. E
P
=
2 k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
10. E
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a
(a +b)
3
Explanation:
Choose the spherical surface S centered at
O, which passes through P. Here,
4 π r
2
E
P
=
Q
1

0
E
P
=
Q
1
4 π
0
r
2
=
k
e
Q
1
r
2
=
4 k
e
Q
1
(a +b)
2
.
006 (part 3 of 3) 10 points
Assume: The potential at r = ∞is zero.
Find the potential V
P
at point P.
1. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
1
b
+
k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
c
cor-
rect
2. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 6
3. V
P
=
2 k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
a +b
4. V
P
= 0
5. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b
+
k
e
Q
2
c
6. V
P
=
k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
2
b
7. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

2 k
e
Q
2
b
8. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
2
c
9. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b
+
k
e
Q
1
b

k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
c
10. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a
Explanation:
Using the superposition principle, adding
the 3 concentric charge distributions; i.e., Q
1
at a, −Q at b and Q
1
+Q
2
at c, gives
V =
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
1
b
+
k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
c
.
Add a Charge to Four JMS
25:01, highSchool, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
007 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Four charges are placed at the corners of a
square of side a, with q
1
= q
2
= −q, q
3
= q
4
=
+q, where q is positive. Initially there is no
charge at the center of the square.
q
1
= −q
q
2
= −q
q
4
= +q
q
3
= +q
q
Find the work required to bring the charge
q from infinity and place it at the center of
the square.
1. W = 0 correct
2. W =
4 k q
2
a
2
3. W =
2 k q
2
a
2
4. W =
−2 k q
2
a
2
5. W =
−4 k q
2
a
2
6. W =
4 k q
2
a
7. W =
2 k q
2
a
8. W =
−2 k q
2
a
9. W =
−4 k q
2
a
10. W =
8 k q
2
a
2
Explanation:
Based on the superposition principle, the
potential at the center due to the charges at
the corners is
V = V
1
+V
2
+V
3
+V
4
=
k q
r
(−1 −1 + 1 + 1) = 0 .
Here r is the common distance from the center
to the corners. The work required to bring
the charge q from infinity to the center is then
W = q V = 0.
Electric Potential or FieldJMS
25:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
008 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Two charges are located in the (x, y) plane
as shown in the figure below. The fields pro-
duced by these charges are observed at the
origin, p = (0, 0).
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 7
x
y
−Q −Q
p
b
a a
Use Coulomb’s law to find the x-component
of the electric field at p.
1. E
x
= 0 correct
2. E
x
= −
4 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
3. E
x
=
4 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
4. E
x
=
2 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
5. E
x
= −
2 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
6. E
x
=
k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
7. E
x
= −
k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
8. E
x
=
2 k
e
Q
a
2
+b
2
9. E
x
= −
2 k
e
Q
a
2
+b
2
Explanation:
Let: k
e
= 8.98755 ×10
9
Nm
2
/C
2
.
−Q
1
−Q
2
p
b
a a
r
1
=
_
x
2
1
+y
2
1
=
_
a
2
+b
2
.
r
2
=
_
x
2
2
+y
2
2
=
_
(−a)
2
+b
2
=
_
a
2
+b
2
, so
r
2
= r
1
= r .
θ θ
E
1
E
2
−Q
1
−Q
2
where
| sin θ| =
b
r
=
b

a
2
+b
2
| cos θ| =
a
r
=
a

a
2
+b
2
.
In the x-direction, the contributions from
the two charges are
E
x1
= −k
e
(−Q)
r
2
1
| cos(θ)| (1)
= −k
e
(−Q)
(a
2
+b
2
)
a

a
2
+b
2
= +k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
E
x2
= −k
e
(+Q)
r
2
2
| cos(θ)| (2)
= −k
e
(+Q)
(a
2
+b
2
)
a

a
2
+b
2
= −k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
E
x
= E
x1
+E
x2
= 0 .
009 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
Let: V = 0 at infinity.
Find the electric potential at p .
1. V
y
= −
2 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
correct
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 8
2. V
y
= +
2 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
3. V
y
= −
4 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
4. V
y
=
4 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
5. V
y
= −
2 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
6. V
y
=
2 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
7. V
y
= −
4 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
8. V
y
=
4 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
9. V
y
= 0
Explanation:
The potential for a point charge −Q is
V = k
e
−Q
r
.
For the two charges in this problem, we
have
V
1
= k
e
−Q

a
2
+b
2
.
V
2
= k
e
−Q

a
2
+b
2
.
V
p
= V
1
+V
2
=
k
e

a
2
+b
2
[−Q+ (−Q)]
= −
2 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
.
Spherical Capacitor JMS
26:02, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
010 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Given a spherical capacitor with radius of the
inner conducting sphere a and the outer shell
b. The outer shell is grounded. The charges
are +Q and −Q. A point C is located at
r =
R
2
, where R = a +b.
a
A B
C
+Q
−Q
b
The capacitance of this spherical capacitor
is
1. C =
k
e
b
.
2. C =
a
k
e
.
3. C =
b
k
e
.
4. C =
a +b
k
e
.
5. C =
1
k
e
(a +b)
.
6. C =
1
k
e
(a −b)
.
7. C =
k
e
a
.
8. C =
1
k
e
_
1
a

1
b
_ . correct
9. C =
b − a
2 k
e
ln
_
b
a
_, .
10. C =
b
2
4 k
e
( b − a)
, .
Explanation:
∆V = V
a
−V
b
= k
e
Q
_
1
a

1
b
_
−0
since V
b
is grounded. The charge on the
inside of the shell doesn’t affect the grounded
potential.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 9
The capacitance of this spherical capacitor
is
C =
Q
∆V
=
Q
k
e
Q
_
1
a

1
b
_
=
1
k
e
_
1
a

1
b
_ .
Introduce a Dielectric JMS
26:05, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
011 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider an air-filled parallel plate capaci-
tor with plate area A and gap width d. The
plate charge is Q.
Subsequent to full charging of the capaci-
tor, the battery is disconnected.
Now, the gap is filled with of dielectric of
dielectric constant κ.
κ
d
+Q −Q
A A
The voltage within the gap in the presence
of the dielectric is given by
1. V

=
Q
2
κ
0
A
d .
2. V

=

0
A
d .
3. V

=
QA
κ
0
d .
4. V

=
Q
κ
0
d
A.
5. V

=
Q
2
κ
0
A.
6. V

=
Q
2
κ

0
A
d .
7. V

=
Q
κ
0
A
d . correct
8. V

=
Q
2
κ
0
d
A.
Explanation:
V

=
V
κ
=
E d
κ
=
Q
κ
0
A
d
012 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
The energy within the gap in the presence of
the dielectric is given by
1. U

=
Q
2
2 κ
0
d
A.
2. U

=
Q
2
2
0
A
d .
3. U

=
Q
2
2 κ
0
A
d . correct
4. U

=
Q
2
κ
2
0
A
d .
5. U

=
Q
κ
0
A
d .
6. U

=
Q

0
A
d .
7. U

=
Q
κ
0
d
A.
8. U

=

0
A
d .
Explanation:
U

=
Q
2
2 C

=
Q
2
2
_
κ0 A
d
_ =
Q
2
2 κ
0
A
d .
Light Bulb in a Circuit JMS
, , , < 1 min, .
013 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A 75 W bulb is connected to a 120 V source.
V R
What is the current through the bulb?
1. 0.466667 A
2. 0.506306 A
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 10
3. 0.561789 A
4. 0.608182 A
5. 0.625 A correct
6. 0.645669 A
7. 0.653043 A
8. 0.670588 A
9. 0.696581 A
10. 0.705385 A
Explanation:
Given : P = 75 W, and
V = 120 V.
The current is
I =
P
V
=
75 W
120 V
= 0.625 A .
Dimensional analysis for I:
W
V
=
J/s
J/C
=
J
s
·
C
J
=
C
s
= A
014 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
A lamp dimmer puts a resistance in series
with the bulb.
What resistance would be needed to reduce
the current to 0.3 A?
1. 32.7125 Ω
2. 45.0553 Ω
3. 57.0368 Ω
4. 58.2651 Ω
5. 92.1429 Ω
6. 120.044 Ω
7. 122.723 Ω
8. 132.777 Ω
9. 208 Ω correct
10. 212.982 Ω
Explanation:
R
total
= R +R
1
, and
V = I
1
R
total
= I
1
R +I
1
R
1
so that
R
1
=
V −I
1
R
I
1
=
V
I
1
−R
=
120 V
0.3 A
−192 Ω
= 208 Ω .
Four Resistors JMS
28:02, highSchool, multiple choice, > 1 min,
normal.
015 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Four resistors are connected as shown in the
figure.
1
0

5
0

7
0

90 V
3
0

S
1
a
b
c
d
Find the resistance between points a and b.
1. 31.5686 Ω correct
2. 33.3855 Ω
3. 34.4127 Ω
4. 36.0099 Ω
5. 37.6052 Ω
6. 38.1779 Ω
7. 38.9958 Ω
8. 39.4313 Ω
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 11
9. 40.046 Ω
10. 42.0635 Ω
Explanation:
Given : R
1
= 10 Ω,
R
2
= 30 Ω,
R
3
= 50 Ω,
R
4
= 70 Ω, and
E
B
= 90 V.
R
1
R
3
R
4
E
B
R
2
S
1
a
b
c
d
Ohm’s law is V = I R.
A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junc-
tions connected by zero resistance.
R
2
R
3
R
1
R
4
a
b
c
d
The parallel connection of R
1
and R
2
gives
the equivalent resistance
1
R
12
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
=
R
2
+R
1
R
1
R
2
R
12
=
R
1
R
2
R
1
+R
2
=
(10 Ω) (30 Ω)
10 Ω + 30 Ω
= 7.5 Ω.
R
12
R
3
R
4
a
b
The series connection of R
12
and R
3
gives
the equivalent resistance
R
123
= R
12
+R
3
= 7.5 Ω + 50 Ω
= 57.5 Ω.
R
123
R
4
a
b
The parallel connection of R
123
and R
4
gives the equivalent resistance
1
R
ab
=
1
R
123
+
1
R
4
=
R
4
+R
123
R
123
R
4
R
ab
=
R
123
R
4
R
123
+R
4
=
(57.5 Ω) (70 Ω)
57.5 Ω + 70 Ω
= 31.5686 Ω.
or combining the above steps, the equivalent
resistance is
R
ab
=
_
R
1
R
2
R
1
+R
2
+R
3
_
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
1
+R
2
+R
3
+R
4
=
_
(10 Ω) (30 Ω)
10 Ω + 30 Ω
+ 50 Ω
_
(70 Ω)
(10 Ω) (30 Ω)
10 Ω + 30 Ω
+ 50 Ω + 70 Ω
= 31.5686 Ω.
E
B
R
ab
a
b
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 12
RC Circuit 02
28:04, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
016 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider the circut below, which consists of
two conducting loops.
C
R
1
R
2
E
S
After the switch S is closed, the current
through resistor R
2
is,
1. oscillating with constant amplitude.
2. from right to left through R
2
.
3. zero at all times.
4. oscillating with decreasing amplitude.
5. from left to right through R
2
. correct
6. Exponentially increasing
7. Exponentially damping
8. not well defined
9. impossible to calculate
10. Increasing linearly
Explanation:
Since the potential drop across resistor R
2
is fixed to be E after the switch is closed, the
current is also a fixed value and the direction
is from left to right on R
2
.
017 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
After the switch S has been closed for a very
long time, the currents in the two circuits are
1. zero through both resistors
2. i
1
=
E
R
1
through R
1
and zero through
R
2
.
3. i
1
=
E
R
1
through R
1
and i
2
=
E
R
2
in
circuit 2.
4. oscillating with constant amplitude in
both circuits.
5. zero through R
1
and i
2
=
E
R
2
through R
2
.
correct
6. impossible to calculate
7. not well defined
8. i
1
= i
2
=
E (R
1
+R
2
)
R
1
R
2
9. i
1
= i
2
=
E
R
1
+ R
2
10. infinite
Explanation:
As mentioned above, the current in R
2
re-
mains unchanged to be
E
R2
, while for R
1
, after
a long time, the current in the circuit tends
to an equilibrium state, namely the capaci-
tor doesn’t get charged or release charge any
more. There is no current through the capac-
itor as well as resistor R
1
after a long time.
Charged Particle in a FieldJMS
29:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
018 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A particle of mass m and charge q starts from
rest at the origin (point Ain the figure below).
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 13
E
B
A
C
G
X
Y
B
There is a uniform electric field

E in the
positive y-direction and a uniform magnetic
field

B directed towards the reader. It can
be shown that the path is a cycloid whose
radius of curvature at the top point is twice
the y-coordinate at that level.
What is the relation between kinetic energy
of the charge at points A and B?
1. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is the same as it was at point A. correct
2. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is larger than the energy at point A.
3. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is smaller than the energy at point A.
4. The relationship between the kinetic en-
ergy of the particle at point A and at point
B cannot be determined by the information
given.
5. This setup is inherently unphysical, and
hence, any discussion regarding energy is
meaningless.
Explanation:
When the particle has reached point B, its
displacement in the direction of

E is zero.
Therefore the net work done by the conserva-
tive electric force is zero. The magnetic force
never does any work. Therefore the work-
energy theorem, (W = ∆K) says that the
kinetic energy of the particle at point B must
be the same as it was at point A. Thus at B
the particle is again at rest.
019 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
How much is the work done by the external
forces as the particle moves from A to C,
where point C is any point on the path, with
coordinates (x, y).
1. W = q E x
2. W = q E
_
x
2
+y
2
3. W = q Bx
4. W = q By
5. W = q B
_
x
2
+y
2
6. W = q E y correct
7. W = q E y +q Bx
8. W = q By +q E x
9. W = q (E +B)
_
x
2
+y
2
10. W = 0
Explanation:
Because the magnetic force does not do any
work on the particle, the net work is done by
the conservative electric force; i.e.,
W = F
e
y = q E y ,
where y is the displacement of the particle in
the direction of

E as the particle reaches the
point C.
Current on a Cube JMS
, , , < 1 min, .
020 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Note: The conventional Cartesian notation of
ˆı (a unit vector along the positive x axis), ˆ
(a unit vector along the positive y axis), and
ˆ
k (a unit vector along the positive z axis), is
used.
Given a current segment which flows along
the edges of a cube as shown in the figure.
The cube has sides of length a. The current
flows along the path A →C →D →E →G.
There is a uniform magnetic field

B = Bˆı.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 14
x
y
z
B
B
B
A
C
D
E
G
a
a
Find the direction
´
F ≡

F

F
of the resul-
tant magnetic force on the current segment
ACDEG.
1.
´
F = −ˆ correct
2.
´
F = −
ˆ
k
3.
´
F =ˆı
4.
´
F = −ˆı
5.
´
F = ˆ
6.
´
F =
ˆ
k
7. Undetermined, since the magnitude of the
force is zero.
8.
´
F =
1

2
_
ˆ −
ˆ
k
_
9.
´
F =
1

2
_
ˆ
k −ˆ
_
10.
´
F =
1

2
_
ˆ +
ˆ
k
_
Explanation:
Note: The current in wire segment CD
flows in the ˆı direction and the current in wire
segment DE flows in the −
ˆ
k.
Refer to the following sketch when reading
the explanation
x
z
A
G
a
a
Top View
B
B
B
ˆı

ˆ k
ˆı

ˆ
k
B
B
B
The magnetic force on a wire is given by

F
mag
= I

×

B.
The vector

is given by the sum of the
current segments

=
−→
AC +
−−→
CD +
−−→
DE +
−−→
EG,
and this is the vector
−→
AG, (see figure above).
The magnitude is given by

F

×

B
(ˆı −
ˆ
k) ×(ˆı)
= (ˆı ׈ı) −(
ˆ
k ׈ı)
= 0 −ˆ
´
F = −ˆ .
Magnetic Field from an Arc JMS
30:01, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
021 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Consider two radial legs (extending to in-
finity) and a connecting
20
23
π circular arc car-
rying a current I as shown below.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 15
x
y
I
I
20
23
π

I

I
O
r
What is the magnitude of the magnetic
field B
O
(at the origin O) due to the current
through this path?
1. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
correct
2. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
3. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
4. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
5. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 r
6. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
7. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
8. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
9. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
10. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 r
Explanation:
Note: The magnetic field at B
O
for the
entire path points in the same direction.
The two straight wire segments produce
the same magnetic field at B
O
as a single long
straight wire. Using Amp´ere’s law, for the
magnetic field a distance r from a straight
wire, we have
_

B · ds = µ
0
I
_
B ds = µ
0
I
B
_
ds = µ
0
I
B2 π r = µ
0
I , so
B
O
=
µ
0
I
2 π r
. (1)
However, around the arc we will use the
Biot-Savart law, where |ds ׈r| = ds = r dθ .
The magnetic field at at the center of an
arc with a current I is
B
O
=
µ
0
I
4 π
_
ds ׈r
r
2
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
2
_
ds
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
2
_
r dθ
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
_ 20
23
π
0

=
µ
0
I
4 π r
θ
¸
¸
¸
¸
20
23
π
0
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
_
20
23
π −0
_
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
. (2)
The magnetic field at B
O
for the entire path
is the sum of Eqs. 2 and 1.
B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
into the page or out of the page
Off Centered Hole
30:03, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, wording-
variable.
022 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A total current of 50 mA flows through an
infinitely long cylinder of radius r = 4 cm
which has an infinitely long cylindrical hole
through it of diameter r centered at
r
2
along
the x-axis (as in figure 1).
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 16
x
y
r
What is the magnitude of the magnetic
field at a distance of 12 cm along the posi-
tive x-axis? Assume that the magnitude of
the current density is the same in the cylin-
der and in the hole and that the currents in
the cylinder and the hole flow in opposite di-
rections with respect to each other.
1. 1.40851 ×10
−8
T
2. 2.33987 ×10
−8
T
3. 4.25256 ×10
−8
T
4. 5.32468 ×10
−8
T
5. 5.88477 ×10
−8
T
6. 7.08751 ×10
−8
T
7. 7.77778 ×10
−8
T correct
8. 8.64532 ×10
−8
T
9. 1.14872 ×10
−7
T
10. 1.19632 ×10
−7
T
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Magnetic Field due to a
Long Cylinder
B =
µ
0
I
2 π r
.
Principle of Superposition.
Solution: Our goal is to model the given sit-
uation, which is complex and lacks symmetry,
by adding together the fields from combina-
tions of simpler current configurations which
together match the given current distribution.
The combination of the currents in Fig. 2 will
do so if we choose I
cyl
and I
hole
correctly.
y
y
x x
+
I
I
cyl
hole
r
r
Since the current is uniform, the current
density J =
I
A
is constant. Then
J = I
cyl
A
cyl
= −I
hole
A
hole
.
Clearly, A
cyl
= π r
2
, and A
hole
=
π r
2
4
. Thus
I
hole
= −
I
cyl
4
.
Note: The minus sign means I
hole
is flowing
in the direction opposite I
cyl
and I, as it must
if it is going to cancel with I
cyl
to model the
hole.
We also require I = I
cyl
+ I
hole
. We then
have I
cyl
=
4
3
I, and I
hole
= −
1
3
I. With these
currents, the combination of the two cylinders
in figure 2 gives the same net current and
current distribution as the conductor in our
problem.
The magnetic fields are
B
cyl
=
µ
0
_
4
3
I
_
2 π x
B
hole
=
µ
0
_

1
3
I
_
2 π (x −r/2)
.
Thus the total magnetic field is
B
total
= B
cyl
+B
hole
=
µ
0
I
6 π
_
_
4
x

1
x −
r
2
_
_
=
µ
0
I
6 π
_
_
3 x −2 r
x
_
x −
r
2
_
_
_
=
(4 π ×10
−7
Tm/A) (50 mA)
6 π
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 17
×
_
¸
¸
_
3 (12 cm) −2 (4 cm)
(12 cm)
_
(12 cm) −
(4 cm)
2
_
_
¸
¸
_
= 7.77778 ×10
−8
T.
Rotating Metal Bar 02
31:02, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
023 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A metal bar spins at a constant rate in the
magnetic field of the Earth as in Figure. The
rotation occurs in a region where the compo-
nent of the Earth’s magnetic field perpendic-
ular to the plane of rotation is 3.3 × 10
−5
T.
The bar is 1 m in length and its angular speed
is 5 π.
r
l
dr
v
Bin
O
What potential difference is developed be-
tween its ends?
1. 2.86804 ×10
−5
V
2. 7.05979 ×10
−5
V
3. 8.13233 ×10
−5
V
4. 0.000141863 V
5. 0.000162982 V
6. 0.00022808 V
7. 0.000252191 V
8. 0.000259181 V correct
9. 0.000461814 V
10. 0.000600358 V
Explanation:
Basic Concept:
Motional emf
E = B·l·v
For a point on the bar, the velocity with
which the point moves changes linearly with
the distance from the point to the rotation
center. So, the effective velocity for the whole
bar equals:
v
eff
=
ω · l
2
=
2πf · l
2
= 7.85398 m/s ,
and the induced emf in the bar is
E = B · l · v
eff
= 0.000259181 V.
Therefore, the potential difference between
the ends of the bar is:
∆V = E
= 0.000259181 V.
Bar Pulled Through Field JMS
31:03, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
024 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A bar of negligible resistance and mass m in
the figure below is pulled horizontally across
frictionless parallel rails, also of negligible re-
sistance, by a massless string that passes over
an ideal pulley and is attached to a suspended
mass M. The uniform magnetic field has a
magnitude B, and the distance between the
rails is . The rails are connected at one end
by a load resistor R. Use g.
B
M
m
R
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 18
What is the magnitude of the terminal ve-
locity (i.e., the eventual steady-state speed
v

) reached by the bar?
1. v

=
M g R
B
2. v

=
M g R

2
B
2
correct
3. v

=
M g R
B
2
4. v

=
M g R

2
B
5. v

=
M g R
2

2
B
2
6. v

=
M g R
2
B
2
7. v

=
M g R
2

2
B
8. v

=
M g R
2
B
9. v

=
M
2
g
2
R
2

2
B
2
10. v

=
M
2
g
2
R
B
Explanation:
Basic Concepts:

F
g
= Mg

F
m
= I

×

B

F
net
= (M +m)a =

F
g

F
m
E = I R = −
d Φ
B
dt
Φ
B
=

B ·

A
E = B v
Solution: It follows from Lenz’s law that the
magnetic force opposes the motion of the bar.
When the wire acquires steady-state speed,
the gravitational force F
g
is counter-balanced
by the magnetic force F
m
(see figure below):
B
M
m
R
a
a
T
T
F
F
m
g
F
g
= M g = F
m
= I B (1)
I =
M g
B
(2)
To find the induced current, we use Ohm’s law
and substitute in the induced emf, E = −
d Φ
dt
I =
|E|
R
=
1
R
d Φ
dt
(3)
Note, we have ignored the minus sign from
the induced emf E because we will eventu-
ally evaluate the magnitude of the terminal
velocity. The flux is Φ = BA. So
d Φ
dt
= B
dA
dt
= B v (4)
I =
B v
R
(5)
Using (2) and (5) and noting that v is the
terminal velocity v

M g
B
=
B v

R
. (6)
Solving for the magnitude of the terminal
velocity v

v

=
M g R

2
B
2
. (7)
Energy in an LC Circuit JMS
32:05, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
025 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider the LC circuit shown below. Switch
S is initially open, and the capacitor has a
charge Q
m
on its plates. At t=0 the switch is
closed.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 19
L
Q
m
C
S
What will be the energy U
C
stored in the
capacitor as a function of time?
1. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
correct
2. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
C
_
sin
2
_
t

LC
_
3. U
C
=
Q
2
m
2 C
4. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
exp
_

t

LC
_
5. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
__
1 −exp
_

t

LC
__
6. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
_
t

LC
_
7. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
sin
2
_
t

LC
_
8. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
9. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
sin
2
_
t
_
L
C
_
10. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
_
t

LC
_
Explanation:
Solution: The charge on the capacitor in
the LC circuit satisfies
d
2
Q
dt
2
= −
1
LC
Q
The solution is
Q = Q
m
cos
_
t

LC
_
where Q
m
is the initial charge on the capaci-
tor. Thus the energy is given by
U
c
=
Q
2
2 C
=
Q
2
m
2 C
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
026 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
What will be the total energy U as a function
of time?
1. U =
Q
2
m
2 C
correct
2. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
_
t

LC
_
3. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
4. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
exp
_

t

LC
_
5. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
__
1 −exp
_

t

LC
__
6. U =
Q
2
m
C
7. U =
1

LC
8. U =
Q
2
m
4 C
9. U =
2 Q
2
m
C
10. U =

LC
Explanation:
This is just the sum of Part 1 and Part 2:
U = U
L
+U
c
=
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
+ sin
2
_
t

LC
__
=
Q
2
m
2 C
.
Point Light Source JMS
34:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
027 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A point light source delivers a time-averaged
power P. It radiates light isotropically. A
piece of small flat surface is placed at D, which
is a distance r away. This piece has a cross
section A
surf
. The surface reflects
1
4
of the
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 20
light and absorbs
3
4
of the light. Assume the
light hitting the various parts of the surface is
perpendicular to them.
r
D
Point
source
The time-averaged energy density hitting
the surface is given by:
1. u = 4 π r
2
P
c
2. u = π r
2
P
c
3. u = A
surf
P
c
4. u =
P
4 π c r
2
correct
5. u =
P
c A
surf
6. u = 4 π r
2
P
7. u = π r
2
P
8. u = A
surf
P
9. u =
P
A
surf
10. u =
P
4 π r
2
Explanation:
Basic Concepts EM Wave
The time-averaged energy density at D is
given by
u =
I
c
=
P
4 π r
2
c
.
028 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
Find the total time-averaged force on the sur-
face in terms of the intensity I of the light at
D.
1. F =
A
surf
I
c
2. F =
7
4
4 π I
c
3. F =
3 A
surf
I
2 c
4. F =
7 A
surf
I
4 c
5. F =
2 A
surf
I
c
6. F =
4 π I
c
7. F =
5
4
4 π I
c
8. F =
3
2
4 π I
c
9. F =
5 A
surf
I
4 c
correct
10. F = 2
4 π I
c
Explanation:
The time-average force is
F = Pressure A
surf
= F
abs
+F
refl
=
_
3
4
u +
1
4
2 u
_
A
surf
= 5 A
surf
I
4 c
Diamond Critical Angle
35:07, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
029 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Assume: Refraction index for diamond
n
diamond
= 2.419 .
The smallness of the critical angle θ
c
for di-
amond means that light is easily “trapped”
within a diamond and eventually emerges
from the many cut faces. This makes a dia-
mond more brilliant than stones with smaller
n and larger θ
c
. Traveling inside a diamond, a
light ray is incident on the interface between
diamond and air.
What is the critical angle for total internal
reflection?
1. 20.9248

2. 21.1623

3. 21.9091

Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 21
4. 22.9934

5. 23.4786

6. 24.4182

correct
7. 24.7343

8. 25.7715

9. 26.5148

10. 28.1446

Explanation:
Basic Concept: Critical angle θ
c
for total
internal reflection
sinθ
c
=
n
2
n
1
.
Solution: For diamond, the critical angle
sinθ
c
=
1
2.419
.
θ
c
= 24.4182

.
Image of a Cat JMS
36:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
normal.
030 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A cat is a distance d = 15 cm from a thin
converging lens with focal length f = 10 cm.
d
lens
How far from the lens is the image of the
cat due only to this lens?
1.
_
1
f
+
1
d
_
−1
2.
1
f − d
3.
f
_
(
1
f
)
2
+ (
1
d
)
2
4.
_
1
f

1
d
_
−1
correct
5.
_
1
d

1
f
_
−1
6.
d
_
(
1
f
)
2
+ (
1
d
)
2
7.
1
d − f
8.
_
2
f

2
d
_
−1
9. d + f
10.
_
2
d
+
2
f
_
−1
Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
1
p
+
1
q
=
1
f
m =
h

h
= −
q
p
Converging Lens f > 0
∞>p > f f <q < ∞ 0 >m> −∞
f >p > 0 −∞<q < 0 ∞>m> 1
Diverging Lens 0 > f
∞>p > 0 f <q < 0 0 <m< 1
Solution: Using the thin lens formula
1
s
+
1
s

=
1
f
,
we can compute the position of the image
which would be:
x =
_
1
f

1
d
_
−1
=
_
1
10 cm

1
15 cm
_
−1
= 30 cm
MultiSlits JMS
37:04, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
031 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 22
Given: The setup of a six slit diffraction
experiment shown in the figure.
6
5
4
3
2
1
y
L
δ
Figure: Not drawn to scale.
Find the path difference difference between
two rays from adjacent slits which gives rise
to the first minimum.
1. δ =
1
6
λ correct
2. δ =
1
4
λ
3. δ =
1
5
λ
4. δ =
2
5
λ
5. δ =
3
4
λ
6. δ =
3
5
λ
7. δ =
2
3
λ
8. δ =
1
2
λ
9. δ = 2 λ
10. δ = λ
Explanation:
Basic Concept: Light Interference
E
1
E
2
E
3
E
4
E
5
E
6
φ
The first minimum occurs when the six pha-
sor vectors of the six rays in the phasor dia-
gram form a closed hexagon. Thus, the rela-
tive phas angle φ between the adjacent phasor
vectors is given by
φ =
360

6
= 60

=
1
3
π ,
and the path difference δ is
δ =
λ
2 π
φ =
λ
2 π
1
3
π =
1
6
λ.
Thin Wedge of Air 03
37:06, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
032 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Let us do the air wedge problem without mak-
ing the approximation that the index of re-
fraction of air is unity. Let the wavelength
of the incident light waves in the vacuum be
λ
vac
. As shown in the figure, denote the in-
dex of refraction of the glass as n
1
and that of
air as n
2
. The height of the thin wedge at the
point of interest is h.
n
1
n
2
h
paper
1 2
The phase angle difference between re-
flected rays # 1 and # 2 due to their path
difference is given by
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 23
1. φ
path
=
4 π
n
1
λ
vac
h.
2. φ
path
=
4 π n
1
λ
vac
h.
3. φ
path
=
4 π n
1
n
2
λ
vac
h.
4. φ
path
=
4 π n
2
λ
vac
h. correct
5. φ
path
=
4 π
n
2
λ
vac
h.
6. φ
path
=
2 π n
2
λ
vac
h.
7. φ
path
=
2 π n
1
λ
vac
h.
8. φ
path
=
2 π n
1
n
2
λ
vac
h.
9. φ
path
=
2 π
n
1
λ
vac
h.
10. φ
path
=
2 π
n
2
λ
vac
h.
Explanation:
The wavelength in air is related to the wave-
length in the vacuum by
λ
air
=
λ
vac
n
2
.
The φ
path
is related to the path difference
∆ = 2 h by
φ
path
= 2 π

λ
air
= 2 π
2 hn
2
λ
vac
=
4 π n
2
λ
vac
h.
033 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
If the maximum phase difference due to the
path difference is 40 radians, what is the total
number of dark fringes, including the dark
fringe at zero separation along the point of
contact?
1. N
total
= 13
2. N
total
= 5
3. N
total
= 6
4. N
total
= 8
5. N
total
= 9
6. N
total
= 10
7. N
total
= 11
8. N
total
= 12
9. N
total
= 7 correct
10. N
total
= 14
Explanation:
Since there’s a phase change π at the air
glass interface, the total phase difference is
φ = φ
path
+ π .
Generally, destructive interference occurs
when
(2n −1)π = φ
path
+ π , n = 1, 2, 3 · · · .
Note: When φ
path
= 0, the equation is
satisfied by n = 1.
So the above expression includes the mini-
mum at zero separation. Now, the maximum
number of dark fringes, N, for φ
path
= 40 rad
can be found by considering
(2N −1)π ≤ φ
max
= 40 + π .
Solving for N yields
N ≤
40

+ 1 .
Since N must be an integer, we arrive at
N = int
_
40

+ 1
_
= 7 .
Dark Fringe Position
38:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
034 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 24
Hint: Use a small angle approximation; e.g.,
sin θ = tanθ .
Consider the setup of a single slit experi-
ment.
y
5
L
a
S1
S2
θ
v
i
e
w
i
n
g
s
c
r
e
e
n
×15
Determine the height y
5
, where the fifth
minimum occurs.
1. y
5
= 5
λL
a
correct
2. y
5
=
11
2
λL
a
3. y
5
= 6
λL
a
4. y
5
=
13
2
λL
a
5. y
5
= 7
λL
a
6. y
5
=
15
2
λL
a
7. y
5
=
9
2
λL
a
8. y
5
= 4
λL
a
9. y
5
=
7
2
λL
a
10. y
5
= 3
λL
a
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Light Diffraction
I
I
0
=
_
_
_
sin
β
2
β
2
_
_
_
2
,
where the minima are at
β
2
= π , 2 π , 3 π , 4 π , 5 π , 6 π , · · · , or
β = 2 π , 4 π , 6 π , 8 π , 10 π , 12 π , · · · ,
= 2 mπ ,
where m is the first, second, third, fourth, · · ·,
minimum in the diffraction pattern.
Solution: The first minimum is at β = 2 π,
where β = 2 φ = 2 π, where φ = π is the
phase difference of the two rays for destructive
interference.
The fifth minimum occurs at β = 10 π,
which corresponds to a path difference δ be-
tween two end rays
δ =
β
k
=
10 π
_
2 π
λ
_
= 5 λ
θ =
δ
a
=
y
5
L
y
5
=
δ
a
L
= 5
λL
a
,
where k ≡
2 π
λ
.
Beam Intensity
38:06, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
035 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
An unpolarized light beam with intensity of
I
0
passes through 2 polarizers shown in the
picture.
Transmission
axis
Polarized
lihgt
Polarizer
Analyzer
θ
θ
Unpolarized
light
E0
E0cos
If θ = 30

,what is the beam intensity after
the second polarizer?
1.
1
16
I
0
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 25
2.
3
8
I
0
correct
3.
1
8
I
0
4.
3
16
I
0
5.
1
4
I
0
6.
5
16
I
0
7.
7
16
I
0
8.
1
2
I
0
9.
9
16
I
0
10.
5
8
I
0
Explanation:
The beam intensity after the first polarizer
is
I
1
=
I
0
2
We use the formula for the intensity of the
transmitted (polarized) light. Thus the beam
intensity after the second polarizer is
I = I
1
cos
2
θ
=
I
0
2
cos
2
(30

)
=
3 I
0
8
Coherence and Slits
38:99, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
036 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
For this problem, consider a screen illumi-
nated by various combinations of slits and
light sources, as described by the following
diagram:
Knowing that laser light, in contrast to
ordinary light sources, is generated with very
well-defined phase (the laser light is coherent),
which of the above setups will produce an
interference pattern on the screen?
Note: the light bulb emits monochromatic
(one-colored) light.
1. (a) (b) and (c) correct
2. (a) and (b)
3. (c) and (d)
4. (b) and (d)
5. (a) and (c)
6. (a) (b) and (d)
7. (a) (c) and (d)
8. (b) (c) and (d)
9. all of them
10. none of them
Explanation:
Laser light is coherent. Consequently, ap-
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 26
plying simple double and single slits to it
will not destroy its coherence. Consequently,
both (a) and (b) will produce intereference
patterns.
Similarly, by filtering the light through a
single slit apparatus, one constrains the path
of the light from the light bulb to the screen.
This makes the light leaving the single slit
coherent. Consequently, when this newly co-
herent light passes through the double slit, an
intereference pattern will result. If one only
looks at light of a given wavelength, the pat-
tern will be very similar to that generated by
passing laser light through a double slit.
When the single slit is not availible to filter
the light, however, the phases of the light bulb
light hitting the double slit are essentially
random. Consequently, any effect due to path
differences is washed out by this randomness,
and no pattern is observed.
Therefore, the correct answer is (a) (b) and
(c).

φ E = −N ddtB ,

Faraday’s law
φB =
M E = Fq

U Complete reflection: P = 2c ,

d (B A⊥ ) d φB A B = ddt A⊥ + B d dt⊥ dt = dt d Moving rods: d A = v, d A = dt 1 R · R θ 2 dt dt A d Rotating loop: d dt⊥ = dt (A cos ωt) Cutting B lines → change φB → Eind → Eind

Lenz law: Induced B opposes change of ΦB

E=

B · dA ,

Reflection and Refraction

S P = 2c

E · ds,

n1 λ Index of refraction: n2 = v2 = λ2 v1 1 Snell’s law: n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 Critical angle: n2 > n1 , n2 sin θc = n1 sin 90◦ Total reflection: θ > θc

Mirrors and lenses
1 1 1 p+q = f

Maxwell equations: E · dA = Q ,
0

φ E · ds = − ddtB ,

Mutual: E2 = −M21 d i1 , M21 = M12 = N2i φ21 dt 1 Self: E = −L d i , L = Ni φ , VL = L d i dt dt Long solenoid: L = N B A , B = µ0 n i i Energies: UL = 1 L i2 , uB = 2 1 B 2 2 µ
0

Inductance

B · ds = µ0 [I +

B · dA = 0 ,

0

d φE dt ]

VL = E exp − Rt , L L R C:
R

Decay Equations: d y = −a y, y = y0 exp(−a t) dt V V L R: E = VL + R i, ddtL + RL L = 0,
E i = R 1 − exp −R t L

UC = 21 q 2 , uE = 1 0 E 2 2 C q L C: VL + VC = 0 ⇒ L d i = − C q = q0 cos(ω t + δ), dt ω = L1 , UC + UL = UC max = UL max = U0 C

Ray tracing rules: Mirror: At symm pt S, reflected symmetrically through center of sphere, undeflected. Parallel to axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F ), f = R . 2 Lens: Through center of lens, undeflected. Parallel to axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F ) Image: q > 0 (real), q < 0 (virtual) Focal point F : at p = ∞, q = f f = ±|f |, “+” convergent, “−” divergent q Magnification: M = h = − p h Refraction at spherical surface: n1 + n2 = n2 −n1 p q R R is coordinate of center with origin at S, with S the symmetry point of surface on the axis n2 1 1 1 Lens maker: f = n1 − 1 R − R
1 2

Underdamped, critically damped & overdamped

Q ≈ Q0 e− 2 L t cos ωd t,

ωd =

1 LC −

R 2 2L

q n1 Two media: M = h = − p n2 h Huygen’s principles: Points in wave front are sources of next wavelets Forward tangent surface is next wave front

Interference
Maxima φ = 0, 2 π, 4 π, · · ·; Minima φ = π, 3 π, 5 π, · · · Double slits: Iaverage = I0 cos2 φ , φ = k ∆ . 2

A C Circuits
Impedance: [Ohm ≡ Ω] Inductive XL = ω L, Capactive XC = ω1 C 1 T ¯ Mean value: f (t) = T 0 f (t) dt 1 1 2 2 1 1 [sin ω t]rms = [sin2 ω t] = [ 2 (1 − cos 2 ω t)] = √ 2 Z≡ R2 + (XL − XC )2

y for small θ, θ ≈ sin θ ≈ tan θ sin θ = ∆ , tan θ = L , d Phasor diagram: A = A1 + A2 + A3 + · · · Ax = A1x +A2x +A3x +· · ·, Ay = A1y +A2y +· · ·

Electromagnetic waves

Properties of em waves: E = Em cos(k z − ω t), B = E c c λ v = dz = ω = λf = T , n = v dt k speed of light: c = √ 1 µ = 2.99792458 × 108 m/s
0 0

First minimum for N slits: φ = 2 π N Thin film: φ = k ∆ + |φ1ref lected − φ2ref lected |, ∆ = 2 t φref lected = π (denser medium); =0 (lighter medium)

a c b sin α = sin β = sin γ

Diffraction
sin
β 2 β 2

Single slit: I = I0

2

,

β = k∆,

∆ = a sin θ

µ0 µ0 P = ∆U d z = u c Intensity: I = A A ∆z dt Energy conservation: S · dA = d U + PR dt Complete absorption: Momentum p = U c 1 ∆U 1 Pressure: P = F = ∆p A = c ∆t A = u = S c A ∆t

B ⊥ E, propagating along: E × B u = u E + u B , uE = u B ¯ ¯ Poynting vector: S = E×B , S = I = Erms Brms

λ Resolution criterion: θcriterion = 1.22 D Grating: Principle maxima ∆ = m λ

Polarization
Brewster (n1 < n2 ): n1 sin θbr = n2 sin( π − θbr ) 2 Polarizer: Etransmit = E0 cos θ, I = I0 cos2 θ I Unpolarized light: ∆I = 2 0 π ∆θ Transmitted Intensity: ∆I = ∆I cos2 θ 2 I I = 2 0 0 π cos2 θ dθ = I0 π 2

. 8. V3:1. in quadrant II. 4. EO kq correct a2 √ kq = 2 2 a √ kq =2 2 2 a kq = 2 a 1 kq =√ 2 a2 1 kq = √ 5 2 a2 1 kq = √ 4 2 a2 kq =3 2 a √ kq =3 2 2 a 1 kq = √ 3 2 a2 QC = −q Charged Arc JMS . EO 9. EO 4. a similar to the one in the explanation to part 1. whereas the contributions from A and C add. y ∆s ≡ R ∆θ y ∆θ ++ A II I ++ + x + θ + R III IV + + x B O The direction of the electric field vector E at the origin. is 1. EO 10. along the positive x-axis. Four Charges in Square JMS 23:03. V1:1.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) This print-out should have 36 questions. 6. You should find that the contributions from B and D cancel. < 1 min. to show the directions of the field vectors at O. EO = 4 2. EO 5. This means the magnitude of the total field is E = (2) (2) k q q = 4k 2 . fixed. EO 3. 2 a a O QD = q Find EO at O . V5:2. 5. along the positive y-axis. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page – find all choices before answering. in quadrant I. Explanation: Explanation: The magnitudes of all four E-components at a . 001 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Consider charges in a square again. EO 6. V4:1. in quadrant IV. along the negative x-axis. The total charge on the arc is Q > 0. multiple choice. < 1 min. . V2:1. trigonometry. It covers a quarter of a circle and it is located in the second quadrant. EO 7. correct 2. 3. . 1. 7. in quadrant III. 002 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A uniformly charged circular arc AB of radius R is shown in the figure. EO 8. due to the charge distribution. Draw a diagram. along the negative y-axis. but this time with a different assignment of charges (shown in the figure below). QA = q QB = q 3 q O are equal to EA = 2 k 2 .

Q2 a 2E How much charge Q is inside the box? 1. Q1 . The top receives Φtop = −E a2 (inward is negative) and the bottom Φbottom = 2 E a2 . Charge Inside a Box 02 24:02. Qencl 8. Here the surface is a cube and no flux goes through the vertical sides. E 4 Explanation: Electric flux through a surface S is. Qencl = 2 3. c Find the charge Q2 . Qencl = 2 7. Concentric Conductors JMS 24:04. calculus. the electric field generated by each ∆q will be directed into quadrant IV. Q2 = Q1 + Q2 correct 2. Qencl = 2 0Ea 2 0Ea correct 1 2 2 0Ea 2 0Ea 5.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) The electric field for a positive charge is directed away from it. Denote the charge on the inner surface of the shell by Q2 and that on the outer surface of the shell by Q2 . < 1 min. insufficient information . oriented as shown. by convention. Qencl = 0 2. fixed. 1. Q2 = Q1 − Q2 3. The total electric flux is ΦE = −E a2 + 2 E a2 = E a2 . contains an unknown charge. the charge inside the box is Qencl = 0 ΦE = 0 E a2 . Qencl = 4. 004 (part 1 of 3) 10 points Consider a solid conducting sphere with a radius a and charge Q1 on it. positive for electric field lines going out of the surface S and negative for lines going in. Qencl Q2 E 2 0a E = 2 0a E =3 2 0a 2 0Ea Q2 . a P b . There is a conducting spherical shell concentric to the sphere. In this case. multiple choice. Qencl = 6 10. Q2 = Q2 − Q1 Q1 9. Using Gauss’s Law. Qencl = 3 6. The shell has an inner radius b (with b > a) and outer radius c and a net charge Q2 on the shell. > 1 min. The vertically directed electric field has a uniform magnitude E at the top surface and 2 E at the bottom surface. fixed. multiple choice. calculus. so the total electric field will be in the same quadrant. 003 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A cubic box of side a.

(a + b)2 006 (part 3 of 3) 10 points Assume: The potential at r = ∞ is zero. EP = 10. Here. according to Gauss’s Law. Q2 = 2 (Q1 − Q2 ) 6.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4. 4 π r 2 EP = EP = Q1 0 =0 Q2 = −Q1 But the net charge on the shell is Q2 = Q2 + Q2 . EP = correct (a + b)2 2. Q2 = 2 (Q2 − Q1 ) Q1 + Q2 2 Q2 − Q1 8. VP = − + cora+b b c rect 2. where the distance a+b from P to the center is r = . EP = 9. Q2 = Q1 − Q2 7. Q2 = 2 (Q1 + Q2 ) 5. EP = 4 ke Q2 (a + b)2 4 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) (a + b)2 2 ke Q1 (a + b)2 2 ke Q2 (a + b)2 2 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) (a + b)2 4 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) (a + b)2 2 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) (a + b)2 2 ke Q1 a (a + b)3 Explanation: Basic Concepts: Gauss’ Law Sketch a concentric Gaussian surface S (dashed line) within the shell. so the charge on the outer surface of the shell is Q2 = Q2 − Q2 Q1 4 π 0 r2 ke Q1 = r2 4 ke Q1 = . which passes through P . EP = 0 3. r Since the electrostatic field in a conducting medium is zero. 2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) 1. Q2 = 2 (Q1 + Q2 )2 10. 2 4 ke Q1 1. EP = 5. EP = 8. EP = 6. Q2 = 2 Q1 − Q2 9. ΦS = Q1 + Q2 0 Explanation: Choose the spherical surface S centered at O. Q2 = point P 5 EP ≡ EP . Find the potential VP at point P . 005 (part 2 of 3) 10 points Find the magnitude of the electric field at . EP = 4. EP = 7. VP = 2 ke Q1 a+b = Q2 + Q1 .

VP = − a+b b 2 ke Q1 2 ke Q2 7. Electric Potential or FieldJMS 25:03. VP = 0 2 ke Q1 ke Q2 + a+b c ke Q1 ke Q2 6. highSchool. VP = a Explanation: Using the superposition principle. W = 8. W = 3. W = 9. W = 10. W = 7. multiple choice. W = 5. fixed. q2 = −q q3 = +q Explanation: Based on the superposition principle. Q1 at a. VP = − a+b c 2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) 9. 1.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3. 007 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Four charges are placed at the corners of a square of side a.e. VP = − a+b b 2 ke Q1 ke Q2 8. q1 = −q q4 = +q Find the work required to bring the charge q from infinity and place it at the center of the square. a+b b c Add a Charge to Four JMS 25:01. 0). < 1 min. i. VP = V = 2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) − + . the potential at the center due to the charges at the corners is V = V 1 + V2 + V3 + V4 kq = (−1 − 1 + 1 + 1) = 0 . −Q at b and Q1 + Q2 at c. r q Here r is the common distance from the center to the corners. W = 4. multiple choice. > 1 min. adding the 3 concentric charge distributions. VP = + − a+b b c 2 ke Q1 10. q3 = q4 = +q. p = (0. wording-variable. The work required to bring the charge q from infinity to the center is then W = q V = 0. where q is positive. gives 5. The fields produced by these charges are observed at the origin. Initially there is no charge at the center of the square. W = 4 k q2 a2 2 k q2 a2 −2 k q 2 a2 −4 k q 2 a2 4 k q2 a 2 k q2 a −2 k q 2 a −4 k q 2 a 8 k q2 a2 6 4. W = 0 correct . W = 6. y) plane as shown in the figure below. VP = 2 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) a+b 2. trigonometry. with q1 = q2 = −q. 008 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Two charges are located in the (x..

r a2 + b2 | sin θ| = θ E1 x = a2 + b 2 . Ex = 2 a + b2 2 ke Q 9. Find the electric potential at p . 1. r2 = r1 = r . Ex = − 2 a + b2 Explanation: Let: ke = 8.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) y p b −Q a a −Q θ E2 −Q2 where b b =√ r a2 + b2 a a | cos θ| = = √ . 2 x2 + y 2 2 (−a)2 + b2 . Vy = − √ a2 + b2 (1) Ex2 = −ke (2) r1 = = r2 = = 2 x2 + y 1 1 a2 + b 2 . so 7 Use Coulomb’s law to find the x-component of the electric field at p.98755 × 109 N m2 /C2 . Ex = − 2 (a + b2 )3/2 ke Q a 6. Ex = 0 correct 4 ke Q a (a2 + b2 )3/2 4 ke Q a 3. the contributions from the two charges are Ex1 = −ke (−Q) 2 | cos(θ)| r1 (−Q) a √ = −ke 2 2) (a + b a2 + b2 Qa = +ke 2 (a + b2 )3/2 (+Q) 2 | cos(θ)| r2 (+Q) a √ = −ke 2 (a + b2 ) a2 + b2 Qa = −ke 2 (a + b2 )3/2 Ex = Ex1 + Ex2 = 0. Ex = 2 (a + b2 )3/2 2 ke Q a 4. Ex = 2 (a + b2 )3/2 ke Q a 7. 009 (part 2 of 2) 10 points Let: V = 0 at infinity. Ex = 2 (a + b2 )3/2 2 ke Q a 5. 2. 2 ke Q correct 1. Ex = − p b −Q2 a a −Q1 −Q1 In the x-direction. Ex = − 2 (a + b2 )3/2 2 ke Q 8.

Vy = + √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q 3. where R = a + b. correct 1 1 ke − a b b−a . C = 4. Vy = √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q a 7. C = 7. C = For the two charges in this problem. The charge on the inside of the shell doesn’t affect the grounded potential. 4 ke ( b − a) 1. C = 3. The outer shell is grounded. ke a+b . Vy = − √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q 4. C = 10. > 1 min. Vy = − √ a2 + b2 2 ke Q a 6. C = 5. Vy = √ a2 + b2 9. ke 1 .. . b 2 ke ln a 2 b . C = 8. 2 9. calculus. Vy = − √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q a 8. a2 + b2 −Q . ke b . a2 + b2 Spherical Capacitor JMS 26:02. C = 2.. ke (a + b) 1 . multiple choice. r 8 +Q −Q a A b C B is The capacitance of this spherical capacitor ke . A point C is located at R r = .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 2 ke Q 2. we have V1 = k e √ V2 = k e √ −Q . 010 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Given a spherical capacitor with radius of the inner conducting sphere a and the outer shell b. b a . Vy = √ a2 + b2 2 ke Q a 5. C = 6. C = Explanation: ∆V = Va − Vb 1 1 = ke Q − a b −0 since Vb is grounded. The charges are +Q and −Q. a2 + b2 Vp = V 1 + V 2 ke =√ [−Q + (−Q)] a2 + b2 2 ke Q = −√ . fixed. Vy = 0 Explanation: The potential for a point charge −Q is V = ke −Q . ke (a − b) ke . a 1 .

V = 2. 0. U = d. correct 2κ 0A Q2 κ 4. 0A QA d. 0A Explanation: 1. the battery is disconnected. correct κ 0A Light Bulb in a Circuit JMS . U = d. U = d. V = 5. V R What is the current through the bulb? 1. 011 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Consider an air-filled parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and gap width d. . Subsequent to full charging of the capacitor. κ 0 Q2 κ d. 0A Q 7. V = V = V Ed Q = = d κ κ κ 0A 9 Q 1 1 ke Q − a b 1 . Now. d +Q −Q κ 012 (part 2 of 2) 10 points The energy within the gap in the presence of the dielectric is given by Q2 A. V = 3. 2 0A Q2 3. 2 0A Q 5. V = Q2 d. the gap is filled with of dielectric of dielectric constant κ. . < 1 min. U = d. 2κ 0d Q2 2. = 1 1 ke − a b Introduce a Dielectric JMS 26:05. 0A Q d . κ 0d Explanation: 8. 0 2C 2κ 0A 2 κ dA A A The voltage within the gap in the presence of the dielectric is given by 1. V = 4. U = A. V = 7. κ 0A Q 6. V = 6. U = d. calculus.506306 A .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) is The capacitance of this spherical capacitor C= = Q ∆V Q2 A. 0. U = U = Q2 Q2 Q2 = = d.466667 A 2. fixed. < 1 min. U = d . κ 0A Qκ d. multiple choice. κ 0d Q2 A. . κ 0 Q A. 013 (part 1 of 2) 10 points A 75 W bulb is connected to a 120 V source. The plate charge is Q. κ 0d Qκ 8.

9. 92.3 A = 208 Ω .705385 A Explanation: Given : P = 75 W . 120.723 Ω 8. 0. 0.982 Ω Explanation: Rtotal = R + R1 . 208 Ω correct 10.6052 Ω 6.7125 Ω 2. 132. highSchool.9958 Ω 8. 1. V 120 V and so that R1 = V V − I1 R = −R I1 I1 120 V = − 192 Ω 0.608182 A 5. 33.625 A . 39. 0. 0.3855 Ω 3. 45.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3. 58. 0. 57. 31. What resistance would be needed to reduce the current to 0.696581 A 10. 015 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Four resistors are connected as shown in the figure. and 10 V = I1 Rtotal = I1 R + I1 R1 Dimensional analysis for I: W J/s J C C = = · = =A V J/C s J s 014 (part 2 of 2) 10 points A lamp dimmer puts a resistance in series with the bulb. 212.670588 A 9. 0.653043 A 8. 32.0099 Ω 5.4313 Ω . normal. 37. 38.0553 Ω 3.2651 Ω 5. The current is I= P 75 W = = 0.5686 Ω correct 2. multiple choice.625 A correct 6.645669 A 7.3 A? 1. 34.4127 Ω 4. c 50 Ω Ω 10 30 Ω a 90 V Ω 70 d S1 b Find the resistance between points a and b. 122.1429 Ω 6. 0. > 1 min.777 Ω Four Resistors JMS 28:02.044 Ω 7.561789 A 4.1779 Ω 7. V = 120 V.0368 Ω 4. 38. 0. 36.

Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 9.046 Ω 10.5686 Ω . 42. a EB Rab b The parallel connection of R1 and R2 gives the equivalent resistance 1 1 1 R2 + R 1 = + = R12 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R12 = R1 + R 2 (10 Ω) (30 Ω) = 10 Ω + 30 Ω = 7. R123 and c R1 a R2 EB R3 b R4 d S1 a R4 b Ohm’s law is V = I R .5 Ω . = 50 Ω .0635 Ω Explanation: a R4 R12 R3 b 11 Given : R1 R2 R3 R4 EB = 10 Ω . 40. R1 a d R2 c R3 b R4 The parallel connection of R123 and R4 gives the equivalent resistance 1 1 1 R4 + R123 = + = Rab R123 R4 R123 R4 R123 R4 Rab = R123 + R4 (57. or combining the above steps.5 Ω + 70 Ω = 31.5 Ω . the equivalent resistance is R1 R2 + R 3 R4 R1 + R 2 Rab = R1 R2 + R3 + R4 R1 + R 2 (10 Ω) (30 Ω) + 50 Ω (70 Ω) 10 Ω + 30 Ω = (10 Ω) (30 Ω) + 50 Ω + 70 Ω 10 Ω + 30 Ω = 31. A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junctions connected by zero resistance.5 Ω) (70 Ω) = 57. The series connection of R12 and R3 gives the equivalent resistance R123 = R12 + R3 = 7. = 30 Ω . = 90 V . .5686 Ω .5 Ω + 50 Ω = 57. = 70 Ω .

oscillating with constant amplitude. oscillating with constant amplitude in both circuits. the currents in the two circuits are Explanation: As mentioned above. the current through resistor R2 is. not well defined 9. the current in the circuit tends to an equilibrium state. < 1 min. 4. 5. 2. Exponentially damping 8. There is no current through the capacitor as well as resistor R1 after a long time. correct 6. impossible to calculate 7. . from right to left through R2 . from left to right through R2 . i1 = i2 = 10. R2 S correct 6. zero through R1 and i2 = E through R2 .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) RC Circuit 02 28:04. zero at all times. oscillating with decreasing amplitude. after a long time. impossible to calculate 10. zero through both resistors 2. Increasing linearly Explanation: Since the potential drop across resistor R2 is fixed to be E after the switch is closed. multiple choice. 3. not well defined E (R1 + R2 ) R1 R2 E 9. i1 = i2 = R1 + R 2 8. the current is also a fixed value and the direction is from left to right on R2 . while for R1 . 1. 3. Charged Particle in a FieldJMS 29:02. 12 E through R1 and zero through R1 E E through R1 and i2 = in R1 R2 4. Exponentially increasing 7. 016 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Consider the circut below. i1 = circuit 2. calculus. fixed. 017 (part 2 of 2) 10 points After the switch S has been closed for a very long time. trigonometry. which consists of two conducting loops. 018 (part 1 of 2) 10 points A particle of mass m and charge q starts from rest at the origin (point A in the figure below). 5. namely the capacitor doesn’t get charged or release charge any more. fixed. i1 = R2 . > 1 min. R2 R1 E C 1. the current in R2 reE mains unchanged to be R2 . infinite After the switch S is closed. multiple choice.

Therefore the workenergy theorem. 019 (part 2 of 2) 10 points How much is the work done by the external 4. W = q E x X 2. W = q B x x2 + y 2 There is a uniform electric field E in the positive y-direction and a uniform magnetic field B directed towards the reader. where y is the displacement of the particle in the direction of E as the particle reaches the point C.. W = q B y + q E x 9. This setup is inherently unphysical. W = 0 Explanation: Because the magnetic force does not do any work on the particle. 020 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Note: The conventional Cartesian notation of ˆ (a unit vector along the positive x axis). W = q B x2 + y 2 6. the net work is done by the conservative electric force. Therefore the net work done by the conservative electric force is zero. The magnetic force never does any work. i. 3. The cube has sides of length a. The kinetic energy of the particle at point B is smaller than the energy at point A. and ˆ k (a unit vector along the positive z axis). 1. W = q (E + B) 10. Thus at B the particle is again at rest. W = q E y correct 7. (W = ∆K) says that the kinetic energy of the particle at point B must be the same as it was at point A. ˆ ı  (a unit vector along the positive y axis). There is a uniform magnetic field B = B ˆ. y). . and hence. W = q E 3. Explanation: When the particle has reached point B. where point C is any point on the path. 5. It can be shown that the path is a cycloid whose radius of curvature at the top point is twice the y-coordinate at that level. The relationship between the kinetic energy of the particle at point A and at point B cannot be determined by the information given. Given a current segment which flows along the edges of a cube as shown in the figure. < 1 min. The kinetic energy of the particle at point B is the same as it was at point A. W = q E y + q B x 8. The kinetic energy of the particle at point B is larger than the energy at point A. Current on a Cube JMS . . . W = Fe y = q E y .e. with coordinates (x . The current flows along the path A → C → D → E → G. any discussion regarding energy is meaningless. correct 2. its displacement in the direction of E is zero.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) Y G C A B B E 13 forces as the particle moves from A to C. What is the relation between kinetic energy of the charge at points A and B? 1. W = q B y 5. ı x2 + y 2 . 4. is used.

1. F = √ 2 1 9. > 1 min. F = −k 3. F = √ 2 1 10. F = ˆ  ˆ 6. calculus. multiple choice. F = √ 2 ˆ− k  ˆ ˆ  k −ˆ ˆ+ k  ˆ Find the direction F ≡ kˆ ˆ− ı B B ˆ ı The magnetic force on a wire is given by Fmag = I × B . Explanation: Note: The current in wire segment CD flows in the ˆ direction and the current in wire ı ˆ segment DE flows in the −k. F = −ˆ ı 5. F = −ˆ correct  ˆ 2. 021 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Consider two radial legs (extending to in20 π circular arc carfinity) and a connecting 23 rying a current I as shown below. Undetermined. The magnitude is given by F ×B (ˆ − k) × (ˆ) ı ˆ ı ˆ ı = (ˆ × ˆ) − (k × ˆ) ı ı = 0 −ˆ  F = −ˆ . (see figure above).Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) B C y D a B A z a F a G x B z A B ˆ −k B Top View E B a G B 14 x of the resulF tant magnetic force on the current segment ACDEG. The vector is given by the sum of the current segments − → −→ −→ −→ − − − = AC + CD + DE + EG . 1 8. Refer to the following sketch when reading the explanation .  Magnetic Field from an Arc JMS 30:01. since the magnitude of the force is zero. wording-variable. F = ˆ ı 4. F = k 7. − → and this is the vector AG .

BO = + 23 π r 2r Explanation: Note: The magnetic field at BO for the entire path points in the same direction. BO = + 23 r 4πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 8. we have ∞ I I 20 π 23 r O I I ∞ What is the magnitude of the magnetic field BO (at the origin O) due to the current through this path? 5 µ0 I µ0 I + correct 23 r 2πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 2. Using Amp´re’s law. 23 r (2) The magnetic field at BO for the entire path is the sum of Eqs. BO = + 23 π r 4πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 5. calculus. BO = + 23 π r 2πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 9. The two straight wire segments produce the same magnetic field at BO as a single long straight wire. around the arc we will use the Biot-Savart law. numeric. BO = + 23 r 4πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 3. 022 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A total current of 50 mA flows through an infinitely long cylinder of radius r = 4 cm which has an infinitely long cylindrical hole r through it of diameter r centered at along 2 the x-axis (as in figure 1). for the e magnetic field a distance r from a straight 1. > 1 min. 2πr (1) However. r The magnetic field at at the center of an arc with a current I is BO = µ0 I ds × ˆ r 2 4π r µ0 I = ds 4 π r2 µ0 I = r dθ 4 π r2 µ0 I = 4πr 20 23 π dθ π 0 20 23 µ0 I = θ 4πr 0 µ0 I 20 = π−0 4 π r 23 5 µ0 I = . BO = + 23 r 2πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 7. where |ds × ˆ| = ds = r dθ . wordingvariable. BO = + 23 π r 2πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 4. BO = 5 µ0 I µ0 I + 23 r 2πr into the page or out of the page Off Centered Hole 30:03.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) y wire. BO = x B B · ds = µ0 I B ds = µ0 I ds = µ0 I 15 B 2 π r = µ0 I . so µ0 I BO = . . BO = + 23 π r 2r 2 µ0 I µ0 I 6. BO = + 23 π r 4πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 10. 2 and 1.

and Ahole = . the current I density J = is constant. Solution: Our goal is to model the given situation. The combination of the currents in Fig.64532 × 10−8 T 9.40851 × 10−8 T 2. and Ihole = − I. as it must if it is going to cancel with Icyl to model the hole. 8. We also require I = Icyl + Ihole . Thus 4 Icyl Ihole = − . π r2 Clearly. 7.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) y 16 y y r x r I cyl x + r Ihole x What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance of 12 cm along the positive x-axis? Assume that the magnitude of the current density is the same in the cylinder and in the hole and that the currents in the cylinder and the hole flow in opposite directions with respect to each other. 2πr Principle of Superposition. 5.33987 × 10−8 T 3.77778 × 10−8 T correct 8. 5. 4. With these 3 3 currents. 1. 4 Note: The minus sign means Ihole is flowing in the direction opposite Icyl and I. by adding together the fields from combinations of simpler current configurations which together match the given current distribution.32468 × 10−8 T 5. the combination of the two cylinders in figure 2 gives the same net current and current distribution as the conductor in our problem. 1. 7. Acyl = π r2 .14872 × 10−7 T 10.88477 × 10−8 T 6. 1. Since the current is uniform. The magnetic fields are 4 I 3 = 2πx 1 µ0 − I 3 = . 2. which is complex and lacks symmetry. 1. Then A J = Icyl Acyl = −Ihole Ahole . 2 π (x − r/2) µ0 Bcyl Bhole Thus the total magnetic field is Btotal = Bcyl + Bhole   µ0 I  4 1  = − 6π x x − r 2  µ0 I  3 x − 2 r  = 6π x x − r 2 −7 T m/A) (50 mA) (4 π × 10 = 6π . 2 will do so if we choose Icyl and Ihole correctly.19632 × 10−7 T Explanation: Basic Concepts: Magnetic Field due to a Long Cylinder µ0 I B = . We then 4 1 have Icyl = I.08751 × 10−8 T 7.25256 × 10−8 T 4.

0.85398 m/s . The rails are connected at one end by a load resistor R. m r dr l O What potential difference is developed between its ends? 1. > 1 min. So.00022808 V 7. 0. = 7.05979 × 10−5 V 3. Therefore. 8. 0. calculus.000600358 V   3 (12 cm) − 2 (4 cm) Explanation:  ×   Basic Concept: (4 cm) (12 cm) (12 cm) − Motional emf 2 E = B·l·v = 7. 7. The 2 2πf · l rotation occurs in a region where the compo= nent of the Earth’s magnetic field perpendic2 ular to the plane of rotation is 3. 0.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 17   10. by a massless string that passes over an ideal pulley and is attached to a suspended mass M . and the distance between the rails is . For a point on the bar. 0. The uniform magnetic field has a magnitude B.86804 × 10−5 V 2. 2. the effective velocity for the whole 31:02. 0. 0.000461814 V R M B . bar equals: 023 (part 1 of 1) 10 points ω·l A metal bar spins at a constant rate in the vef f = magnetic field of the Earth as in Figure.000259181 V correct 9. also of negligible resistance.77778 × 10−8 T . calculus. Bar Pulled Through Field JMS 31:03.13233 × 10−5 V 4. normal. The bar is 1 m in length and its angular speed and the induced emf in the bar is is 5 π.3 × 10−5 T.000259181 V .000252191 V 8. the velocity with which the point moves changes linearly with the distance from the point to the rotation Rotating Metal Bar 02 center.000259181 V . multiple choice.000141863 V 5. fixed.000162982 V 6. Use g. numeric. the potential difference between the ends of the bar is: ∆V = E = 0. 024 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A bar of negligible resistance and mass m in the figure below is pulled horizontally across frictionless parallel rails. B in v E = B · l · vef f = 0. > 1 min.

v∞ = 7.e. we use Ohm’s law dΦ and substitute in the induced emf. v∞ = 3. v∞ = 2.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) What is the magnitude of the terminal velocity (i. The flux is Φ = BA. v∞ = 8. the gravitational force Fg is counter-balanced by the magnetic force Fm (see figure below): Energy in an LC Circuit JMS 32:05. 025 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Consider the LC circuit shown below. and the capacitor has a charge Qm on its plates. v∞ = 10. When the wire acquires steady-state speed. v∞ = M gR B M gR correct 2 B2 M gR B2 M gR 2B M g R2 2 B2 M g R2 B2 M g R2 2B M g R2 B 2 g 2 R2 M 2 B2 M 2 g2 R B T a M Fg a T m Fm 18 R B Fg = M g = Fm = I B I= (1) Mg (2) B To find the induced current. v∞ = 6. fixed. v∞ = 5. < 1 min. calculus. 2 B2 (7) ΦB = B · A E =B v Solution: It follows from Lenz’s law that the magnetic force opposes the motion of the bar. At t=0 the switch is closed.. B R (6) Solving for the magnitude of the terminal velocity v∞ v∞ = M gR . the eventual steady-state speed v∞ ) reached by the bar? 1. we have ignored the minus sign from the induced emf E because we will eventually evaluate the magnitude of the terminal velocity. multiple choice. Switch S is initially open. v∞ = 9. v∞ = 4. E = − dt I= |E| 1 dΦ = R R dt (3) Note. So dΦ dA =B =B v dt dt I= (4) Explanation: Basic Concepts: Fg = M g Fm = I × B Fnet = (M + m) a = Fg − Fm E =IR=− d ΦB dt B v (5) R Using (2) and (5) and noting that v is the terminal velocity v∞ Mg B v∞ = . .

Thus the energy is given by Uc = Q2 Q2 = m cos2 2C 2C t √ LC √ t LC + sin2 √ t LC Point Light Source JMS 34:03. U 9. 2C t Q2 t m cos √ 2C LC Explanation: Solution: The charge on the capacitor in the L C circuit satisfies d2 Q 1 =− Q dt2 LC The solution is t Q = Qm cos √ LC where Qm is the initial charge on the capacitor. The surface reflects 4 . which is a distance r away. A piece of small flat surface is placed at D. U 10. It radiates light isotropically. U 5. U 4. UC = 8. UC = 5. U 6. fixed. UC = 7. U exp − √ t LC t LC 7.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) C 19 L 026 (part 2 of 2) 10 points What will be the total energy U as a function of time? 1. multiple choice. UC = 3. > 1 min. UC = 9. 027 (part 1 of 2) 10 points A point light source delivers a time-averaged power P . U = 2. U 1 − exp − √ √ cos t LC sin2 cos2 sin2 √ t LC t √ LC L C Explanation: This is just the sum of Part 1 and Part 2: U = U L + Uc Q2 = m cos2 2C Q2 = m. This piece has a cross 1 of the section Asurf . trigonometry. U 8. UC = 2. UC = Q2 m 2C Q2 m C 2 Qm 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m C Q2 m 2C cos2 sin2 t LC t √ LC √ correct 3. UC = 4. UC = 6. UC = 10. U Q2 m correct 2C t Q2 m = cos √ 2C LC 2 √ Qm cos2 t LC = 2C Q2 t m = exp − √ 2C LC 2 Qm t = 1 − exp − √ 2C LC Q2 = m C 1 =√ LC Q2 = m 4C 2 Q2 m = C √ = LC Qm S What will be the energy UC stored in the capacitor as a function of time? 1.

F = c 5 4πI 7. u = 4 π r2 Explanation: Basic Concepts EM Wave The time-averaged energy density at D is given by I P u= = . 21. F = 4 c 3 4πI 8. Traveling inside a diamond. F = correct 4c 4πI 10. > 1 min. What is the critical angle for total internal reflection? 1. u = correct 4 π c r2 P 5. u = 028 (part 2 of 2) 10 points Find the total time-averaged force on the surface in terms of the intensity I of the light at D.9248 ◦ 2.9091 ◦ ◦ . Asurf I c 7 4πI 2. Assume the 4 light hitting the various parts of the surface is perpendicular to them. u = π r2 P 8. normal. u = Asurf c P 4. F = c 4πI 6. u = 4 π r2 2. calculus. c 4 π r2 c 9. u = 4 π r2 P 7. u = π r2 P c P c P 3. a light ray is incident on the interface between diamond and air. 21.1623 3. numeric. The smallness of the critical angle θc for diamond means that light is easily “trapped” within a diamond and eventually emerges from the many cut faces. This makes a diamond more brilliant than stones with smaller n and larger θc . F = Diamond Critical Angle 35:07. F = 2 c Explanation: The time-average force is 3. F = 4 c 1. 20. F = 2 c 5 Asurf I 9. F = F = Pressure Asurf = Fabs + Frefl 3 1 = u + 2 u Asurf 4 4 = 5 Asurf I 4c 20 r Point source D The time-averaged energy density hitting the surface is given by: 1. u = c Asurf 6. 029 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Assume: Refraction index for diamond ndiamond = 2.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3 light and absorbs of the light. u = Asurf P P Asurf P 10.419 . 3 Asurf I 2c 7 Asurf I 4. F = 4c 2 Asurf I 5.

d−f 2 8. d Diverging Lens Solution: Using the thin lens formula 1 1 1 + = . wording-variable. 5. 22.4786 6. trigonometry. 1 1 − f d 1 1 − d f d 2 −1 −1 correct correct 1 1 (f ) + (d ) 1 7. 2. n1 Solution: For diamond. > 1 min. 24. 26.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4.5148 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 21 4. + f d 1 2. 031 (part 1 of 1) 10 points . 6. 28. normal. d + f 10.4182 ◦ . 24. f −d f 3. multiple choice. s s f we can compute the position of the image which would be: lens How far from the lens is the image of the cat due only to this lens? 1 1 1. the critical angle sin θc = 1 . Image of a Cat JMS 36:02. 2 2 + d f −1 Explanation: Basic Concepts: 1 1 1 h q + = m= =− p q f h p Converging Lens f >0 ∞ >p> f f >p> 0 ∞ >p> 0 f < q < ∞ 0 > m > −∞ −∞ < q < 0 ∞ > m > 1 0>f f <q< 0 0 <m< 1 θc = 24.419 2 2 − f d −1 9. < 1 min.4182 7. 1 2 1 2 (f ) + (d ) −1 x= 1 1 − f d −1 −1 1 1 = − 10 cm 15 cm = 30 cm MultiSlits JMS 37:04.7715 9. trigonometry. 10. 23. 25.7343 8. multiple choice.9934 5.1446 ◦ Explanation: Basic Concept: Critical angle θc for total internal reflection n2 sin θc = . 030 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A cat is a distance d = 15 cm from a thin converging lens with focal length f = 10 cm.

δ = 8. 1 2 n1 h n2 paper Explanation: Basic Concept: Light Interference The phase angle difference between reflected rays # 1 and # 2 due to their path difference is given by . fixed. 2π 2π 3 6 9. calculus. 032 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Let us do the air wedge problem without making the approximation that the index of refraction of air is unity.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) Given: The setup of a six slit diffraction experiment shown in the figure. denote the index of refraction of the glass as n1 and that of air as n2 . δ = 5. > 1 min. 1 2 3 4 5 6 δ L Figure: Not drawn to scale. the relative phas angle φ between the adjacent phasor vectors is given by φ= 360◦ 1 = 60 ◦ = π . δ = λ Thin Wedge of Air 03 37:06. δ = 6. Find the path difference difference between two rays from adjacent slits which gives rise to the first minimum. δ = 2 λ 10. δ = 7. multiple choice. 6 3 and the path difference δ is δ= λ λ 1 1 φ= π = λ. Let the wavelength of the incident light waves in the vacuum be λvac . δ = 2. As shown in the figure. The height of the thin wedge at the point of interest is h. Thus. δ = 3. 1. δ = 1 λ correct 6 1 λ 4 1 λ 5 2 λ 5 3 λ 4 3 λ 5 2 λ 3 1 λ 2 E6 E1 E2 φ y E5 E4 E3 22 The first minimum occurs when the six phasor vectors of the six rays in the phasor diagram form a closed hexagon. δ = 4.

Ntotal = 7 correct 10. the maximum number of dark fringes. φpath = h . λvac 2 π n1 h. φpath = h. Ntotal = 10 7. φpath = λair = λvac . φpath = h. correct λvac 4π 5. for φpath = 40 rad can be found by considering (2N − 1)π ≤ φmax = 40 + π . Generally. the total phase difference is φ = φpath + π . we arrive at N = int 40 +1 2π = 7. > 1 min. 2. Ntotal = 13 2. n2 λvac 2 π n2 6. φpath = h. n2 λvac 4 π n2 4. φpath = n2 λvac 2π 9. wording-variable. φpath = h. n2 3. λvac Note: When φpath = 0. Ntotal = 8 5. Now.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4π h. Ntotal = 5 Since N must be an integer. Ntotal = 6 4. Ntotal = 11 8. 8. φpath = h. Dark Fringe Position 38:02. So the above expression includes the minimum at zero separation. Solving for N yields N≤ 40 + 1. The φpath is related to the path difference ∆ = 2 h by φpath = 2 π ∆ λair 2 h n2 = 2π λvac 4 π n2 = h. the equation is satisfied by n = 1. N . destructive interference occurs when (2n − 1)π = φpath + π . Ntotal = 9 6. including the dark fringe at zero separation along the point of contact? 1. Ntotal = 12 9. what is the total number of dark fringes. n2 λvac Explanation: The wavelength in air is related to the wavelength in the vacuum by 1. φpath = h. 3 · · · . n1 λvac 2π 10. multiple choice. 2π 033 (part 2 of 2) 10 points If the maximum phase difference due to the path difference is 40 radians. λvac 2 π n1 7. φpath = h. n1 λvac 4 π n1 2. Ntotal = 14 23 Explanation: Since there’s a phase change π at the air glass interface. n = 1. trigonometry. λvac 4 π n1 3. 034 (part 1 of 1) 10 points .

1 I0 16 . a 2π . λ β k where k ≡ Beam Intensity 38:06. 1. or 2 β = 2 π . y5 = 2 a λL 5. y5 = 6 a 13 λ L 4. fourth.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) Hint: Use a small angle approximation. minimum in the diffraction pattern.what is the beam intensity after the second polarizer? 1. y5 = 2 a λL 3. = 2mπ. 12 π . λL correct a 11 λ L 2. where the fifth minimum occurs. 4 π . The fifth minimum occurs at β = 10 π. y5 = 3 a Explanation: Basic Concepts: Light Diffraction   β 2 sin I  2 . e. y5 = 2 a λL 10. y5 = 5 δ= = 10 π 2π λ = 5λ δ θ= a y5 = L δ y5 = L a λL =5 . y5 = 2 a λL 8. fixed. < 1 min. 6 π . y5 = 2 a 9 λL 7. Consider the setup of a single slit experiment. Unpolarized light Polarizer E0 Analyzer θ Polarized lihgt E 0 cos θ Transmission axis If θ = 30◦ . which corresponds to a path difference δ between two end rays S2 L viewing screen y5 Determine the height y5 . where φ = π is the phase difference of the two rays for destructive interference. 035 (part 1 of 1) 10 points An unpolarized light beam with intensity of I0 passes through 2 polarizers shown in the picture. y5 = 4 a 7 λL 9. calculus.g. · · · . 6 π . where β = 2 φ = 2 π.. 10 π . 4 π . Solution: The first minimum is at β = 2 π. = β  I0 2 where the minima are at β = π . 8 π . second. 2 π . 24 S1 a θ ×15 where m is the first. 5 π . multiple choice. · · · . third. · · ·. sin θ = tan θ . y5 = 7 a 15 λ L 6. 3 π .

ap- . Consequently. as described by the following diagram: 8. all of them 10. (a) (b) and (d) 7. I0 4 5 6. 1. (a) (c) and (d) Coherence and Slits 38:99. I0 16 7 7. multiple choice. (a) and (b) 3. (a) (b) and (c) correct 2. < 1 min. consider a screen illuminated by various combinations of slits and light sources. I0 2 9 9. trigonometry. I0 16 1 8. is generated with very well-defined phase (the laser light is coherent). (b) and (d) 5. (c) and (d) We use the formula for the intensity of the transmitted (polarized) light. I0 16 5 10. I0 8 3 4. I0 correct 8 1 3.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3 2. which of the above setups will produce an interference pattern on the screen? Note: the light bulb emits monochromatic (one-colored) light. I0 8 Explanation: The beam intensity after the first polarizer is I1 = I0 2 25 Knowing that laser light. fixed. (b) (c) and (d) 9. Thus the beam intensity after the second polarizer is I = I1 cos2 θ I0 = cos2 (30◦ ) 2 3 I0 = 8 4. (a) and (c) 6. none of them Explanation: Laser light is coherent. I0 16 1 5. in contrast to ordinary light sources. 036 (part 1 of 1) 10 points For this problem.

the correct answer is (a) (b) and (c). Consequently. the pattern will be very similar to that generated by passing laser light through a double slit. When the single slit is not availible to filter the light. any effect due to path differences is washed out by this randomness. the phases of the light bulb light hitting the double slit are essentially random. when this newly coherent light passes through the double slit. and no pattern is observed. If one only looks at light of a given wavelength. an intereference pattern will result. 26 . one constrains the path of the light from the light bulb to the screen. by filtering the light through a single slit apparatus. however. Therefore. Consequently. Similarly.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) plying simple double and single slits to it will not destroy its coherence. both (a) and (b) will produce intereference patterns. Consequently. This makes the light leaving the single slit coherent.

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