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An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks

Corresponding Author

Ming Zhang Department of Electronic Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lian yungang, China,zhangming@hhit.edu.cn

doi:10.4156/jcit.vol6. issue3.2

Abstract

Nodes in most wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are powered by batteries with limited energy. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network.In this paper, an novel energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability(EBDRP-P) is proposed,which is able to prolong network lifetime and balance energy consumption between cluster heads. We introduce the typical energy model to compute energy consumption and state conversion to reduce energy consumption. In addition,we use residual energy,distance and neighbor cluster head number to compute probability of a head becomes the next hop,then reference the ideas of minimum cost spanning routing tree to constructure dynamic routing,namely,always select the maximum probability head as the next hop,which can balance the energy consumption between cluster heads and to prolong network lifetime.Further, simulation experiments are conducted to compare the EBDRP-P with some wellknown clustering algorithms and simulation results show that the proposed methods overcomes the existing methods in the aspects of energy consumption and network lifetime in wireless sensor networks.

Dynamic Clustering, Probability

1. Introduction

A wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is composed of a large number of small-scale sensor nodes which have abilities of perception, calculation,and wireless communication. Each sensor node is composed of a sensor, processor, memory, transceiver, location measurement system, and battery. A sensor node not only collects and transmits data but also performs a routing function which transmits received data to another node[1].WSNs is a novel technology which has attracted great attention both from the academia and industries. With the rapid development of WSN during these several decades, the technology has found its significant potential use in various fields[2]: such as reconnaissance, disaster relief, intelligent transportation, surveillance, environmental monitoring,healthcare, target tracking, and more and are connected by a wireless interface. Each node needs a battery as a source of energy which is undesirable, even impossible to be recharged or replaced.Therefore, improving the energy efciency and maximizing the networking lifetime are the major challenges in sensor networks[3]. In wireless sensor networks, minimization of energy consumption is considered a major performance criterion to provide maximum network lifetime. When considering energy conservation, routing protocols should also be designed to achieve fault tolerance in communications[4]..Generally, there are two basic approaches to the problem of saving energy in WSN. The first one is scheduling some sensor nodes to go into an active mode while enabling the other sensor nodes to go into a lowpower sleeping mode [5]. The second approach is to select the optimization routing algorithm, eliminating redundant energy consumption. In recent years, many algorithms mainly focus on the energy balance of the nodes to prolong the lifetime. Directed diffusion (DD)[6] periodic automatic forms the enhanced path, because of node energy and topology changes,the enhanced path will be different in different period, the most of data from the source to the cluster is transmited by the enhanced path, thus reduce the energy consumption of non-enhanced nodes. Threshold sensitive energy efficient sensor network protocol (TEEN)[7] is designed for responsive applications ,it determine whether to send data by setting up a reasonable soft

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An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Volume 6, Number 3. March 2011

and hard threshold to compare with the monitoring data.it only transmit the interest information to users to effectively reduces the network traffic and thus reduce network energy consumption.Energy equivalence routing algorithm (EER) propose a method to balance energy consumption and keep approximate network wide energy equivalence by replacing heavily dissipated nodes with their unused or less used neighbors, but they do not consider minimum hop and then do not keep routes optimal [8].Distributed algorithms to form sparse topologies containing minimum-energy routes were proposed in [9,10]. An approximate approach based on discretization of the coverage region of a node into cones was described in [11].All the above mentioned works focused on minimizing the total energy consumption of the network. However, as pointed out in [12], this can lead to some nodes in the network being drained out of energy very quickly. Hence instead of trying to minimize the total energy consumption, routing to maximize the network lifetime was considered in [11], [12]. A distributed iterative algorithms for the computation of the maximum lifetime routing flow were described in [13]. Each iteration involved a bisection search on the network lifetime, and the solution of a max-flow problem to check the feasibility of the network lifetime. The complexity of the algorithm was shown to be polynomial in the number of nodes in the special case of one source node.The problem was formulated as a linear program, and heuristics we proposed to select routes in a distributed manner to maximize the network lifetime. However, as illustrated in these papers, these heuristics do not always lead to selection of routes that are globally optimum

2. System model

2.1. Network model

In this paper, we consider the wireless sensor networks where N nodes in field A are homogenous and energy constrained and the sensor network has the following properties [14]: (1) This network is a static densely deployed network. It means a large number of sensor nodes are densely deployed in a two-dimensional geographic space, forming a network and these nodes do not move any more after deployment. (2) There exists only one Sink node, which is deployed at a xed place outside the WSNS. (3) The energy of sensor nodes cannot be recharged. It means sensor node will die if its energy be exhausted. (4) Sensor nodes are location-aware, i.e. sensor node can get its location information through other mechanisms such as GPS or position algorithms (in order to describe the position of node uses (Xi,Yj) ,the Sink node as (Xsink,Ysink)). (5) The radio power can be controlled, i.e., a node can vary its transmission power depending on the distance to the receiver [15]. (6)The whole area has been divided into many small fields,namely,clusers,the cluster heads has been constructured through energy efficient methods. (7) Each sink stores a table containing (head, location,residual energy) pairs (IDhead, (Xi,Yi),Er(i)) of all the neighbor heads,and each head stores a table(sink,neighbor,location,residual energy) pairs (sink, Idneighbor-head, (Xi,Yi),Er(i)).

We adopt a simplified power model of radio communication in document [16], namely, in order to send a k-bit packet information and the sending distance is di,j, the sending energy consumption is

The distance of node I and node j is di,j:

(1)

| di , j | ( xi xj ) 2 ( yi yj ) 2

(2)

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An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Volume 6, Number 3. March 2011

ERx (k ) Eelec k

(3)

Where Eelec is the energy/bit consumed by the sender and receiver electronics, J/bit, Eelec=50nJj/bit,. amp is the J/(bitm2), amp =100pJ/bit/m2.We commonly assume that the sending distance and d2 is directly proportional for shorter distance, while the sending distance and d4 is directly proportional for longer distance, so we can see the directly sending to long distance is consumed more energy than multi-hop sending. So the residual energy of cluster head is:

E r (i ) E r (i )

E

n 1

n1

Tx

( kn, d n)

ln2

E R x ( k l ), n1, n 2 N

(4)

l 1

Where n1,n2 are the cluster head respectively sending and receiving times before time Ti

The energy dissipation in wireless sensor networks has three models: sensor model; procession model;wireless radio model [18],there are five operation modes: sleeping; sensing; receiving; transmitting;listening.

In order to prolong network lifetime and balance energy consumption,in this section,we adopt a method which including redisual energy,distance,and neighbor cluster heads number to compute the probability of a head as next top in the routing. The detail description is illustrates as follow: In the initialization phase,sink node broadcasts a clustering information which inclueds ID,location etc,when a head receives it then store this information,respone its ID,location etc to sink and transmits to its neighbor heads,so after some time,the undirected graph G (V,E) will be constructured ,where V is the set of heads and sink , and E is the set of edges.In order to maximize lifetime and balance the energy consumption for all heads,we introduce a probability to form a dynamic minimum routing,the formula (5)shows a head weight and formula (6)shows the probability of a head becomes next top in the routing:.

w eig h t ( i , j ) E r ( i ) di,

(5)

N u m (T )

(6)

Where j is the source head in one round,i is the directly connected head of node j,Er(i) is the residual energy of cluster head i,di,jis the geometric distance of head i and head j.weight(i)is the weight of head i,Neighbornum(i) is the neighbor number of head i,Num(T)is the total number of heads in wireless sensor networks,Probability(i) is the probability of head i as the next top of head j. The ideas of EBDRP-P: it always selects more residual energy,shorter distance and more neighbor heads as the next top.First,the weight of each head was computed, in the case of the same residual energy,EBDRP-P allways select the minimum distance as the next top to reduce erergy consumption, in the case of the different residual energy,it selects more residual energy and distance as the next hop to balance the energy consumption;Second,the probability was computed,in the case of same weight, EBDRP-P allways select the maximum neighbor head as the next top to reduce transmitting tops which can significantly reduce energy consumption, in the case of the different weight,it selects the larger

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An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Volume 6, Number 3. March 2011

probability head as the next hop to balance the energy consumption;so it can simultaneous prolong network lifetime and balance the energy consumption. In the first round,the minimum routing is determided by the distance and neighbor number,but in the subsequent rounds,it will constructure the dynamic minimum routing from sink. According to Prim algorithm, suppose undirected graph G (H,E,D,N) ,where H is the set of clusterheads (hi)and sink,E is the set of edges which connects between cluster-heads,D is the set of distance between two connected heads,N is the set of neighbor number,the process of energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability(EBDRP-P) is illustrated as below: Step1. Initializatio:H1=Sink, E1=null, ,and H2=H-H1. Step2.Some heads which directly connected with sink will be in the H1,such as h1,h2(shows in Fig.1),so set H1= {sink,h1,h2}, E1={(sink,h1),(sink,h2)},H2=H-H1. Step3.Constructure the residual routing:for each cluster-head hk in H1 do : compute the distance(di,k) from head k to all directly connected cluster heads i ( i is in the set of cluster heads which directly connect to head k) and respectively compute the probability(i,k)through formula(56);then,select a maximum probability,such as probability(j,k), which hk H1,hj H2 and e=(hk,hj) E ,but is notE1, then H1=H1hj, E1={(hk,hj)} E1, H2=H2-hj. Step4.If H2 is empty then end,else goto step.3. When one head residual energy is lower than threshold,sink node will implement the EBDRP-P algorithm to dynamic constructure routing. For example,we suppose undirected graph G (H,E,D,N) ,where H is the set of cluster-heads (hi)and sink, E is the set of connections of cluster-head,D is the set of distance between two connected cluster heads,N is the set of neighbor number. In initialization phase,all heads have the same energy,so the routing is decided by distance and neighbor number, we suppose the connected graph of all heads after some time, which is showns in Figure 1,there are three parameter for each head :first is the number of cluster(such as h1),second is residual energy (such as 10w)and last is neighbor munber(such as 4),the value of edges is the geometric distance of two directed head,if one cluster head residual energy is lower than threshold,then sink must constructure new routing.

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Figure 2. The diagram of minimum cost spanning routing tree Figure 2 shows the results of using minimum cost spanning tree,we can see that the residual energy of head h1is minimum,but h1 is very important in the routing tree,the vast majority of nodes transmit data to sink through h1,so h1 energy will be rapidly comsumed which will disrupt the network,and we know that the other smaller residual energy head h5,h8 are also responsible for large transmitting,so the routing will quickly reconstructure.The total distance is 1455m. Sink node implements our algorithm and the results is in Figure 3,we can see that there are small data through the minimum residual energy head h1,and the lifetime of h1 will prolong,we also can see that the smaller residual energy head h5,h8 only transmit small data and the larger residual energy heads and more neighbor number heads will transmit more data,such as h6,h9 and h16, so it can better balance the energy consumption in WSNs and prolong the network lifetime.The total distance is 1530m,only increases 5.2% than minimum cost spanning tree,but the network lifetime can increase 31%.Figure.4 shows the probability matrix of all heads and sink.

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4. Simulation results

4.1. Simulation parameters:

We have implemented our proposed protocol in NS-2(ver. 2.31) [19]. We considered a 600 node random network deployed in an area of 360 X 360 m. Initially the nodes are placed randomly in the specified area. The only Sink node is assumed to be situated 50 meters away from the above specified area. The initial energy of all the nodes assumed as 5 joules. each data packet has 64 bytes, and the others are 36 bytes long. Summary of parameters and defined values are shown in Table 1. The same topology is used for all simulated protocols (or algorithms) like and DD and EER.

From the diagram of Figure 5, we can see that there are considerable difference on the energy consumption among the three algorithms.EBDRP-P has the minimum energy consumption, and with the increase of nodes , the consumption is slowly increase, For EER , it uses a method tobalance energy consumption and keep approximate network wide energy equivalence by replacing heavily dissipated nodes with their unused or less used neighbors, so the energy consumption is rapidly increase.For DD,it periodic automatic forms the enhanced path, the enhanced path will be different in different period, the most of data is transmited by the enhanced path,so the energy consumption is approximate linear increase. Table 1. Project selection matrix rules

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Figure 6. The network lifetime vs. the number of nodes for different algorithm Figure 6 illustrates the relationship between the number of nodes and network lifetime. It is worth to note that as the number of nodes increases DD protocol fail to prolong network lifetime. This is because that the algorithm do not take the energy balance into account instead of periodic automatic forms the enhanced path. When the node density is high enough, only a certain number of nodes are needed to sense the whole network region. Thus, it is necessary to let the smaller residual energy nodes sleep rather than form enhanced path so as to reduce the energy consumption in these nodes and further prolong network lifetime. As Fig. 6 shows, sensor network lifetime almost is linear in the number of nodes in EBDMRP-P.

This paper studies the energy balanced technology and routing protocol, an novel energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability (EBDRP-P)in wireless sensor networks is proposed, which is able to prolong network lifetime and balance energy consumption between cluster heads. We introduce the typical energy model to compute energy consumption and state conversion to reduce energy consumption. In addition,we use residual energy,distance and neighbor cluster head number to compute probability of a head becomes the next hop,then reference the ideas of minimum cost spanning routing tree to constructure dynamic routing,namely,always select the maximum probability head as the next hop,which can balance the energy consumption between cluster heads and to prolong network lifetime.Further, simulation experiments are conducted to compare the EBDRP-P with some well-known clustering algorithms and simulation results show that the proposed methods overcomes the existing methods in the aspects of energy consumption and network lifetime in wireless sensor networks. In the future work, we will study the more effective method to save energy and prolong network lifetime. In addition, we do not consider mobile nodes and propagation delay, which will be researched

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in the future

6. References

[1] Hee Wan Kim,Hee Suk Seo,Sun Ho Hong, Chul Kim, Modeling of Energy-efficient Applicable Routing Algorithm in WSN, International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications,Vol.4,No.5,pp.13-22,2010. [2] QI Xiao-gang,QIU Chen-xi, An Improvement of GAF for Lifetime Elongation in Wireless Sensor Networks, Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Vol.5,No.7,pp.112-119,2010. [3] Xiang Mina,b, ShiWei-rena, Jiang Chang-jianga, Zhang Yinga, Energy efcient clustering algorithm for maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks,International Journal of Electronics and Communications 2010(64),pp.289298,2010. [4] Selcuk Okdem and Dervis Karaboga, Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Router Chip, Sensors 2009, Vol.9,pp. 909-921,2009. [5] Cardei, M.; Du, D.Z. Improving wireless sensor network lifetime through power aware organization. Wirel. Netw. Vol.11,pp.333-340,2005. [6] Intanagonwiwat C,Govindan R,Estdn Det a1Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking [J]IEEEACM Transactions on NetworkingVol.11,No.1,pp.2-16,2003. [7] Manjeshwar AAgrawal DTEENA Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor NetworksIn Proceeding of the lth International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing 01,pp.23-27,2001. [8] Wei Ding, S.S. Iyengar , Rajgopal Kannan , William Rummler, Energy equivalence routing in wireless sensor networks, Microprocessors and Microsystems 28 (2004) ,pp.467475,2004. [9] V.Rodoaplu and T.H.Meng, Minimum energy mobile wireless networks, IEEE J.Select.Areas Communi.,vol.17,no 8,pp.1333-1334,1999. [10] L.Li and J.Y.Halpen, Minimum energy mobile wireless networks revisited.IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC).Vol.1,pp.278-283,2001. [11] Timthoy X. Brown , Harold N. Gabow,Qi Zhang,Routing for maximum system lifetime in wireless ad-hoc networks,in Proc.of 37-th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication,Control and Computing,pp.128-136,1999. [12] J.H.Chang and L.tassiulas, Energy conserving routing in wireless ad-hoc networks ,in Proc.IEEE INFOCOM,pp.22-31,2000. [13] G.Zussman and A.Segall, Energy efficient routing in ad hoc disaster recovery networks, INFOCOM,pp.351-362,2003. [14] Liu ming,Cao jian-nong,Chen gui-hai,Chen li-jun,Wang xiao-min,Gong hai-gang,EADEEG:An energy-aware data gathering protocol for wireless sensor,networks,Journal of Software, Vol.18, No.5,pp.1092-1109,2007. [15] Ming Liu Jiannong Cao Yuan Zheng,et.al. An energy-efcient protocol for data gathering and aggregation in wireless sensor networks, J Supercomput (2008) 43,pp. 107125,2008. [16] ZHOU Si-Wang, LIN Ya-Ping etc. A Wavelet Data Compression Algorithm Using Ring Topology for Wireless Sensor Networks.Journal of Software. Vol.18,No.3,pp.669-680,2007. [17] LIU Mei,HUANG Dao-ping1,XU Xiao-ling, Node Task Allocation based on PSO in WSN Multitarget Tracking, Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences,Vol.2,No.2,pp.1318,2010. [18] Lin Kai,Zhao Hai,Yin zhen-yu,Zhang xi-yuan,Energy prediction and routing algorithm in wireless sensor network,Journal of Communication,Vol.27,No.5,pp.21-27,2006. [19] NS-2; http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

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