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# E & M - Basic Physical Concepts

Electric force and electric ﬁeld
Electric force between 2 point charges:
|F| = k
|q1| |q2|
r
2
k = 8.987551787 ×10
9
Nm
2
/C
2

0
=
1
4 π k
= 8.854187817 ×10
−12
C
2
/Nm
2
q
p
= −q
e
= 1.60217733 (49) ×10
−19
C
m
p
= 1.672623 (10) ×10
−27
kg
m
e
= 9.1093897 (54) ×10
−31
kg
Electric ﬁeld:

E =

F
q
Point charge: |E| = k
|Q|
r
2
,

E =

E
1
+

E
2
+ · · ·
Field patterns: point charge, dipole, plates, rod,
spheres, cylinders,. . .
Charge distributions:
Linear charge density: λ =
∆Q
∆x
Area charge density: σ
A
=
∆Q
∆A
Surface charge density: σ
surf
=
∆Q
surf
∆A
Volume charge density: ρ =
∆Q
∆V
Electric ﬂux and Gauss’ law
Flux: ∆Φ = E ∆A

=

E · ˆ n∆A
Gauss law: Outgoing Flux from S, Φ
S
=
Qenclosed

0
Steps: to obtain electric ﬁeld
–Inspect

E pattern and construct S
–Find Φ
s
=

surface

E · d

A =
Qencl

0
, solve for

E
Spherical: Φ
s
= 4 π r
2
E
Cylindrical: Φ
s
= 2 π r E
Pill box: Φ
s
= E ∆A, 1 side; = 2 E ∆A, 2 sides
Conductor:

E
in
= 0, E

surf
= 0, E

surf
=
σ
surf

0
Potential
Potential energy: ∆U = q ∆V 1 eV ≈ 1.6 ×10
−19
J
Positive charge moves from high V to low V
Point charge: V =
k Q
r
V = V
1
+V
2
= . . .
Energy of a charge-pair: U =
k q1 q2
r12
Potential diﬀerence: |∆V | = |E ∆s

|,
∆V = −

E · ∆s, V
B
−V
A
= −

B
A

E · ds
E = −
d V
dr
, E
x
= −
∆V
∆x

fix y,z
= −
∂V
∂x
, etc.
Capacitances Q = C V
Series: V =
Q
Ceq
=
Q
C1
+
Q
C2
+
Q
C3
+ · · ·, Q = Q
i
Parallel: Q = C
eq
V = C
1
V +C
2
V + · · ·, V = V
i
Parallel plate-capacitor: C =
Q
V
=
Q
E d
=

0
A
d
Energy: U =

Q
0
V dq =
1
2
Q
2
C
, u =
1
2

0
E
2
Dielectrics: C = κC
0
, U
κ
=
1
2 κ
Q
2
C0
, u
κ
=
1
2

0
κE
2
κ
Spherical capacitor: V =
Q
4 π
0
r1

Q
4 π
0
r2
Potential energy: U = − p ·

E
Current and resistance
Current: I =
d Q
dt
= nq v
d
A
Ohm’s law: V = I R, E = ρJ
E =
V

, J =
I
A
, R =
ρ
A
Power: P = I V =
V
2
R
= I
2
R
Thermal coeﬃcient of ρ: α =
∆ρ
ρ0∆T
Motion of free electrons in an ideal conductor:
a τ = v
d

q E
m
τ =
J
nq
→ρ =
m
nq
2
τ
Direct current circuits V = I R
Series: V = I R
eq
= I R
1
+I R
2
+I R
3
+ · · ·, I = I
i
Parallel: I =
V
Req
=
V
R1
+
V
R2
+
V
R3
+ · · ·, V = V
i
Steps: in application of Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules
–Label currents: i
1
, i
2
, i
3
, . . .
–Node equations:

i
in
=

i
out
–Loop equations: “

(±E) +

(∓iR)=0”
–Natural: “+” for loop-arrow entering − terminal
“−” for loop-arrow-parallel to current ﬂow
RC circuit: if
d y
dt
+
1
RC
y = 0, y = y
0
exp(−
t
RC
)
Charging: E −V
c
−Ri = 0,
1
c
d q
dt
+R
d i
dt
=
i
c
+R
d i
dt
= 0
Discharge: 0 = V
c
−Ri =
q
c
+R
d q
dt
,
i
c
+R
d i
dt
= 0
Magnetic ﬁeld and magnetic force
µ
0
= 4 π ×10
−7
Tm/A
Wire: B =
µ
0
i
2 π r
Axis of loop: B =
µ
0
a
2
i
2 (a
2
+x
2
)
3/2
Magnetic force:

F
M
= i

×

B →q v ×

B
Loop-magnet ID: τ = i

B, µ = i Aˆ n
Circular motion: F =
mv
2
r
= q v B, T =
1
f
=
2 π r
v
Lorentz force:

F = q

E +q v ×

B
Hall eﬀect: V
H
=
FM d
q
, U = − µ ·

B
Sources of

B and magnetism of matter
Biot-Savart Law: ∆

B =
µ
0
4 π
i ∆

×ˆr
r
2
, B =
µ
0
4 π
q v×ˆr
r
2
∆B =
µ
0
4 π
i ∆y
r
2
sin θ, sin θ =
a
r
, ∆y =
r
2
∆θ
a
Ampere’s law: M =

L

B · ds = µ
0
I
encircled
Steps: to obtain magnetic ﬁeld
–Inspect

B pattern and construct loop L
–Find M and I
encl
, and solve for

B.
Displ. current: I
d
=
0
d ΦE
dt
=
0
d (E A)
dt
=
d QA
dt
Magnetism in atom:
Orbital motion: µ = i A =
e
2 m
L
L = mv r = n¯h, ¯h =
h
2 π
= 1.06 ×10
−34
J s
µ
orbit
= nµ
B
, µ
B
=
e ¯ h
2 m
= 9.27 ×10
−24
J/T
Spin: S =
¯ h
2
, µ
spin
= µ
B
Magnetism in matter:
B = B
0
+B
M
= (1 + χ) B
0
= (1 + χ) µ
0
B0
µ
0
= κ
m
H
Ferromagnetic: χ 1 Diamagnetic: −1 χ < 0
Paramagnetic: 0 < χ 1, M =
C
T
B
E = −N
d φB
dt
, φ
B
=
_

B · d

A,
E =
_

E · ds,

E =

FM
q
Lenz law: Induced

B opposes change of Φ
B
d φB
dt
=
d (B A

)
dt
=
d B
dt
A

+B
d A

dt
Moving rods:
d A
dt
= v,
d A
dt
=
d
dt
_
1
2
R · Rθ
_
Rotating loop:
d A

dt
=
d
dt
(A cos ωt)
Cutting B lines → change φ
B
→E
ind
→E
ind
Maxwell equations:
_

E · d

A =
Q

0
,
_

B · d

A = 0 ,
_

E · ds = −
d φB
dt
,
_

B · ds = µ
0
[I +
0
d φE
dt
]
Inductance
Mutual: E
2
= −M
21
d i1
dt
, M
21
= M
12
=
N2 φ21
i1
Self: E = −L
d i
dt
, L =
N φ
i
, V
L
= L
d i
dt
Long solenoid: L =
N B A
i
, B = µ
0
ni
Energies: U
L
=
1
2
Li
2
, u
B
=
1
2 µ
0
B
2
U
C
=
1
2 C
q
2
, u
E
=
1
2

0
E
2
LC: V
L
+V
C
= 0 ⇒L
d i
dt
= −
q
C
q = q
0
cos(ω t + δ),
ω =
_
1
LC
, U
C
+U
L
= U
C max
= U
Lmax
= U
0
Decay Equations:
d y
dt
= −a y, y = y
0
exp(−a t)
LR: E = V
L
+Ri,
d VL
dt
+
RVL
L
= 0,
V
L
= E exp
_

Rt
L
_
, i =
E
R
_
1 −exp
_
−Rt
L
__
LRC:
Q ≈ Q
0
e

R
2 L
t
cos ω
d
t, ω
d
=
_
1
LC

_
R
2 L
_
2
Underdamped, critically damped & overdamped
AC Circuits
Impedance: [Ohm ≡ Ω] Z ≡
_
R
2
+ (X
L
−X
C
)
2
Inductive X
L
= ω L, Capactive X
C
=
1
ω C
Mean value:
¯
f(t) =
1
T
_
T
0
f(t) dt
[sin ω t]
rms
= [sin
2
ω t]
1
2
= [
1
2
(1 −cos 2 ω t)]
1
2
=
1

2
Electromagnetic waves
Properties of em waves:
E = E
m
cos(k z −ω t), B =
E
c
v =
d z
dt
=
ω
k
= λf =
λ
T
, n =
c
v
speed of light: c =
1

0
µ
0
= 2.99792458 ×10
8
m/s

B ⊥

E, propagating along:

E ×

B
u = u
E
+u
B
, u
E
= u
B
Poynting vector:

S =

B
µ
0
,
¯
S =
¯
I =
ErmsBrms
µ
0
Intensity: I =
P
A
=
∆U
A∆z
d z
dt
= uc
Energy conservation:
_

S · d

A =
d U
dt
+P
R
Complete absorption: Momentum p =
U
c
Pressure: P =
F
A
=
∆p
∆t
1
A
=
∆U
c ∆t
1
A
= u =
S
c
Complete reﬂection: P =
2 U
c
, P =
2 S
c
Reﬂection and Refraction
Index of refraction:
n1
n2
=
v2
v1
=
λ2
λ1
Snell’s law: n
1
sin θ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
Critical angle: n
2
> n
1
, n
2
sin θ
c
= n
1
sin 90

Total reﬂection: θ > θ
c
Mirrors and lenses
1
p
+
1
q
=
1
f
Ray tracing rules:
Mirror: At symm pt S, reﬂected symmetrically through
center of sphere, undeﬂected. Parallel to axis, converges
toward F (or diverges away from F), f =
R
2
.
Lens: Through center of lens, undeﬂected. Parallel to
axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F)
Image: q > 0 (real), q < 0 (virtual)
Focal point F: at p = ∞, q = f
f = ±|f|, “+” convergent, “−” divergent
Magniﬁcation: M =
h

h
= −
q
p
Refraction at spherical surface:
n1
p
+
n2
q
=
n2−n1
R
R is coordinate of center with origin at S, with
S the symmetry point of surface on the axis
Lens maker:
1
f
=
_
n2
n1
−1
__
1
R1

1
R2
_
Two media: M =
h

h
= −
q
p
n1
n2
Huygen’s principles:
Points in wave front are sources of next wavelets
Forward tangent surface is next wave front
Interference
Maxima φ = 0, 2 π, 4 π, · · ·; Minima φ = π, 3 π, 5 π, · · ·
Double slits: I
average
= I
0
cos
2
_
φ
2
_
, φ = k ∆.
sin θ =

d
, tan θ =
y
L
, for small θ, θ ≈ sinθ ≈ tan θ
Phasor diagram:

A =

A
1
+

A
2
+

A
3
+ · · ·
A
x
= A
1x
+A
2x
+A
3x
+· · ·, A
y
= A
1y
+A
2y
+· · ·
a
sin α
=
b
sin β
=
c
sin γ
First minimum for N slits: φ =
2 π
N
Thin ﬁlm: φ = k ∆+|φ
1
reflected
−φ
2
reflected
|, ∆ = 2 t
φ
reflected
= π (denser medium); =0 (lighter medium)
Diﬀraction
Single slit: I = I
0
_
sin
β
2
β
2
_
2
, β = k∆, ∆ = a sin θ
Resolution criterion: θ
criterion
= 1.22
λ
D
Grating: Principle maxima ∆ = mλ
Polarization
Brewster (n
1
< n
2
): n
1
sinθ
br
= n
2
sin(
π
2
−θ
br
)
Polarizer: E
transmit
= E
0
cos θ, I = I
0
cos
2
θ
Unpolarized light:
∆I
∆θ
=
I0
2 π
Transmitted Intensity: ∆I

= ∆I cos
2
θ
I

=
I0
2 π
_
2 π
0
cos
2
θ dθ =
I0
2
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3
This print-out should have 36 questions.
Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page – ﬁnd all choices
before answering. V1:1, V2:1, V3:1, V4:1,
V5:2.
Four Charges in Square JMS
23:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
001 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Consider charges in a square again, but this
time with a diﬀerent assignment of charges
(shown in the ﬁgure below).
Q
D
= q
Q
A
= q
Q
C
= −q
Q
B
= q
O
a
Find E
O
at O.
1. E
O
= 4
k q
a
2
correct
2. E
O
=

2
k q
a
2
3. E
O
= 2

2
k q
a
2
4. E
O
=
k q
a
2
5. E
O
=
1

2
k q
a
2
6. E
O
=
1
5

2
k q
a
2
7. E
O
=
1
4

2
k q
a
2
8. E
O
= 3
k q
a
2
9. E
O
= 3

2
k q
a
2
10. E
O
=
1
3

2
k q
a
2
Explanation:
The magnitudes of all four E-components at
O are equal to E
A
= 2 k
q
a
2
. Draw a diagram,
similar to the one in the explanation to part
1, to show the directions of the ﬁeld vectors
at O.
You should ﬁnd that the contributions from
B and D cancel, whereas the contributions
from A and C add. This means the magnitude
of the total ﬁeld is
E = (2) (2) k
q
a
2
= 4 k
q
a
2
.
Charged Arc JMS
, , , < 1 min, .
002 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A uniformly charged circular arc AB of radius
R is shown in the ﬁgure. It covers a quarter
of a circle and it is located in the second
quadrant. The total charge on the arc is
Q > 0.
x
y
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
∆θ
θ
R
x
y
I II
III IV
B
A
O
∆s ≡ R∆θ
The direction of the electric ﬁeld vector

E
at the origin, due to the charge distribution,
is
2. along the positive x-axis.
3. along the positive y-axis.
4. along the negative y-axis.
5. along the negative x-axis.
Explanation:
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4
The electric ﬁeld for a positive charge is
directed away from it. In this case, the electric
ﬁeld generated by each ∆q will be directed
into quadrant IV, so the total electric ﬁeld
will be in the same quadrant.
Charge Inside a Box 02
24:02, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
003 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A cubic box of side a, oriented as shown, con-
tains an unknown charge. The vertically di-
rected electric ﬁeld has a uniform magnitude
E at the top surface and 2 E at the bottom
surface.
a
E
2 E
How much charge Q is inside the box?
1. Q
encl
= 0
2. Q
encl
= 2
0
E a
2
3. Q
encl
=
0
E a
2
correct
4. Q
encl
=
1
2

0
E a
2
5. Q
encl
= 3
0
E a
2
6. Q
encl
= 2
E

0
a
2
7. Q
encl
=
E

0
a
2
8. Q
encl
= 3
E

0
a
2
9. Q
encl
= 6
0
E a
2
10. insuﬃcient information
Explanation:
Electric ﬂux through a surface S is, by con-
vention, positive for electric ﬁeld lines going
out of the surface S and negative for lines
going in.
Here the surface is a cube and no ﬂux goes
through the vertical sides. The top receives
Φ
top
= −E a
2
(inward is negative) and the bottom
Φ
bottom
= 2 E a
2
.
The total electric ﬂux is
Φ
E
= −E a
2
+ 2 E a
2
= E a
2
.
Using Gauss’s Law, the charge inside the box
is
Q
encl
=
0
Φ
E
=
0
E a
2
.
Concentric Conductors JMS
24:04, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
ﬁxed.
004 (part 1 of 3) 10 points
Consider a solid conducting sphere with a
1
on it. There is a
conducting spherical shell concentric to the
sphere. The shell has an inner radius b (with
b > a) and outer radius c and a net charge
Q
2
on the shell. Denote the charge on the in-
ner surface of the shell by Q

2
and that on the
outer surface of the shell by Q

2
.
Q
1
, a b , Q

2
Q

2
, c Q
1
Q
2
P
Find the charge Q

2
.
1. Q

2
= Q
1
+Q
2
correct
2. Q

2
= Q
1
−Q
2
3. Q

2
= Q
2
−Q
1
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 5
4. Q

2
= 2 (Q
1
+Q
2
)
5. Q

2
= 2 (Q
1
−Q
2
)
6. Q

2
= 2 (Q
2
−Q
1
)
7. Q

2
=
Q
1
+Q
2
2
8. Q

2
=
Q
2
−Q
1
2
9. Q

2
=
Q
1
−Q
2
2
10. Q

2
=
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
2
Q
1
−Q
2
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Gauss’ Law
Sketch a concentric Gaussian surface S
(dashed line) within the shell.
r
Since the electrostatic ﬁeld in a conducting
medium is zero, according to Gauss’s Law,
Φ
S
=
Q
1
+Q

2

0
= 0
Q

2
= −Q
1
But the net charge on the shell is
Q
2
= Q

2
+Q

2
,
so the charge on the outer surface of the shell
is
Q

2
= Q
2
−Q

2
= Q
2
+Q
1
.
005 (part 2 of 3) 10 points
Find the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at
point P
_

E
P
≡ E
P
_
, where the distance
from P to the center is r =
a +b
2
.
1. E
P
=
4 k
e
Q
1
(a +b)
2
correct
2. E
P
= 0
3. E
P
=
4 k
e
Q
2
(a +b)
2
4. E
P
=
4 k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
5. E
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
(a +b)
2
6. E
P
=
2 k
e
Q
2
(a +b)
2
7. E
P
=
2 k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
8. E
P
=
4 k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
9. E
P
=
2 k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
(a +b)
2
10. E
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a
(a +b)
3
Explanation:
Choose the spherical surface S centered at
O, which passes through P. Here,
4 π r
2
E
P
=
Q
1

0
E
P
=
Q
1
4 π
0
r
2
=
k
e
Q
1
r
2
=
4 k
e
Q
1
(a +b)
2
.
006 (part 3 of 3) 10 points
Assume: The potential at r = ∞is zero.
Find the potential V
P
at point P.
1. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
1
b
+
k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
c
cor-
rect
2. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 6
3. V
P
=
2 k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
a +b
4. V
P
= 0
5. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b
+
k
e
Q
2
c
6. V
P
=
k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
2
b
7. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

2 k
e
Q
2
b
8. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
2
c
9. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b
+
k
e
Q
1
b

k
e
(Q
1
−Q
2
)
c
10. V
P
=
2 k
e
Q
1
a
Explanation:
the 3 concentric charge distributions; i.e., Q
1
at a, −Q at b and Q
1
+Q
2
at c, gives
V =
2 k
e
Q
1
a +b

k
e
Q
1
b
+
k
e
(Q
1
+Q
2
)
c
.
Add a Charge to Four JMS
25:01, highSchool, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
007 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Four charges are placed at the corners of a
square of side a, with q
1
= q
2
= −q, q
3
= q
4
=
+q, where q is positive. Initially there is no
charge at the center of the square.
q
1
= −q
q
2
= −q
q
4
= +q
q
3
= +q
q
Find the work required to bring the charge
q from inﬁnity and place it at the center of
the square.
1. W = 0 correct
2. W =
4 k q
2
a
2
3. W =
2 k q
2
a
2
4. W =
−2 k q
2
a
2
5. W =
−4 k q
2
a
2
6. W =
4 k q
2
a
7. W =
2 k q
2
a
8. W =
−2 k q
2
a
9. W =
−4 k q
2
a
10. W =
8 k q
2
a
2
Explanation:
Based on the superposition principle, the
potential at the center due to the charges at
the corners is
V = V
1
+V
2
+V
3
+V
4
=
k q
r
(−1 −1 + 1 + 1) = 0 .
Here r is the common distance from the center
to the corners. The work required to bring
the charge q from inﬁnity to the center is then
W = q V = 0.
Electric Potential or FieldJMS
25:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
008 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Two charges are located in the (x, y) plane
as shown in the ﬁgure below. The ﬁelds pro-
duced by these charges are observed at the
origin, p = (0, 0).
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 7
x
y
−Q −Q
p
b
a a
Use Coulomb’s law to ﬁnd the x-component
of the electric ﬁeld at p.
1. E
x
= 0 correct
2. E
x
= −
4 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
3. E
x
=
4 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
4. E
x
=
2 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
5. E
x
= −
2 k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
6. E
x
=
k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
7. E
x
= −
k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
8. E
x
=
2 k
e
Q
a
2
+b
2
9. E
x
= −
2 k
e
Q
a
2
+b
2
Explanation:
Let: k
e
= 8.98755 ×10
9
Nm
2
/C
2
.
−Q
1
−Q
2
p
b
a a
r
1
=
_
x
2
1
+y
2
1
=
_
a
2
+b
2
.
r
2
=
_
x
2
2
+y
2
2
=
_
(−a)
2
+b
2
=
_
a
2
+b
2
, so
r
2
= r
1
= r .
θ θ
E
1
E
2
−Q
1
−Q
2
where
| sin θ| =
b
r
=
b

a
2
+b
2
| cos θ| =
a
r
=
a

a
2
+b
2
.
In the x-direction, the contributions from
the two charges are
E
x1
= −k
e
(−Q)
r
2
1
| cos(θ)| (1)
= −k
e
(−Q)
(a
2
+b
2
)
a

a
2
+b
2
= +k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
E
x2
= −k
e
(+Q)
r
2
2
| cos(θ)| (2)
= −k
e
(+Q)
(a
2
+b
2
)
a

a
2
+b
2
= −k
e
Qa
(a
2
+b
2
)
3/2
E
x
= E
x1
+E
x2
= 0 .
009 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
Let: V = 0 at inﬁnity.
Find the electric potential at p .
1. V
y
= −
2 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
correct
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 8
2. V
y
= +
2 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
3. V
y
= −
4 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
4. V
y
=
4 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
5. V
y
= −
2 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
6. V
y
=
2 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
7. V
y
= −
4 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
8. V
y
=
4 k
e
Qa

a
2
+b
2
9. V
y
= 0
Explanation:
The potential for a point charge −Q is
V = k
e
−Q
r
.
For the two charges in this problem, we
have
V
1
= k
e
−Q

a
2
+b
2
.
V
2
= k
e
−Q

a
2
+b
2
.
V
p
= V
1
+V
2
=
k
e

a
2
+b
2
[−Q+ (−Q)]
= −
2 k
e
Q

a
2
+b
2
.
Spherical Capacitor JMS
26:02, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
ﬁxed.
010 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Given a spherical capacitor with radius of the
inner conducting sphere a and the outer shell
b. The outer shell is grounded. The charges
are +Q and −Q. A point C is located at
r =
R
2
, where R = a +b.
a
A B
C
+Q
−Q
b
The capacitance of this spherical capacitor
is
1. C =
k
e
b
.
2. C =
a
k
e
.
3. C =
b
k
e
.
4. C =
a +b
k
e
.
5. C =
1
k
e
(a +b)
.
6. C =
1
k
e
(a −b)
.
7. C =
k
e
a
.
8. C =
1
k
e
_
1
a

1
b
_ . correct
9. C =
b − a
2 k
e
ln
_
b
a
_, .
10. C =
b
2
4 k
e
( b − a)
, .
Explanation:
∆V = V
a
−V
b
= k
e
Q
_
1
a

1
b
_
−0
since V
b
is grounded. The charge on the
inside of the shell doesn’t aﬀect the grounded
potential.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 9
The capacitance of this spherical capacitor
is
C =
Q
∆V
=
Q
k
e
Q
_
1
a

1
b
_
=
1
k
e
_
1
a

1
b
_ .
Introduce a Dielectric JMS
26:05, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
011 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider an air-ﬁlled parallel plate capaci-
tor with plate area A and gap width d. The
plate charge is Q.
Subsequent to full charging of the capaci-
tor, the battery is disconnected.
Now, the gap is ﬁlled with of dielectric of
dielectric constant κ.
κ
d
+Q −Q
A A
The voltage within the gap in the presence
of the dielectric is given by
1. V

=
Q
2
κ
0
A
d .
2. V

=

0
A
d .
3. V

=
QA
κ
0
d .
4. V

=
Q
κ
0
d
A.
5. V

=
Q
2
κ
0
A.
6. V

=
Q
2
κ

0
A
d .
7. V

=
Q
κ
0
A
d . correct
8. V

=
Q
2
κ
0
d
A.
Explanation:
V

=
V
κ
=
E d
κ
=
Q
κ
0
A
d
012 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
The energy within the gap in the presence of
the dielectric is given by
1. U

=
Q
2
2 κ
0
d
A.
2. U

=
Q
2
2
0
A
d .
3. U

=
Q
2
2 κ
0
A
d . correct
4. U

=
Q
2
κ
2
0
A
d .
5. U

=
Q
κ
0
A
d .
6. U

=
Q

0
A
d .
7. U

=
Q
κ
0
d
A.
8. U

=

0
A
d .
Explanation:
U

=
Q
2
2 C

=
Q
2
2
_
κ0 A
d
_ =
Q
2
2 κ
0
A
d .
Light Bulb in a Circuit JMS
, , , < 1 min, .
013 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A 75 W bulb is connected to a 120 V source.
V R
What is the current through the bulb?
1. 0.466667 A
2. 0.506306 A
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 10
3. 0.561789 A
4. 0.608182 A
5. 0.625 A correct
6. 0.645669 A
7. 0.653043 A
8. 0.670588 A
9. 0.696581 A
10. 0.705385 A
Explanation:
Given : P = 75 W, and
V = 120 V.
The current is
I =
P
V
=
75 W
120 V
= 0.625 A .
Dimensional analysis for I:
W
V
=
J/s
J/C
=
J
s
·
C
J
=
C
s
= A
014 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
A lamp dimmer puts a resistance in series
with the bulb.
What resistance would be needed to reduce
the current to 0.3 A?
1. 32.7125 Ω
2. 45.0553 Ω
3. 57.0368 Ω
4. 58.2651 Ω
5. 92.1429 Ω
6. 120.044 Ω
7. 122.723 Ω
8. 132.777 Ω
9. 208 Ω correct
10. 212.982 Ω
Explanation:
R
total
= R +R
1
, and
V = I
1
R
total
= I
1
R +I
1
R
1
so that
R
1
=
V −I
1
R
I
1
=
V
I
1
−R
=
120 V
0.3 A
−192 Ω
= 208 Ω .
Four Resistors JMS
28:02, highSchool, multiple choice, > 1 min,
normal.
015 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Four resistors are connected as shown in the
ﬁgure.
1
0

5
0

7
0

90 V
3
0

S
1
a
b
c
d
Find the resistance between points a and b.
1. 31.5686 Ω correct
2. 33.3855 Ω
3. 34.4127 Ω
4. 36.0099 Ω
5. 37.6052 Ω
6. 38.1779 Ω
7. 38.9958 Ω
8. 39.4313 Ω
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 11
9. 40.046 Ω
10. 42.0635 Ω
Explanation:
Given : R
1
= 10 Ω,
R
2
= 30 Ω,
R
3
= 50 Ω,
R
4
= 70 Ω, and
E
B
= 90 V.
R
1
R
3
R
4
E
B
R
2
S
1
a
b
c
d
Ohm’s law is V = I R.
A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junc-
tions connected by zero resistance.
R
2
R
3
R
1
R
4
a
b
c
d
The parallel connection of R
1
and R
2
gives
the equivalent resistance
1
R
12
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
=
R
2
+R
1
R
1
R
2
R
12
=
R
1
R
2
R
1
+R
2
=
(10 Ω) (30 Ω)
10 Ω + 30 Ω
= 7.5 Ω.
R
12
R
3
R
4
a
b
The series connection of R
12
and R
3
gives
the equivalent resistance
R
123
= R
12
+R
3
= 7.5 Ω + 50 Ω
= 57.5 Ω.
R
123
R
4
a
b
The parallel connection of R
123
and R
4
gives the equivalent resistance
1
R
ab
=
1
R
123
+
1
R
4
=
R
4
+R
123
R
123
R
4
R
ab
=
R
123
R
4
R
123
+R
4
=
(57.5 Ω) (70 Ω)
57.5 Ω + 70 Ω
= 31.5686 Ω.
or combining the above steps, the equivalent
resistance is
R
ab
=
_
R
1
R
2
R
1
+R
2
+R
3
_
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
1
+R
2
+R
3
+R
4
=
_
(10 Ω) (30 Ω)
10 Ω + 30 Ω
+ 50 Ω
_
(70 Ω)
(10 Ω) (30 Ω)
10 Ω + 30 Ω
+ 50 Ω + 70 Ω
= 31.5686 Ω.
E
B
R
ab
a
b
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 12
RC Circuit 02
28:04, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
016 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider the circut below, which consists of
two conducting loops.
C
R
1
R
2
E
S
After the switch S is closed, the current
through resistor R
2
is,
1. oscillating with constant amplitude.
2. from right to left through R
2
.
3. zero at all times.
4. oscillating with decreasing amplitude.
5. from left to right through R
2
. correct
6. Exponentially increasing
7. Exponentially damping
8. not well deﬁned
9. impossible to calculate
10. Increasing linearly
Explanation:
Since the potential drop across resistor R
2
is ﬁxed to be E after the switch is closed, the
current is also a ﬁxed value and the direction
is from left to right on R
2
.
017 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
After the switch S has been closed for a very
long time, the currents in the two circuits are
1. zero through both resistors
2. i
1
=
E
R
1
through R
1
and zero through
R
2
.
3. i
1
=
E
R
1
through R
1
and i
2
=
E
R
2
in
circuit 2.
4. oscillating with constant amplitude in
both circuits.
5. zero through R
1
and i
2
=
E
R
2
through R
2
.
correct
6. impossible to calculate
7. not well deﬁned
8. i
1
= i
2
=
E (R
1
+R
2
)
R
1
R
2
9. i
1
= i
2
=
E
R
1
+ R
2
10. inﬁnite
Explanation:
As mentioned above, the current in R
2
re-
mains unchanged to be
E
R2
, while for R
1
, after
a long time, the current in the circuit tends
to an equilibrium state, namely the capaci-
tor doesn’t get charged or release charge any
more. There is no current through the capac-
itor as well as resistor R
1
after a long time.
Charged Particle in a FieldJMS
29:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
ﬁxed.
018 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A particle of mass m and charge q starts from
rest at the origin (point Ain the ﬁgure below).
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 13
E
B
A
C
G
X
Y
B
There is a uniform electric ﬁeld

E in the
positive y-direction and a uniform magnetic
ﬁeld

B directed towards the reader. It can
be shown that the path is a cycloid whose
radius of curvature at the top point is twice
the y-coordinate at that level.
What is the relation between kinetic energy
of the charge at points A and B?
1. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is the same as it was at point A. correct
2. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is larger than the energy at point A.
3. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is smaller than the energy at point A.
4. The relationship between the kinetic en-
ergy of the particle at point A and at point
B cannot be determined by the information
given.
5. This setup is inherently unphysical, and
hence, any discussion regarding energy is
meaningless.
Explanation:
When the particle has reached point B, its
displacement in the direction of

E is zero.
Therefore the net work done by the conserva-
tive electric force is zero. The magnetic force
never does any work. Therefore the work-
energy theorem, (W = ∆K) says that the
kinetic energy of the particle at point B must
be the same as it was at point A. Thus at B
the particle is again at rest.
019 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
How much is the work done by the external
forces as the particle moves from A to C,
where point C is any point on the path, with
coordinates (x, y).
1. W = q E x
2. W = q E
_
x
2
+y
2
3. W = q Bx
4. W = q By
5. W = q B
_
x
2
+y
2
6. W = q E y correct
7. W = q E y +q Bx
8. W = q By +q E x
9. W = q (E +B)
_
x
2
+y
2
10. W = 0
Explanation:
Because the magnetic force does not do any
work on the particle, the net work is done by
the conservative electric force; i.e.,
W = F
e
y = q E y ,
where y is the displacement of the particle in
the direction of

E as the particle reaches the
point C.
Current on a Cube JMS
, , , < 1 min, .
020 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Note: The conventional Cartesian notation of
ˆı (a unit vector along the positive x axis), ˆ
(a unit vector along the positive y axis), and
ˆ
k (a unit vector along the positive z axis), is
used.
Given a current segment which ﬂows along
the edges of a cube as shown in the ﬁgure.
The cube has sides of length a. The current
ﬂows along the path A →C →D →E →G.
There is a uniform magnetic ﬁeld

B = Bˆı.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 14
x
y
z
B
B
B
A
C
D
E
G
a
a
Find the direction
´
F ≡

F

F
of the resul-
tant magnetic force on the current segment
ACDEG.
1.
´
F = −ˆ correct
2.
´
F = −
ˆ
k
3.
´
F =ˆı
4.
´
F = −ˆı
5.
´
F = ˆ
6.
´
F =
ˆ
k
7. Undetermined, since the magnitude of the
force is zero.
8.
´
F =
1

2
_
ˆ −
ˆ
k
_
9.
´
F =
1

2
_
ˆ
k −ˆ
_
10.
´
F =
1

2
_
ˆ +
ˆ
k
_
Explanation:
Note: The current in wire segment CD
ﬂows in the ˆı direction and the current in wire
segment DE ﬂows in the −
ˆ
k.
Refer to the following sketch when reading
the explanation
x
z
A
G
a
a
Top View
B
B
B
ˆı

ˆ k
ˆı

ˆ
k
B
B
B
The magnetic force on a wire is given by

F
mag
= I

×

B.
The vector

is given by the sum of the
current segments

=
−→
AC +
−−→
CD +
−−→
DE +
−−→
EG,
and this is the vector
−→
AG, (see ﬁgure above).
The magnitude is given by

F

×

B
(ˆı −
ˆ
k) ×(ˆı)
= (ˆı ×ˆı) −(
ˆ
k ×ˆı)
= 0 −ˆ
´
F = −ˆ .
Magnetic Field from an Arc JMS
30:01, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
021 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Consider two radial legs (extending to in-
ﬁnity) and a connecting
20
23
π circular arc car-
rying a current I as shown below.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 15
x
y
I
I
20
23
π

I

I
O
r
What is the magnitude of the magnetic
ﬁeld B
O
(at the origin O) due to the current
through this path?
1. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
correct
2. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
3. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
4. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
5. B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 r
6. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
7. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
8. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
9. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
4 π r
10. B
O
=
2
23
µ
0
I
π r
+
µ
0
I
2 r
Explanation:
Note: The magnetic ﬁeld at B
O
for the
entire path points in the same direction.
The two straight wire segments produce
the same magnetic ﬁeld at B
O
as a single long
straight wire. Using Amp´ere’s law, for the
magnetic ﬁeld a distance r from a straight
wire, we have
_

B · ds = µ
0
I
_
B ds = µ
0
I
B
_
ds = µ
0
I
B2 π r = µ
0
I , so
B
O
=
µ
0
I
2 π r
. (1)
However, around the arc we will use the
Biot-Savart law, where |ds ×ˆr| = ds = r dθ .
The magnetic ﬁeld at at the center of an
arc with a current I is
B
O
=
µ
0
I
4 π
_
ds ×ˆr
r
2
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
2
_
ds
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
2
_
r dθ
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
_ 20
23
π
0

=
µ
0
I
4 π r
θ
¸
¸
¸
¸
20
23
π
0
=
µ
0
I
4 π r
_
20
23
π −0
_
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
. (2)
The magnetic ﬁeld at B
O
for the entire path
is the sum of Eqs. 2 and 1.
B
O
=
5
23
µ
0
I
r
+
µ
0
I
2 π r
into the page or out of the page
Oﬀ Centered Hole
30:03, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, wording-
variable.
022 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A total current of 50 mA ﬂows through an
inﬁnitely long cylinder of radius r = 4 cm
which has an inﬁnitely long cylindrical hole
through it of diameter r centered at
r
2
along
the x-axis (as in ﬁgure 1).
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 16
x
y
r
What is the magnitude of the magnetic
ﬁeld at a distance of 12 cm along the posi-
tive x-axis? Assume that the magnitude of
the current density is the same in the cylin-
der and in the hole and that the currents in
the cylinder and the hole ﬂow in opposite di-
rections with respect to each other.
1. 1.40851 ×10
−8
T
2. 2.33987 ×10
−8
T
3. 4.25256 ×10
−8
T
4. 5.32468 ×10
−8
T
5. 5.88477 ×10
−8
T
6. 7.08751 ×10
−8
T
7. 7.77778 ×10
−8
T correct
8. 8.64532 ×10
−8
T
9. 1.14872 ×10
−7
T
10. 1.19632 ×10
−7
T
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Magnetic Field due to a
Long Cylinder
B =
µ
0
I
2 π r
.
Principle of Superposition.
Solution: Our goal is to model the given sit-
uation, which is complex and lacks symmetry,
by adding together the ﬁelds from combina-
tions of simpler current conﬁgurations which
together match the given current distribution.
The combination of the currents in Fig. 2 will
do so if we choose I
cyl
and I
hole
correctly.
y
y
x x
+
I
I
cyl
hole
r
r
Since the current is uniform, the current
density J =
I
A
is constant. Then
J = I
cyl
A
cyl
= −I
hole
A
hole
.
Clearly, A
cyl
= π r
2
, and A
hole
=
π r
2
4
. Thus
I
hole
= −
I
cyl
4
.
Note: The minus sign means I
hole
is ﬂowing
in the direction opposite I
cyl
and I, as it must
if it is going to cancel with I
cyl
to model the
hole.
We also require I = I
cyl
+ I
hole
. We then
have I
cyl
=
4
3
I, and I
hole
= −
1
3
I. With these
currents, the combination of the two cylinders
in ﬁgure 2 gives the same net current and
current distribution as the conductor in our
problem.
The magnetic ﬁelds are
B
cyl
=
µ
0
_
4
3
I
_
2 π x
B
hole
=
µ
0
_

1
3
I
_
2 π (x −r/2)
.
Thus the total magnetic ﬁeld is
B
total
= B
cyl
+B
hole
=
µ
0
I
6 π
_
_
4
x

1
x −
r
2
_
_
=
µ
0
I
6 π
_
_
3 x −2 r
x
_
x −
r
2
_
_
_
=
(4 π ×10
−7
Tm/A) (50 mA)
6 π
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 17
×
_
¸
¸
_
3 (12 cm) −2 (4 cm)
(12 cm)
_
(12 cm) −
(4 cm)
2
_
_
¸
¸
_
= 7.77778 ×10
−8
T.
Rotating Metal Bar 02
31:02, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
023 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A metal bar spins at a constant rate in the
magnetic ﬁeld of the Earth as in Figure. The
rotation occurs in a region where the compo-
nent of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld perpendic-
ular to the plane of rotation is 3.3 × 10
−5
T.
The bar is 1 m in length and its angular speed
is 5 π.
r
l
dr
v
Bin
O
What potential diﬀerence is developed be-
tween its ends?
1. 2.86804 ×10
−5
V
2. 7.05979 ×10
−5
V
3. 8.13233 ×10
−5
V
4. 0.000141863 V
5. 0.000162982 V
6. 0.00022808 V
7. 0.000252191 V
8. 0.000259181 V correct
9. 0.000461814 V
10. 0.000600358 V
Explanation:
Basic Concept:
Motional emf
E = B·l·v
For a point on the bar, the velocity with
which the point moves changes linearly with
the distance from the point to the rotation
center. So, the eﬀective velocity for the whole
bar equals:
v
eff
=
ω · l
2
=
2πf · l
2
= 7.85398 m/s ,
and the induced emf in the bar is
E = B · l · v
eff
= 0.000259181 V.
Therefore, the potential diﬀerence between
the ends of the bar is:
∆V = E
= 0.000259181 V.
Bar Pulled Through Field JMS
31:03, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
ﬁxed.
024 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A bar of negligible resistance and mass m in
the ﬁgure below is pulled horizontally across
frictionless parallel rails, also of negligible re-
sistance, by a massless string that passes over
an ideal pulley and is attached to a suspended
mass M. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld has a
magnitude B, and the distance between the
rails is . The rails are connected at one end
by a load resistor R. Use g.
B
M
m
R
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 18
What is the magnitude of the terminal ve-
locity (i.e., the eventual steady-state speed
v

) reached by the bar?
1. v

=
M g R
B
2. v

=
M g R

2
B
2
correct
3. v

=
M g R
B
2
4. v

=
M g R

2
B
5. v

=
M g R
2

2
B
2
6. v

=
M g R
2
B
2
7. v

=
M g R
2

2
B
8. v

=
M g R
2
B
9. v

=
M
2
g
2
R
2

2
B
2
10. v

=
M
2
g
2
R
B
Explanation:
Basic Concepts:

F
g
= Mg

F
m
= I

×

B

F
net
= (M +m)a =

F
g

F
m
E = I R = −
d Φ
B
dt
Φ
B
=

B ·

A
E = B v
Solution: It follows from Lenz’s law that the
magnetic force opposes the motion of the bar.
When the wire acquires steady-state speed,
the gravitational force F
g
is counter-balanced
by the magnetic force F
m
(see ﬁgure below):
B
M
m
R
a
a
T
T
F
F
m
g
F
g
= M g = F
m
= I B (1)
I =
M g
B
(2)
To ﬁnd the induced current, we use Ohm’s law
and substitute in the induced emf, E = −
d Φ
dt
I =
|E|
R
=
1
R
d Φ
dt
(3)
Note, we have ignored the minus sign from
the induced emf E because we will eventu-
ally evaluate the magnitude of the terminal
velocity. The ﬂux is Φ = BA. So
d Φ
dt
= B
dA
dt
= B v (4)
I =
B v
R
(5)
Using (2) and (5) and noting that v is the
terminal velocity v

M g
B
=
B v

R
. (6)
Solving for the magnitude of the terminal
velocity v

v

=
M g R

2
B
2
. (7)
Energy in an LC Circuit JMS
32:05, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
025 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider the LC circuit shown below. Switch
S is initially open, and the capacitor has a
charge Q
m
on its plates. At t=0 the switch is
closed.
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 19
L
Q
m
C
S
What will be the energy U
C
stored in the
capacitor as a function of time?
1. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
correct
2. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
C
_
sin
2
_
t

LC
_
3. U
C
=
Q
2
m
2 C
4. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
exp
_

t

LC
_
5. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
__
1 −exp
_

t

LC
__
6. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
_
t

LC
_
7. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
sin
2
_
t

LC
_
8. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
9. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
sin
2
_
t
_
L
C
_
10. U
C
=
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
_
t

LC
_
Explanation:
Solution: The charge on the capacitor in
the LC circuit satisﬁes
d
2
Q
dt
2
= −
1
LC
Q
The solution is
Q = Q
m
cos
_
t

LC
_
where Q
m
is the initial charge on the capaci-
tor. Thus the energy is given by
U
c
=
Q
2
2 C
=
Q
2
m
2 C
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
026 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
What will be the total energy U as a function
of time?
1. U =
Q
2
m
2 C
correct
2. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
_
t

LC
_
3. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
4. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
_
exp
_

t

LC
_
5. U =
_
Q
2
m
2 C
__
1 −exp
_

t

LC
__
6. U =
Q
2
m
C
7. U =
1

LC
8. U =
Q
2
m
4 C
9. U =
2 Q
2
m
C
10. U =

LC
Explanation:
This is just the sum of Part 1 and Part 2:
U = U
L
+U
c
=
Q
2
m
2 C
_
cos
2
_
t

LC
_
+ sin
2
_
t

LC
__
=
Q
2
m
2 C
.
Point Light Source JMS
34:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
ﬁxed.
027 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A point light source delivers a time-averaged
power P. It radiates light isotropically. A
piece of small ﬂat surface is placed at D, which
is a distance r away. This piece has a cross
section A
surf
. The surface reﬂects
1
4
of the
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 20
light and absorbs
3
4
of the light. Assume the
light hitting the various parts of the surface is
perpendicular to them.
r
D
Point
source
The time-averaged energy density hitting
the surface is given by:
1. u = 4 π r
2
P
c
2. u = π r
2
P
c
3. u = A
surf
P
c
4. u =
P
4 π c r
2
correct
5. u =
P
c A
surf
6. u = 4 π r
2
P
7. u = π r
2
P
8. u = A
surf
P
9. u =
P
A
surf
10. u =
P
4 π r
2
Explanation:
Basic Concepts EM Wave
The time-averaged energy density at D is
given by
u =
I
c
=
P
4 π r
2
c
.
028 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
Find the total time-averaged force on the sur-
face in terms of the intensity I of the light at
D.
1. F =
A
surf
I
c
2. F =
7
4
4 π I
c
3. F =
3 A
surf
I
2 c
4. F =
7 A
surf
I
4 c
5. F =
2 A
surf
I
c
6. F =
4 π I
c
7. F =
5
4
4 π I
c
8. F =
3
2
4 π I
c
9. F =
5 A
surf
I
4 c
correct
10. F = 2
4 π I
c
Explanation:
The time-average force is
F = Pressure A
surf
= F
abs
+F
reﬂ
=
_
3
4
u +
1
4
2 u
_
A
surf
= 5 A
surf
I
4 c
Diamond Critical Angle
35:07, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
029 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Assume: Refraction index for diamond
n
diamond
= 2.419 .
The smallness of the critical angle θ
c
for di-
amond means that light is easily “trapped”
within a diamond and eventually emerges
from the many cut faces. This makes a dia-
mond more brilliant than stones with smaller
n and larger θ
c
. Traveling inside a diamond, a
light ray is incident on the interface between
diamond and air.
What is the critical angle for total internal
reﬂection?
1. 20.9248

2. 21.1623

3. 21.9091

Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 21
4. 22.9934

5. 23.4786

6. 24.4182

correct
7. 24.7343

8. 25.7715

9. 26.5148

10. 28.1446

Explanation:
Basic Concept: Critical angle θ
c
for total
internal reﬂection
sinθ
c
=
n
2
n
1
.
Solution: For diamond, the critical angle
sinθ
c
=
1
2.419
.
θ
c
= 24.4182

.
Image of a Cat JMS
36:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
normal.
030 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A cat is a distance d = 15 cm from a thin
converging lens with focal length f = 10 cm.
d
lens
How far from the lens is the image of the
cat due only to this lens?
1.
_
1
f
+
1
d
_
−1
2.
1
f − d
3.
f
_
(
1
f
)
2
+ (
1
d
)
2
4.
_
1
f

1
d
_
−1
correct
5.
_
1
d

1
f
_
−1
6.
d
_
(
1
f
)
2
+ (
1
d
)
2
7.
1
d − f
8.
_
2
f

2
d
_
−1
9. d + f
10.
_
2
d
+
2
f
_
−1
Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
1
p
+
1
q
=
1
f
m =
h

h
= −
q
p
Converging Lens f > 0
∞>p > f f <q < ∞ 0 >m> −∞
f >p > 0 −∞<q < 0 ∞>m> 1
Diverging Lens 0 > f
∞>p > 0 f <q < 0 0 <m< 1
Solution: Using the thin lens formula
1
s
+
1
s

=
1
f
,
we can compute the position of the image
which would be:
x =
_
1
f

1
d
_
−1
=
_
1
10 cm

1
15 cm
_
−1
= 30 cm
MultiSlits JMS
37:04, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
031 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 22
Given: The setup of a six slit diﬀraction
experiment shown in the ﬁgure.
6
5
4
3
2
1
y
L
δ
Figure: Not drawn to scale.
Find the path diﬀerence diﬀerence between
two rays from adjacent slits which gives rise
to the ﬁrst minimum.
1. δ =
1
6
λ correct
2. δ =
1
4
λ
3. δ =
1
5
λ
4. δ =
2
5
λ
5. δ =
3
4
λ
6. δ =
3
5
λ
7. δ =
2
3
λ
8. δ =
1
2
λ
9. δ = 2 λ
10. δ = λ
Explanation:
Basic Concept: Light Interference
E
1
E
2
E
3
E
4
E
5
E
6
φ
The ﬁrst minimum occurs when the six pha-
sor vectors of the six rays in the phasor dia-
gram form a closed hexagon. Thus, the rela-
tive phas angle φ between the adjacent phasor
vectors is given by
φ =
360

6
= 60

=
1
3
π ,
and the path diﬀerence δ is
δ =
λ
2 π
φ =
λ
2 π
1
3
π =
1
6
λ.
Thin Wedge of Air 03
37:06, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
ﬁxed.
032 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Let us do the air wedge problem without mak-
ing the approximation that the index of re-
fraction of air is unity. Let the wavelength
of the incident light waves in the vacuum be
λ
vac
. As shown in the ﬁgure, denote the in-
dex of refraction of the glass as n
1
and that of
air as n
2
. The height of the thin wedge at the
point of interest is h.
n
1
n
2
h
paper
1 2
The phase angle diﬀerence between re-
ﬂected rays # 1 and # 2 due to their path
diﬀerence is given by
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 23
1. φ
path
=
4 π
n
1
λ
vac
h.
2. φ
path
=
4 π n
1
λ
vac
h.
3. φ
path
=
4 π n
1
n
2
λ
vac
h.
4. φ
path
=
4 π n
2
λ
vac
h. correct
5. φ
path
=
4 π
n
2
λ
vac
h.
6. φ
path
=
2 π n
2
λ
vac
h.
7. φ
path
=
2 π n
1
λ
vac
h.
8. φ
path
=
2 π n
1
n
2
λ
vac
h.
9. φ
path
=
2 π
n
1
λ
vac
h.
10. φ
path
=
2 π
n
2
λ
vac
h.
Explanation:
The wavelength in air is related to the wave-
length in the vacuum by
λ
air
=
λ
vac
n
2
.
The φ
path
is related to the path diﬀerence
∆ = 2 h by
φ
path
= 2 π

λ
air
= 2 π
2 hn
2
λ
vac
=
4 π n
2
λ
vac
h.
033 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
If the maximum phase diﬀerence due to the
path diﬀerence is 40 radians, what is the total
number of dark fringes, including the dark
fringe at zero separation along the point of
contact?
1. N
total
= 13
2. N
total
= 5
3. N
total
= 6
4. N
total
= 8
5. N
total
= 9
6. N
total
= 10
7. N
total
= 11
8. N
total
= 12
9. N
total
= 7 correct
10. N
total
= 14
Explanation:
Since there’s a phase change π at the air
glass interface, the total phase diﬀerence is
φ = φ
path
+ π .
Generally, destructive interference occurs
when
(2n −1)π = φ
path
+ π , n = 1, 2, 3 · · · .
Note: When φ
path
= 0, the equation is
satisﬁed by n = 1.
So the above expression includes the mini-
mum at zero separation. Now, the maximum
number of dark fringes, N, for φ
path
can be found by considering
(2N −1)π ≤ φ
max
= 40 + π .
Solving for N yields
N ≤
40

+ 1 .
Since N must be an integer, we arrive at
N = int
_
40

+ 1
_
= 7 .
Dark Fringe Position
38:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
034 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 24
Hint: Use a small angle approximation; e.g.,
sin θ = tanθ .
Consider the setup of a single slit experi-
ment.
y
5
L
a
S1
S2
θ
v
i
e
w
i
n
g
s
c
r
e
e
n
×15
Determine the height y
5
, where the ﬁfth
minimum occurs.
1. y
5
= 5
λL
a
correct
2. y
5
=
11
2
λL
a
3. y
5
= 6
λL
a
4. y
5
=
13
2
λL
a
5. y
5
= 7
λL
a
6. y
5
=
15
2
λL
a
7. y
5
=
9
2
λL
a
8. y
5
= 4
λL
a
9. y
5
=
7
2
λL
a
10. y
5
= 3
λL
a
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Light Diﬀraction
I
I
0
=
_
_
_
sin
β
2
β
2
_
_
_
2
,
where the minima are at
β
2
= π , 2 π , 3 π , 4 π , 5 π , 6 π , · · · , or
β = 2 π , 4 π , 6 π , 8 π , 10 π , 12 π , · · · ,
= 2 mπ ,
where m is the ﬁrst, second, third, fourth, · · ·,
minimum in the diﬀraction pattern.
Solution: The ﬁrst minimum is at β = 2 π,
where β = 2 φ = 2 π, where φ = π is the
phase diﬀerence of the two rays for destructive
interference.
The ﬁfth minimum occurs at β = 10 π,
which corresponds to a path diﬀerence δ be-
tween two end rays
δ =
β
k
=
10 π
_
2 π
λ
_
= 5 λ
θ =
δ
a
=
y
5
L
y
5
=
δ
a
L
= 5
λL
a
,
where k ≡
2 π
λ
.
Beam Intensity
38:06, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
035 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
An unpolarized light beam with intensity of
I
0
passes through 2 polarizers shown in the
picture.
Transmission
axis
Polarized
lihgt
Polarizer
Analyzer
θ
θ
Unpolarized
light
E0
E0cos
If θ = 30

,what is the beam intensity after
the second polarizer?
1.
1
16
I
0
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 25
2.
3
8
I
0
correct
3.
1
8
I
0
4.
3
16
I
0
5.
1
4
I
0
6.
5
16
I
0
7.
7
16
I
0
8.
1
2
I
0
9.
9
16
I
0
10.
5
8
I
0
Explanation:
The beam intensity after the ﬁrst polarizer
is
I
1
=
I
0
2
We use the formula for the intensity of the
transmitted (polarized) light. Thus the beam
intensity after the second polarizer is
I = I
1
cos
2
θ
=
I
0
2
cos
2
(30

)
=
3 I
0
8
Coherence and Slits
38:99, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ﬁxed.
036 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
For this problem, consider a screen illumi-
nated by various combinations of slits and
light sources, as described by the following
diagram:
Knowing that laser light, in contrast to
ordinary light sources, is generated with very
well-deﬁned phase (the laser light is coherent),
which of the above setups will produce an
interference pattern on the screen?
Note: the light bulb emits monochromatic
(one-colored) light.
1. (a) (b) and (c) correct
2. (a) and (b)
3. (c) and (d)
4. (b) and (d)
5. (a) and (c)
6. (a) (b) and (d)
7. (a) (c) and (d)
8. (b) (c) and (d)
9. all of them
10. none of them
Explanation:
Laser light is coherent. Consequently, ap-
Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 26
plying simple double and single slits to it
will not destroy its coherence. Consequently,
both (a) and (b) will produce intereference
patterns.
Similarly, by ﬁltering the light through a
single slit apparatus, one constrains the path
of the light from the light bulb to the screen.
This makes the light leaving the single slit
coherent. Consequently, when this newly co-
herent light passes through the double slit, an
intereference pattern will result. If one only
looks at light of a given wavelength, the pat-
tern will be very similar to that generated by
passing laser light through a double slit.
When the single slit is not availible to ﬁlter
the light, however, the phases of the light bulb
light hitting the double slit are essentially
random. Consequently, any eﬀect due to path
diﬀerences is washed out by this randomness,
and no pattern is observed.
Therefore, the correct answer is (a) (b) and
(c).

φ E = −N ddtB ,

φB =
M E = Fq

U Complete reﬂection: P = 2c ,

d (B A⊥ ) d φB A B = ddt A⊥ + B d dt⊥ dt = dt d Moving rods: d A = v, d A = dt 1 R · R θ 2 dt dt A d Rotating loop: d dt⊥ = dt (A cos ωt) Cutting B lines → change φB → Eind → Eind

Lenz law: Induced B opposes change of ΦB

E=

B · dA ,

Reﬂection and Refraction

S P = 2c

E · ds,

n1 λ Index of refraction: n2 = v2 = λ2 v1 1 Snell’s law: n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 Critical angle: n2 > n1 , n2 sin θc = n1 sin 90◦ Total reﬂection: θ > θc

Mirrors and lenses
1 1 1 p+q = f

Maxwell equations: E · dA = Q ,
0

φ E · ds = − ddtB ,

Mutual: E2 = −M21 d i1 , M21 = M12 = N2i φ21 dt 1 Self: E = −L d i , L = Ni φ , VL = L d i dt dt Long solenoid: L = N B A , B = µ0 n i i Energies: UL = 1 L i2 , uB = 2 1 B 2 2 µ
0

Inductance

B · ds = µ0 [I +

B · dA = 0 ,

0

d φE dt ]

VL = E exp − Rt , L L R C:
R

Decay Equations: d y = −a y, y = y0 exp(−a t) dt V V L R: E = VL + R i, ddtL + RL L = 0,
E i = R 1 − exp −R t L

UC = 21 q 2 , uE = 1 0 E 2 2 C q L C: VL + VC = 0 ⇒ L d i = − C q = q0 cos(ω t + δ), dt ω = L1 , UC + UL = UC max = UL max = U0 C

Ray tracing rules: Mirror: At symm pt S, reﬂected symmetrically through center of sphere, undeﬂected. Parallel to axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F ), f = R . 2 Lens: Through center of lens, undeﬂected. Parallel to axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F ) Image: q > 0 (real), q < 0 (virtual) Focal point F : at p = ∞, q = f f = ±|f |, “+” convergent, “−” divergent q Magniﬁcation: M = h = − p h Refraction at spherical surface: n1 + n2 = n2 −n1 p q R R is coordinate of center with origin at S, with S the symmetry point of surface on the axis n2 1 1 1 Lens maker: f = n1 − 1 R − R
1 2

Underdamped, critically damped & overdamped

Q ≈ Q0 e− 2 L t cos ωd t,

ωd =

1 LC −

R 2 2L

q n1 Two media: M = h = − p n2 h Huygen’s principles: Points in wave front are sources of next wavelets Forward tangent surface is next wave front

Interference
Maxima φ = 0, 2 π, 4 π, · · ·; Minima φ = π, 3 π, 5 π, · · · Double slits: Iaverage = I0 cos2 φ , φ = k ∆ . 2

A C Circuits
Impedance: [Ohm ≡ Ω] Inductive XL = ω L, Capactive XC = ω1 C 1 T ¯ Mean value: f (t) = T 0 f (t) dt 1 1 2 2 1 1 [sin ω t]rms = [sin2 ω t] = [ 2 (1 − cos 2 ω t)] = √ 2 Z≡ R2 + (XL − XC )2

y for small θ, θ ≈ sin θ ≈ tan θ sin θ = ∆ , tan θ = L , d Phasor diagram: A = A1 + A2 + A3 + · · · Ax = A1x +A2x +A3x +· · ·, Ay = A1y +A2y +· · ·

Electromagnetic waves

Properties of em waves: E = Em cos(k z − ω t), B = E c c λ v = dz = ω = λf = T , n = v dt k speed of light: c = √ 1 µ = 2.99792458 × 108 m/s
0 0

First minimum for N slits: φ = 2 π N Thin ﬁlm: φ = k ∆ + |φ1ref lected − φ2ref lected |, ∆ = 2 t φref lected = π (denser medium); =0 (lighter medium)

a c b sin α = sin β = sin γ

Diﬀraction
sin
β 2 β 2

Single slit: I = I0

2

,

β = k∆,

∆ = a sin θ

µ0 µ0 P = ∆U d z = u c Intensity: I = A A ∆z dt Energy conservation: S · dA = d U + PR dt Complete absorption: Momentum p = U c 1 ∆U 1 Pressure: P = F = ∆p A = c ∆t A = u = S c A ∆t

B ⊥ E, propagating along: E × B u = u E + u B , uE = u B ¯ ¯ Poynting vector: S = E×B , S = I = Erms Brms

λ Resolution criterion: θcriterion = 1.22 D Grating: Principle maxima ∆ = m λ

Polarization
Brewster (n1 < n2 ): n1 sin θbr = n2 sin( π − θbr ) 2 Polarizer: Etransmit = E0 cos θ, I = I0 cos2 θ I Unpolarized light: ∆I = 2 0 π ∆θ Transmitted Intensity: ∆I = ∆I cos2 θ 2 I I = 2 0 0 π cos2 θ dθ = I0 π 2

Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page – ﬁnd all choices before answering. along the positive x-axis. EO 7. It covers a quarter of a circle and it is located in the second quadrant. This means the magnitude of the total ﬁeld is E = (2) (2) k q q = 4k 2 . EO 10. multiple choice. 2 a a O QD = q Find EO at O . a similar to the one in the explanation to part 1. QA = q QB = q 3 q O are equal to EA = 2 k 2 . Four Charges in Square JMS 23:03. . < 1 min. EO 9. in quadrant I. V4:1. . EO 6. whereas the contributions from A and C add. correct 2. EO 8. along the positive y-axis. You should ﬁnd that the contributions from B and D cancel. 1. 3. along the negative y-axis. 5. ﬁxed. 7. 002 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A uniformly charged circular arc AB of radius R is shown in the ﬁgure. V1:1. EO 5. in quadrant II. < 1 min. 001 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Consider charges in a square again. is 1. The total charge on the arc is Q > 0. Explanation: Explanation: The magnitudes of all four E-components at a . V2:1. to show the directions of the ﬁeld vectors at O.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) This print-out should have 36 questions. EO = 4 2. EO 3. y ∆s ≡ R ∆θ y ∆θ ++ A II I ++ + x + θ + R III IV + + x B O The direction of the electric ﬁeld vector E at the origin. 8. in quadrant IV. . EO kq correct a2 √ kq = 2 2 a √ kq =2 2 2 a kq = 2 a 1 kq =√ 2 a2 1 kq = √ 5 2 a2 1 kq = √ 4 2 a2 kq =3 2 a √ kq =3 2 2 a 1 kq = √ 3 2 a2 QC = −q Charged Arc JMS . in quadrant III. 6. 4. but this time with a diﬀerent assignment of charges (shown in the ﬁgure below). along the negative x-axis. trigonometry. Draw a diagram. V5:2. due to the charge distribution. EO 4. V3:1.

oriented as shown. positive for electric ﬁeld lines going out of the surface S and negative for lines going in. In this case. Q2 = Q1 − Q2 3. Q2 = Q1 + Q2 correct 2. contains an unknown charge. The shell has an inner radius b (with b > a) and outer radius c and a net charge Q2 on the shell.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) The electric ﬁeld for a positive charge is directed away from it. Qencl = 4. Qencl = 2 0Ea 2 0Ea correct 1 2 2 0Ea 2 0Ea 5. Using Gauss’s Law. 1. ﬁxed. ﬁxed. multiple choice. E 4 Explanation: Electric ﬂux through a surface S is. < 1 min. insuﬃcient information . The total electric ﬂux is ΦE = −E a2 + 2 E a2 = E a2 . Denote the charge on the inner surface of the shell by Q2 and that on the outer surface of the shell by Q2 . 004 (part 1 of 3) 10 points Consider a solid conducting sphere with a radius a and charge Q1 on it. c Find the charge Q2 . Charge Inside a Box 02 24:02. the charge inside the box is Qencl = 0 ΦE = 0 E a2 . the electric ﬁeld generated by each ∆q will be directed into quadrant IV. Qencl = 0 2. Q1 . Qencl Q2 E 2 0a E = 2 0a E =3 2 0a 2 0Ea Q2 . so the total electric ﬁeld will be in the same quadrant. multiple choice. Q2 a 2E How much charge Q is inside the box? 1. calculus. by convention. The vertically directed electric ﬁeld has a uniform magnitude E at the top surface and 2 E at the bottom surface. Qencl = 3 6. Qencl = 6 10. Here the surface is a cube and no ﬂux goes through the vertical sides. calculus. The top receives Φtop = −E a2 (inward is negative) and the bottom Φbottom = 2 E a2 . There is a conducting spherical shell concentric to the sphere. > 1 min. Qencl = 2 3. Qencl = 2 7. Concentric Conductors JMS 24:04. Q2 = Q2 − Q1 Q1 9. a P b . 003 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A cubic box of side a. Qencl 8.

EP = 0 3. Q2 = Q1 − Q2 7. 2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) 1. according to Gauss’s Law. Here. EP = 9.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4. EP = 4. Q2 = point P 5 EP ≡ EP . EP = 4 ke Q2 (a + b)2 4 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) (a + b)2 2 ke Q1 (a + b)2 2 ke Q2 (a + b)2 2 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) (a + b)2 4 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) (a + b)2 2 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) (a + b)2 2 ke Q1 a (a + b)3 Explanation: Basic Concepts: Gauss’ Law Sketch a concentric Gaussian surface S (dashed line) within the shell. Q2 = 2 (Q1 + Q2 ) 5. EP = 6. Find the potential VP at point P . Q2 = 2 (Q1 + Q2 )2 10. 2 4 ke Q1 1. EP = 10. EP = correct (a + b)2 2. r Since the electrostatic ﬁeld in a conducting medium is zero. EP = 7. Q2 = 2 (Q1 − Q2 ) 6. which passes through P . EP = 5. VP = 2 ke Q1 a+b = Q2 + Q1 . 4 π r 2 EP = EP = Q1 0 =0 Q2 = −Q1 But the net charge on the shell is Q2 = Q2 + Q2 . EP = 8. where the distance a+b from P to the center is r = . 005 (part 2 of 3) 10 points Find the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at . VP = − + cora+b b c rect 2. (a + b)2 006 (part 3 of 3) 10 points Assume: The potential at r = ∞ is zero. ΦS = Q1 + Q2 0 Explanation: Choose the spherical surface S centered at O. Q2 = 2 (Q2 − Q1 ) Q1 + Q2 2 Q2 − Q1 8. so the charge on the outer surface of the shell is Q2 = Q2 − Q2 Q1 4 π 0 r2 ke Q1 = r2 4 ke Q1 = . Q2 = 2 Q1 − Q2 9.

q3 = q4 = +q. W = 5. VP = + − a+b b c 2 ke Q1 10.. −Q at b and Q1 + Q2 at c. VP = 2 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) a+b 2. gives 5. W = 10. wording-variable.e. VP = a Explanation: Using the superposition principle. ﬁxed. 0). highSchool. W = 4. 008 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Two charges are located in the (x. i. trigonometry.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3. VP = − a+b c 2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 − Q2 ) 9. W = 0 correct . q2 = −q q3 = +q Explanation: Based on the superposition principle. < 1 min. W = 4 k q2 a2 2 k q2 a2 −2 k q 2 a2 −4 k q 2 a2 4 k q2 a 2 k q2 a −2 k q 2 a −4 k q 2 a 8 k q2 a2 6 4. VP = 0 2 ke Q1 ke Q2 + a+b c ke Q1 ke Q2 6. Q1 at a. adding the 3 concentric charge distributions. 007 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Four charges are placed at the corners of a square of side a. W = 9. Electric Potential or FieldJMS 25:03. multiple choice. p = (0. W = 6. the potential at the center due to the charges at the corners is V = V 1 + V2 + V3 + V4 kq = (−1 − 1 + 1 + 1) = 0 . 1. with q1 = q2 = −q. W = 8. Initially there is no charge at the center of the square. > 1 min. y) plane as shown in the ﬁgure below. The work required to bring the charge q from inﬁnity to the center is then W = q V = 0. r q Here r is the common distance from the center to the corners. VP = V = 2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 + Q2 ) − + . where q is positive. q1 = −q q4 = +q Find the work required to bring the charge q from inﬁnity and place it at the center of the square. multiple choice. W = 3. VP = − a+b b 2 ke Q1 ke Q2 8. VP = − a+b b 2 ke Q1 2 ke Q2 7. a+b b c Add a Charge to Four JMS 25:01. W = 7. The ﬁelds produced by these charges are observed at the origin.

Vy = − √ a2 + b2 (1) Ex2 = −ke (2) r1 = = r2 = = 2 x2 + y 1 1 a2 + b 2 . 2. 2 x2 + y 2 2 (−a)2 + b2 . Ex = − 2 (a + b2 )3/2 ke Q a 6. so 7 Use Coulomb’s law to ﬁnd the x-component of the electric ﬁeld at p. the contributions from the two charges are Ex1 = −ke (−Q) 2 | cos(θ)| r1 (−Q) a √ = −ke 2 2) (a + b a2 + b2 Qa = +ke 2 (a + b2 )3/2 (+Q) 2 | cos(θ)| r2 (+Q) a √ = −ke 2 (a + b2 ) a2 + b2 Qa = −ke 2 (a + b2 )3/2 Ex = Ex1 + Ex2 = 0. Ex = 2 (a + b2 )3/2 2 ke Q a 5. Find the electric potential at p .98755 × 109 N m2 /C2 . 1. Ex = 0 correct 4 ke Q a (a2 + b2 )3/2 4 ke Q a 3. Ex = 2 (a + b2 )3/2 2 ke Q a 4. r2 = r1 = r . 009 (part 2 of 2) 10 points Let: V = 0 at inﬁnity. Ex = − 2 a + b2 Explanation: Let: ke = 8. Ex = 2 a + b2 2 ke Q 9. Ex = − 2 (a + b2 )3/2 2 ke Q 8. Ex = − p b −Q2 a a −Q1 −Q1 In the x-direction. 2 ke Q correct 1.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) y p b −Q a a −Q θ E2 −Q2 where b b =√ r a2 + b2 a a | cos θ| = = √ . r a2 + b2 | sin θ| = θ E1 x = a2 + b 2 . Ex = 2 (a + b2 )3/2 ke Q a 7.

Vy = − √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q a 8. r 8 +Q −Q a A b C B is The capacitance of this spherical capacitor ke . correct 1 1 ke − a b b−a . multiple choice. The outer shell is grounded. ke (a − b) ke . C = Explanation: ∆V = Va − Vb 1 1 = ke Q − a b −0 since Vb is grounded. 010 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Given a spherical capacitor with radius of the inner conducting sphere a and the outer shell b. A point C is located at R r = . ke b . Vy = − √ a2 + b2 2 ke Q a 6. . a2 + b2 Spherical Capacitor JMS 26:02. C = 5. ke a+b . b a . C = 3. a2 + b2 −Q . a 1 . ke 1 . Vy = √ a2 + b2 9. Vy = 0 Explanation: The potential for a point charge −Q is V = ke −Q . we have V1 = k e √ V2 = k e √ −Q . > 1 min. C = For the two charges in this problem. b 2 ke ln a 2 b . The charges are +Q and −Q. The charge on the inside of the shell doesn’t aﬀect the grounded potential. C = 8. ke (a + b) 1 . Vy = √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q a 7. calculus. a2 + b2 Vp = V 1 + V 2 ke =√ [−Q + (−Q)] a2 + b2 2 ke Q = −√ .. Vy = − √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q 4. ﬁxed. Vy = √ a2 + b2 2 ke Q a 5. C = 4. C = 7. C = 6. C = 2.. Vy = + √ a2 + b2 4 ke Q 3. 4 ke ( b − a) 1.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 2 ke Q 2. where R = a + b. C = 10. 2 9.

U = U = Q2 Q2 Q2 = = d. U = d. 0A Explanation: 1. = 1 1 ke − a b Introduce a Dielectric JMS 26:05. . κ 0A Qκ d. U = d. U = d. the battery is disconnected. κ 0d Qκ 8.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) is The capacitance of this spherical capacitor C= = Q ∆V Q2 A. 0. . κ 0 Q2 κ d. 0. The plate charge is Q. V = 6. Subsequent to full charging of the capacitor. U = d . the gap is ﬁlled with of dielectric of dielectric constant κ. κ 0d Q2 A. correct 2κ 0A Q2 κ 4.506306 A . U = d. < 1 min. < 1 min. correct κ 0A Light Bulb in a Circuit JMS . 2 0A Q2 3. d +Q −Q κ 012 (part 2 of 2) 10 points The energy within the gap in the presence of the dielectric is given by Q2 A. V = 2. . 2κ 0d Q2 2. V = 3. V = 4. 0A Q d .466667 A 2. V = Q2 d. 013 (part 1 of 2) 10 points A 75 W bulb is connected to a 120 V source. 0 2C 2κ 0A 2 κ dA A A The voltage within the gap in the presence of the dielectric is given by 1. κ 0A Q 6. U = A. V = V = V Ed Q = = d κ κ κ 0A 9 Q 1 1 ke Q − a b 1 . 0A Q 7. Now. calculus. ﬁxed. 0A QA d. κ 0 Q A. 2 0A Q 5. κ 0d Explanation: 8. V R What is the current through the bulb? 1. multiple choice. V = 7. 011 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Consider an air-ﬁlled parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and gap width d. V = 5. U = d.

0. 38. V = 120 V. 57. What resistance would be needed to reduce the current to 0. > 1 min. 0. 34.625 A correct 6. 31.3 A? 1. 38. 9. 1.0099 Ω 5. multiple choice. 122.2651 Ω 5.044 Ω 7.7125 Ω 2. 32.3855 Ω 3.0368 Ω 4.4313 Ω . and 10 V = I1 Rtotal = I1 R + I1 R1 Dimensional analysis for I: W J/s J C C = = · = =A V J/C s J s 014 (part 2 of 2) 10 points A lamp dimmer puts a resistance in series with the bulb.705385 A Explanation: Given : P = 75 W . 132. 208 Ω correct 10.5686 Ω correct 2. 33. 0. The current is I= P 75 W = = 0.1779 Ω 7.1429 Ω 6.625 A .3 A = 208 Ω .0553 Ω 3.723 Ω 8.653043 A 8. 37. c 50 Ω Ω 10 30 Ω a 90 V Ω 70 d S1 b Find the resistance between points a and b.6052 Ω 6. 39. V 120 V and so that R1 = V V − I1 R = −R I1 I1 120 V = − 192 Ω 0. 58.9958 Ω 8. 92.561789 A 4.696581 A 10.608182 A 5. 0. 015 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Four resistors are connected as shown in the ﬁgure. highSchool. 0. 0.670588 A 9.777 Ω Four Resistors JMS 28:02. 36. 0. 0.645669 A 7. normal. 45.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3.4127 Ω 4. 212. 120.982 Ω Explanation: Rtotal = R + R1 .

a EB Rab b The parallel connection of R1 and R2 gives the equivalent resistance 1 1 1 R2 + R 1 = + = R12 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R12 = R1 + R 2 (10 Ω) (30 Ω) = 10 Ω + 30 Ω = 7. = 50 Ω .5 Ω + 50 Ω = 57.5686 Ω . or combining the above steps.5 Ω + 70 Ω = 31. = 70 Ω .5 Ω . = 30 Ω . The series connection of R12 and R3 gives the equivalent resistance R123 = R12 + R3 = 7.5 Ω . = 90 V . the equivalent resistance is R1 R2 + R 3 R4 R1 + R 2 Rab = R1 R2 + R3 + R4 R1 + R 2 (10 Ω) (30 Ω) + 50 Ω (70 Ω) 10 Ω + 30 Ω = (10 Ω) (30 Ω) + 50 Ω + 70 Ω 10 Ω + 30 Ω = 31.0635 Ω Explanation: a R4 R12 R3 b 11 Given : R1 R2 R3 R4 EB = 10 Ω . R123 and c R1 a R2 EB R3 b R4 d S1 a R4 b Ohm’s law is V = I R . R1 a d R2 c R3 b R4 The parallel connection of R123 and R4 gives the equivalent resistance 1 1 1 R4 + R123 = + = Rab R123 R4 R123 R4 R123 R4 Rab = R123 + R4 (57.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 9.046 Ω 10. 42. A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junctions connected by zero resistance.5 Ω) (70 Ω) = 57. 40. .5686 Ω .

trigonometry. 2. 018 (part 1 of 2) 10 points A particle of mass m and charge q starts from rest at the origin (point A in the ﬁgure below). i1 = R2 . oscillating with decreasing amplitude. multiple choice. i1 = i2 = 10. while for R1 . from right to left through R2 . Charged Particle in a FieldJMS 29:02. R2 R1 E C 1. 1. calculus. 12 E through R1 and zero through R1 E E through R1 and i2 = in R1 R2 4. Increasing linearly Explanation: Since the potential drop across resistor R2 is ﬁxed to be E after the switch is closed. the current in R2 reE mains unchanged to be R2 . There is no current through the capacitor as well as resistor R1 after a long time. not well deﬁned 9. . the current through resistor R2 is. multiple choice. which consists of two conducting loops. zero through R1 and i2 = E through R2 . the current in the circuit tends to an equilibrium state. oscillating with constant amplitude. > 1 min. 016 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Consider the circut below. < 1 min. from left to right through R2 . oscillating with constant amplitude in both circuits. 5. namely the capacitor doesn’t get charged or release charge any more. 4. inﬁnite After the switch S is closed. impossible to calculate 7. after a long time. the current is also a ﬁxed value and the direction is from left to right on R2 . ﬁxed. 5. i1 = circuit 2. Exponentially damping 8. impossible to calculate 10. zero through both resistors 2. R2 S correct 6. 3. zero at all times. ﬁxed. the currents in the two circuits are Explanation: As mentioned above. 3. Exponentially increasing 7. 017 (part 2 of 2) 10 points After the switch S has been closed for a very long time. correct 6. i1 = i2 = R1 + R 2 8.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) RC Circuit 02 28:04. not well deﬁned E (R1 + R2 ) R1 R2 E 9.

The kinetic energy of the particle at point B is smaller than the energy at point A. Therefore the workenergy theorem. The kinetic energy of the particle at point B is larger than the energy at point A. Explanation: When the particle has reached point B. W = q (E + B) 10. This setup is inherently unphysical.e..Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) Y G C A B B E 13 forces as the particle moves from A to C. The kinetic energy of the particle at point B is the same as it was at point A. Given a current segment which ﬂows along the edges of a cube as shown in the ﬁgure. W = 0 Explanation: Because the magnetic force does not do any work on the particle. with coordinates (x . ˆ ı  (a unit vector along the positive y axis). W = Fe y = q E y . It can be shown that the path is a cycloid whose radius of curvature at the top point is twice the y-coordinate at that level. correct 2. and hence. 1. ı x2 + y 2 . 5. any discussion regarding energy is meaningless. its displacement in the direction of E is zero. 3. Therefore the net work done by the conservative electric force is zero. Thus at B the particle is again at rest. The relationship between the kinetic energy of the particle at point A and at point B cannot be determined by the information given. W = q E y correct 7. the net work is done by the conservative electric force. (W = ∆K) says that the kinetic energy of the particle at point B must be the same as it was at point A. Current on a Cube JMS . The cube has sides of length a. W = q E 3. i. What is the relation between kinetic energy of the charge at points A and B? 1. W = q B x x2 + y 2 There is a uniform electric ﬁeld E in the positive y-direction and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld B directed towards the reader. 020 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Note: The conventional Cartesian notation of ˆ (a unit vector along the positive x axis). y). The current ﬂows along the path A → C → D → E → G. W = q E x X 2. < 1 min. W = q B x2 + y 2 6. and ˆ k (a unit vector along the positive z axis). W = q E y + q B x 8. where y is the displacement of the particle in the direction of E as the particle reaches the point C. is used. . . The magnetic force never does any work. There is a uniform magnetic ﬁeld B = B ˆ. where point C is any point on the path. 019 (part 2 of 2) 10 points How much is the work done by the external 4. . W = q B y 5. 4. W = q B y + q E x 9.

F = −ˆ correct  ˆ 2. (see ﬁgure above). F = ˆ  ˆ 6. F = √ 2 1 9. − → and this is the vector AG . wording-variable. F = ˆ ı 4. Undetermined. F = √ 2 ˆ− k  ˆ ˆ  k −ˆ ˆ+ k  ˆ Find the direction F ≡ kˆ ˆ− ı B B ˆ ı The magnetic force on a wire is given by Fmag = I × B . 1 8. The magnitude is given by F ×B (ˆ − k) × (ˆ) ı ˆ ı ˆ ı = (ˆ × ˆ) − (k × ˆ) ı ı = 0 −ˆ  F = −ˆ . Explanation: Note: The current in wire segment CD ﬂows in the ˆ direction and the current in wire ı ˆ segment DE ﬂows in the −k. since the magnitude of the force is zero. F = −k 3. F = √ 2 1 10. 1. > 1 min. F = −ˆ ı 5. multiple choice. F = k 7. 021 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Consider two radial legs (extending to in20 π circular arc carﬁnity) and a connecting 23 rying a current I as shown below. calculus. The vector is given by the sum of the current segments − → −→ −→ −→ − − − = AC + CD + DE + EG .  Magnetic Field from an Arc JMS 30:01. Refer to the following sketch when reading the explanation .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) B C y D a B A z a F a G x B z A B ˆ −k B Top View E B a G B 14 x of the resulF tant magnetic force on the current segment ACDEG.

> 1 min.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) y wire. so µ0 I BO = . we have ∞ I I 20 π 23 r O I I ∞ What is the magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld BO (at the origin O) due to the current through this path? 5 µ0 I µ0 I + correct 23 r 2πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 2. where |ds × ˆ| = ds = r dθ . BO = x B B · ds = µ0 I B ds = µ0 I ds = µ0 I 15 B 2 π r = µ0 I . Using Amp´re’s law. BO = + 23 π r 2πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 4. 2 and 1. numeric. BO = + 23 π r 4πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 10. calculus. BO = + 23 r 2πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 7. for the e magnetic ﬁeld a distance r from a straight 1. BO = + 23 r 4πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 3. wordingvariable. r The magnetic ﬁeld at at the center of an arc with a current I is BO = µ0 I ds × ˆ r 2 4π r µ0 I = ds 4 π r2 µ0 I = r dθ 4 π r2 µ0 I = 4πr 20 23 π dθ π 0 20 23 µ0 I = θ 4πr 0 µ0 I 20 = π−0 4 π r 23 5 µ0 I = . BO = 5 µ0 I µ0 I + 23 r 2πr into the page or out of the page Oﬀ Centered Hole 30:03. BO = + 23 r 4πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 8. BO = + 23 π r 4πr 5 µ0 I µ0 I 5. The two straight wire segments produce the same magnetic ﬁeld at BO as a single long straight wire. BO = + 23 π r 2r 2 µ0 I µ0 I 6. 022 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A total current of 50 mA ﬂows through an inﬁnitely long cylinder of radius r = 4 cm which has an inﬁnitely long cylindrical hole r through it of diameter r centered at along 2 the x-axis (as in ﬁgure 1). 23 r (2) The magnetic ﬁeld at BO for the entire path is the sum of Eqs. . BO = + 23 π r 2r Explanation: Note: The magnetic ﬁeld at BO for the entire path points in the same direction. 2πr (1) However. around the arc we will use the Biot-Savart law. BO = + 23 π r 2πr 2 µ0 I µ0 I 9.

8.77778 × 10−8 T correct 8. the combination of the two cylinders in ﬁgure 2 gives the same net current and current distribution as the conductor in our problem. 1. With these 3 3 currents.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) y 16 y y r x r I cyl x + r Ihole x What is the magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld at a distance of 12 cm along the positive x-axis? Assume that the magnitude of the current density is the same in the cylinder and in the hole and that the currents in the cylinder and the hole ﬂow in opposite directions with respect to each other. 5. Then A J = Icyl Acyl = −Ihole Ahole . π r2 Clearly. 2. Thus 4 Icyl Ihole = − . 5. 7. We also require I = Icyl + Ihole . the current I density J = is constant.32468 × 10−8 T 5.19632 × 10−7 T Explanation: Basic Concepts: Magnetic Field due to a Long Cylinder µ0 I B = .64532 × 10−8 T 9.08751 × 10−8 T 7. 1.25256 × 10−8 T 4. 4. 7. and Ihole = − I.40851 × 10−8 T 2.88477 × 10−8 T 6. The combination of the currents in Fig. The magnetic ﬁelds are 4 I 3 = 2πx 1 µ0 − I 3 = . 2 π (x − r/2) µ0 Bcyl Bhole Thus the total magnetic ﬁeld is Btotal = Bcyl + Bhole   µ0 I  4 1  = − 6π x x − r 2  µ0 I  3 x − 2 r  = 6π x x − r 2 −7 T m/A) (50 mA) (4 π × 10 = 6π . 1. We then 4 1 have Icyl = I. 1. Acyl = π r2 .14872 × 10−7 T 10. as it must if it is going to cancel with Icyl to model the hole. 4 Note: The minus sign means Ihole is ﬂowing in the direction opposite Icyl and I. 2πr Principle of Superposition. Solution: Our goal is to model the given situation. Since the current is uniform. which is complex and lacks symmetry. and Ahole = .33987 × 10−8 T 3. by adding together the ﬁelds from combinations of simpler current conﬁgurations which together match the given current distribution. 2 will do so if we choose Icyl and Ihole correctly.

ﬁxed. multiple choice. by a massless string that passes over an ideal pulley and is attached to a suspended mass M . the velocity with which the point moves changes linearly with the distance from the point to the rotation Rotating Metal Bar 02 center. The bar is 1 m in length and its angular speed and the induced emf in the bar is is 5 π. normal.000259181 V . 0. 0. bar equals: 023 (part 1 of 1) 10 points ω·l A metal bar spins at a constant rate in the vef f = magnetic ﬁeld of the Earth as in Figure. numeric. 0. The uniform magnetic ﬁeld has a magnitude B.3 × 10−5 T. the eﬀective velocity for the whole 31:02. B in v E = B · l · vef f = 0. 8. The 2 2πf · l rotation occurs in a region where the compo= nent of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld perpendic2 ular to the plane of rotation is 3. m r dr l O What potential diﬀerence is developed between its ends? 1. calculus. calculus. = 7. and the distance between the rails is .000252191 V 8.000600358 V   3 (12 cm) − 2 (4 cm) Explanation:  ×   Basic Concept: (4 cm) (12 cm) (12 cm) − Motional emf 2 E = B·l·v = 7.000141863 V 5.00022808 V 7. also of negligible resistance. the potential diﬀerence between the ends of the bar is: ∆V = E = 0. 0. The rails are connected at one end by a load resistor R.000259181 V . Therefore. 7. > 1 min. 0.000259181 V correct 9. 2.85398 m/s .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 17   10.86804 × 10−5 V 2. 0. Use g.77778 × 10−8 T .13233 × 10−5 V 4. 0.000162982 V 6.05979 × 10−5 V 3. So.000461814 V R M B . For a point on the bar. > 1 min. Bar Pulled Through Field JMS 31:03. 024 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A bar of negligible resistance and mass m in the ﬁgure below is pulled horizontally across frictionless parallel rails.

v∞ = 6. The ﬂux is Φ = BA. At t=0 the switch is closed. ﬁxed. multiple choice. < 1 min. v∞ = 4.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) What is the magnitude of the terminal velocity (i. So dΦ dA =B =B v dt dt I= (4) Explanation: Basic Concepts: Fg = M g Fm = I × B Fnet = (M + m) a = Fg − Fm E =IR=− d ΦB dt B v (5) R Using (2) and (5) and noting that v is the terminal velocity v∞ Mg B v∞ = . When the wire acquires steady-state speed. Switch S is initially open. calculus. the gravitational force Fg is counter-balanced by the magnetic force Fm (see ﬁgure below): Energy in an LC Circuit JMS 32:05. we use Ohm’s law dΦ and substitute in the induced emf. we have ignored the minus sign from the induced emf E because we will eventually evaluate the magnitude of the terminal velocity. v∞ = 3. the eventual steady-state speed v∞ ) reached by the bar? 1. v∞ = M gR B M gR correct 2 B2 M gR B2 M gR 2B M g R2 2 B2 M g R2 B2 M g R2 2B M g R2 B 2 g 2 R2 M 2 B2 M 2 g2 R B T a M Fg a T m Fm 18 R B Fg = M g = Fm = I B I= (1) Mg (2) B To ﬁnd the induced current. E = − dt I= |E| 1 dΦ = R R dt (3) Note. v∞ = 2. v∞ = 9.. 025 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Consider the LC circuit shown below. v∞ = 8. B R (6) Solving for the magnitude of the terminal velocity v∞ v∞ = M gR . v∞ = 7. . v∞ = 10. v∞ = 5.e. 2 B2 (7) ΦB = B · A E =B v Solution: It follows from Lenz’s law that the magnetic force opposes the motion of the bar. and the capacitor has a charge Qm on its plates.

U exp − √ t LC t LC 7.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) C 19 L 026 (part 2 of 2) 10 points What will be the total energy U as a function of time? 1. UC = 2. U 10. The surface reﬂects 4 . U Q2 m correct 2C t Q2 m = cos √ 2C LC 2 √ Qm cos2 t LC = 2C Q2 t m = exp − √ 2C LC 2 Qm t = 1 − exp − √ 2C LC Q2 = m C 1 =√ LC Q2 = m 4C 2 Q2 m = C √ = LC Qm S What will be the energy UC stored in the capacitor as a function of time? 1. UC = 8. U 6. It radiates light isotropically. 027 (part 1 of 2) 10 points A point light source delivers a time-averaged power P . U 4. trigonometry. which is a distance r away. UC = 7. U 8. UC = 10. UC = 3. U 5. A piece of small ﬂat surface is placed at D. 2C t Q2 t m cos √ 2C LC Explanation: Solution: The charge on the capacitor in the L C circuit satisﬁes d2 Q 1 =− Q dt2 LC The solution is t Q = Qm cos √ LC where Qm is the initial charge on the capacitor. multiple choice. U = 2. Thus the energy is given by Uc = Q2 Q2 = m cos2 2C 2C t √ LC √ t LC + sin2 √ t LC Point Light Source JMS 34:03. UC = 5. UC = 4. > 1 min. U 1 − exp − √ √ cos t LC sin2 cos2 sin2 √ t LC t √ LC L C Explanation: This is just the sum of Part 1 and Part 2: U = U L + Uc Q2 = m cos2 2C Q2 = m. ﬁxed. UC = Q2 m 2C Q2 m C 2 Qm 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m 2C Q2 m C Q2 m 2C cos2 sin2 t LC t √ LC √ correct 3. U 9. This piece has a cross 1 of the section Asurf . UC = 9. UC = 6.

The smallness of the critical angle θc for diamond means that light is easily “trapped” within a diamond and eventually emerges from the many cut faces. F = F = Pressure Asurf = Fabs + Freﬂ 3 1 = u + 2 u Asurf 4 4 = 5 Asurf I 4c 20 r Point source D The time-averaged energy density hitting the surface is given by: 1. u = correct 4 π c r2 P 5. calculus. F = correct 4c 4πI 10. 029 (part 1 of 1) 10 points Assume: Refraction index for diamond ndiamond = 2. What is the critical angle for total internal reﬂection? 1. u = π r2 P c P c P 3. 21.419 . u = 4 π r2 P 7. F = 4c 2 Asurf I 5. numeric. Assume the 4 light hitting the various parts of the surface is perpendicular to them. Asurf I c 7 4πI 2. u = c Asurf 6. u = 028 (part 2 of 2) 10 points Find the total time-averaged force on the surface in terms of the intensity I of the light at D.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3 light and absorbs of the light. F = 2 c 5 Asurf I 9. normal.9248 ◦ 2. F = 2 c Explanation: The time-average force is 3. u = 4 π r2 2. 3 Asurf I 2c 7 Asurf I 4. 21. > 1 min. Traveling inside a diamond. u = Asurf P P Asurf P 10. u = Asurf c P 4. 20. This makes a diamond more brilliant than stones with smaller n and larger θc . F = c 4πI 6. c 4 π r2 c 9. a light ray is incident on the interface between diamond and air. F = c 5 4πI 7.9091 ◦ ◦ . F = 4 c 3 4πI 8. u = π r2 P 8. F = Diamond Critical Angle 35:07.1623 3. u = 4 π r2 Explanation: Basic Concepts EM Wave The time-averaged energy density at D is given by I P u= = . F = 4 c 1.

multiple choice. 2. 1 1 − f d 1 1 − d f d 2 −1 −1 correct correct 1 1 (f ) + (d ) 1 7. f −d f 3. 22. 6. 1 2 1 2 (f ) + (d ) −1 x= 1 1 − f d −1 −1 1 1 = − 10 cm 15 cm = 30 cm MultiSlits JMS 37:04. s s f we can compute the position of the image which would be: lens How far from the lens is the image of the cat due only to this lens? 1 1 1. wording-variable. + f d 1 2. Image of a Cat JMS 36:02.4182 7. 24.4182 ◦ . normal. d Diverging Lens Solution: Using the thin lens formula 1 1 1 + = . 25. 2 2 + d f −1 Explanation: Basic Concepts: 1 1 1 h q + = m= =− p q f h p Converging Lens f >0 ∞ >p> f f >p> 0 ∞ >p> 0 f < q < ∞ 0 > m > −∞ −∞ < q < 0 ∞ > m > 1 0>f f <q< 0 0 <m< 1 θc = 24.1446 ◦ Explanation: Basic Concept: Critical angle θc for total internal reﬂection n2 sin θc = . d−f 2 8. 5. d + f 10. 26. trigonometry. n1 Solution: For diamond.4786 6.7343 8. multiple choice. 24.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4.9934 5. trigonometry. 031 (part 1 of 1) 10 points .7715 9. the critical angle sin θc = 1 . 28. < 1 min. 10. 030 (part 1 of 1) 10 points A cat is a distance d = 15 cm from a thin converging lens with focal length f = 10 cm.419 2 2 − f d −1 9.5148 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 21 4. 23. > 1 min.

> 1 min. δ = 6. denote the index of refraction of the glass as n1 and that of air as n2 . The height of the thin wedge at the point of interest is h. δ = 7. multiple choice. ﬁxed. δ = 2 λ 10.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) Given: The setup of a six slit diﬀraction experiment shown in the ﬁgure. 1 2 3 4 5 6 δ L Figure: Not drawn to scale. δ = 8. δ = 1 λ correct 6 1 λ 4 1 λ 5 2 λ 5 3 λ 4 3 λ 5 2 λ 3 1 λ 2 E6 E1 E2 φ y E5 E4 E3 22 The ﬁrst minimum occurs when the six phasor vectors of the six rays in the phasor diagram form a closed hexagon. the relative phas angle φ between the adjacent phasor vectors is given by φ= 360◦ 1 = 60 ◦ = π . δ = 4. 2π 2π 3 6 9. δ = 2. δ = λ Thin Wedge of Air 03 37:06. Thus. δ = 5. 1. Find the path diﬀerence diﬀerence between two rays from adjacent slits which gives rise to the ﬁrst minimum. calculus. As shown in the ﬁgure. δ = 3. 032 (part 1 of 2) 10 points Let us do the air wedge problem without making the approximation that the index of refraction of air is unity. 6 3 and the path diﬀerence δ is δ= λ λ 1 1 φ= π = λ. Let the wavelength of the incident light waves in the vacuum be λvac . 1 2 n1 h n2 paper Explanation: Basic Concept: Light Interference The phase angle diﬀerence between reﬂected rays # 1 and # 2 due to their path diﬀerence is given by .

multiple choice. λvac 2 π n1 7. λvac Note: When φpath = 0. n2 λvac 2 π n2 6. correct λvac 4π 5. Ntotal = 8 5. φpath = h. φpath = h. n1 λvac 2π 10. the maximum number of dark fringes. φpath = h. 2π 033 (part 2 of 2) 10 points If the maximum phase diﬀerence due to the path diﬀerence is 40 radians. 034 (part 1 of 1) 10 points . φpath = h. for φpath = 40 rad can be found by considering (2N − 1)π ≤ φmax = 40 + π . > 1 min. Ntotal = 7 correct 10. Now. Ntotal = 12 9. 3 · · · .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 4π h. Ntotal = 13 2. Ntotal = 5 Since N must be an integer. n = 1. n1 λvac 4 π n1 2. The φpath is related to the path diﬀerence ∆ = 2 h by φpath = 2 π ∆ λair 2 h n2 = 2π λvac 4 π n2 = h. we arrive at N = int 40 +1 2π = 7. n2 3. n2 λvac 4 π n2 4. Dark Fringe Position 38:02. the total phase diﬀerence is φ = φpath + π . Ntotal = 14 23 Explanation: Since there’s a phase change π at the air glass interface. including the dark fringe at zero separation along the point of contact? 1. Ntotal = 10 7. φpath = λair = λvac . 2. Ntotal = 11 8. λvac 4 π n1 3. Ntotal = 9 6. Solving for N yields N≤ 40 + 1. φpath = h. n2 λvac Explanation: The wavelength in air is related to the wavelength in the vacuum by 1. So the above expression includes the minimum at zero separation. φpath = h . trigonometry. Generally. the equation is satisﬁed by n = 1. wording-variable. destructive interference occurs when (2n − 1)π = φpath + π . φpath = n2 λvac 2π 9. N . what is the total number of dark fringes. φpath = h. Ntotal = 6 4. 8. φpath = h. λvac 2 π n1 h.

g. 035 (part 1 of 1) 10 points An unpolarized light beam with intensity of I0 passes through 2 polarizers shown in the picture.what is the beam intensity after the second polarizer? 1. minimum in the diﬀraction pattern. 5 π . 4 π . fourth. y5 = 2 a λL 5. y5 = 2 a 9 λL 7. 6 π . y5 = 2 a λL 8. third. λL correct a 11 λ L 2. Unpolarized light Polarizer E0 Analyzer θ Polarized lihgt E 0 cos θ Transmission axis If θ = 30◦ . ﬁxed. where β = 2 φ = 2 π. y5 = 3 a Explanation: Basic Concepts: Light Diﬀraction   β 2 sin I  2 . a 2π . 6 π . 12 π . where the ﬁfth minimum occurs. < 1 min. Consider the setup of a single slit experiment. y5 = 4 a 7 λL 9. calculus. = β  I0 2 where the minima are at β = π . where φ = π is the phase diﬀerence of the two rays for destructive interference. sin θ = tan θ . 1. second. · · · . 2 π . The ﬁfth minimum occurs at β = 10 π. y5 = 2 a λL 10. y5 = 7 a 15 λ L 6. or 2 β = 2 π . 3 π . y5 = 6 a 13 λ L 4. 8 π .. 10 π . 24 S1 a θ ×15 where m is the ﬁrst. e. · · · . λ β k where k ≡ Beam Intensity 38:06. multiple choice. y5 = 5 δ= = 10 π 2π λ = 5λ δ θ= a y5 = L δ y5 = L a λL =5 . y5 = 2 a λL 3. which corresponds to a path diﬀerence δ between two end rays S2 L viewing screen y5 Determine the height y5 . Solution: The ﬁrst minimum is at β = 2 π. = 2mπ. 4 π . 1 I0 16 .Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) Hint: Use a small angle approximation. · · ·.

(a) and (c) 6. ﬁxed. (c) and (d) We use the formula for the intensity of the transmitted (polarized) light. I0 2 9 9. which of the above setups will produce an interference pattern on the screen? Note: the light bulb emits monochromatic (one-colored) light. 1. ap- . < 1 min. I0 16 1 5. (a) and (b) 3.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) 3 2. trigonometry. (a) (c) and (d) Coherence and Slits 38:99. Consequently. I0 16 7 7. multiple choice. (a) (b) and (c) correct 2. I0 correct 8 1 3. I0 8 3 4. I0 8 Explanation: The beam intensity after the ﬁrst polarizer is I1 = I0 2 25 Knowing that laser light. (b) (c) and (d) 9. I0 16 5 10. all of them 10. I0 16 1 8. is generated with very well-deﬁned phase (the laser light is coherent). I0 4 5 6. (a) (b) and (d) 7. consider a screen illuminated by various combinations of slits and light sources. (b) and (d) 5. Thus the beam intensity after the second polarizer is I = I1 cos2 θ I0 = cos2 (30◦ ) 2 3 I0 = 8 4. in contrast to ordinary light sources. 036 (part 1 of 1) 10 points For this problem. as described by the following diagram: 8. none of them Explanation: Laser light is coherent.

26 . When the single slit is not availible to ﬁlter the light. Consequently. Therefore. Similarly. however. If one only looks at light of a given wavelength. and no pattern is observed. one constrains the path of the light from the light bulb to the screen. the correct answer is (a) (b) and (c). the phases of the light bulb light hitting the double slit are essentially random. This makes the light leaving the single slit coherent.Version 001 – Final 1 – Chih Kang Shih (56615) plying simple double and single slits to it will not destroy its coherence. by ﬁltering the light through a single slit apparatus. the pattern will be very similar to that generated by passing laser light through a double slit. an intereference pattern will result. both (a) and (b) will produce intereference patterns. when this newly coherent light passes through the double slit. Consequently. Consequently. any eﬀect due to path diﬀerences is washed out by this randomness.