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Information Technology, Volume 6, Number 3. March 2011

**An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks
**

Corresponding Author

**Ming Zhang Department of Electronic Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lian yungang, China,zhangming@hhit.edu.cn
**

doi:10.4156/jcit.vol6. issue3.2

Abstract

Nodes in most wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are powered by batteries with limited energy. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network.In this paper, an novel energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability(EBDRP-P) is proposed,which is able to prolong network lifetime and balance energy consumption between cluster heads. We introduce the typical energy model to compute energy consumption and state conversion to reduce energy consumption. In addition,we use residual energy,distance and neighbor cluster head number to compute probability of a head becomes the next hop,then reference the ideas of minimum cost spanning routing tree to constructure dynamic routing,namely,always select the maximum probability head as the next hop,which can balance the energy consumption between cluster heads and to prolong network lifetime.Further, simulation experiments are conducted to compare the EBDRP-P with some wellknown clustering algorithms and simulation results show that the proposed methods overcomes the existing methods in the aspects of energy consumption and network lifetime in wireless sensor networks.

**Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Energy Balanced, Network Lifetime,
**

Dynamic Clustering, Probability

1. Introduction

A wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is composed of a large number of small-scale sensor nodes which have abilities of perception, calculation,and wireless communication. Each sensor node is composed of a sensor, processor, memory, transceiver, location measurement system, and battery. A sensor node not only collects and transmits data but also performs a routing function which transmits received data to another node[1].WSNs is a novel technology which has attracted great attention both from the academia and industries. With the rapid development of WSN during these several decades, the technology has found its significant potential use in various fields[2]: such as reconnaissance, disaster relief, intelligent transportation, surveillance, environmental monitoring,healthcare, target tracking, and more and are connected by a wireless interface. Each node needs a battery as a source of energy which is undesirable, even impossible to be recharged or replaced.Therefore, improving the energy efﬁciency and maximizing the networking lifetime are the major challenges in sensor networks[3]. In wireless sensor networks, minimization of energy consumption is considered a major performance criterion to provide maximum network lifetime. When considering energy conservation, routing protocols should also be designed to achieve fault tolerance in communications[4]..Generally, there are two basic approaches to the problem of saving energy in WSN. The first one is scheduling some sensor nodes to go into an active mode while enabling the other sensor nodes to go into a lowpower sleeping mode [5]. The second approach is to select the optimization routing algorithm, eliminating redundant energy consumption. In recent years, many algorithms mainly focus on the energy balance of the nodes to prolong the lifetime. Directed diffusion (DD)[6] periodic automatic forms the enhanced path, because of node energy and topology changes,the enhanced path will be different in different period, the most of data from the source to the cluster is transmited by the enhanced path, thus reduce the energy consumption of non-enhanced nodes. Threshold sensitive energy efficient sensor network protocol (TEEN)[7] is designed for responsive applications ,it determine whether to send data by setting up a reasonable soft

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we consider the wireless sensor networks where N nodes in field A are homogenous and energy constrained and the sensor network has the following properties [14]: (1) This network is a static densely deployed network. Idneighbor-head. Network model In this paper.it only transmit the interest information to users to effectively reduces the network traffic and thus reduce network energy consumption.2. However. System model 2. this can lead to some nodes in the network being drained out of energy very quickly.11 - .Energy equivalence routing algorithm (EER) propose a method to balance energy consumption and keep approximate network wide energy equivalence by replacing heavily dissipated nodes with their unused or less used neighbors. (7) Each sink stores a table containing (head. (2) There exists only one Sink node. The complexity of the algorithm was shown to be polynomial in the number of nodes in the special case of one source node.e. which is deployed at a ﬁxed place outside the WSNS. location. (Xi. March 2011 and hard threshold to compare with the monitoring data. Number 3.namely.e. i. Hence instead of trying to minimize the total energy consumption.The problem was formulated as a linear program. namely. and heuristics we proposed to select routes in a distributed manner to maximize the network lifetime.neighbor. [12]. sensor node can get its location information through other mechanisms such as GPS or position algorithms (in order to describe the position of node uses (Xi. (3) The energy of sensor nodes cannot be recharged. Each iteration involved a bisection search on the network lifetime.the cluster heads has been constructured through energy efficient methods.Yi).location. (5) The radio power can be controlled. the sending energy consumption is ETx (k .residual energy) pairs (IDhead. d ) Eelec k amp k d d The distance of node I and node j is di. Energy model We adopt a simplified power model of radio communication in document [16]. However.Distributed algorithms to form sparse topologies containing minimum-energy routes were proposed in [9. An approximate approach based on discretization of the coverage region of a node into cones was described in [11]..the Sink node as (Xsink. It means sensor node will die if its energy be exhausted. forming a network and these nodes do not move any more after deployment. i. A distributed iterative algorithms for the computation of the maximum lifetime routing flow were described in [13].j: (1) | di . these heuristics do not always lead to selection of routes that are globally optimum 2. (Xi. in order to send a k-bit packet information and the sending distance is di.10].j.Yj) .Yi). and the solution of a max-flow problem to check the feasibility of the network lifetime. as pointed out in [12].residual energy) pairs (sink. 2. It means a large number of sensor nodes are densely deployed in a two-dimensional geographic space. Volume 6. (6)The whole area has been divided into many small fields. as illustrated in these papers.1.An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology.All the above mentioned works focused on minimizing the total energy consumption of the network.and each head stores a table(sink.Ysink)).clusers. (4) Sensor nodes are location-aware.Er(i)) of all the neighbor heads. routing to maximize the network lifetime was considered in [11]. j | ( xi xj ) 2 ( yi yj ) 2 (2) . but they do not consider minimum hop and then do not keep routes optimal [8].Er(i)). a node can vary its transmission power depending on the distance to the receiver [15].

there are five operation modes: sleeping.in the case of same weight. while the sending distance and d4 is directly proportional for longer distance.distance. Eelec=50nJj/bit. and E is the set of edges.respone its ID. receiving.An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology. Node state conversion model The energy dissipation in wireless sensor networks has three models: sensor model. EBDRP-P allways select the maximum neighbor head as the next top to reduce transmitting tops which can significantly reduce energy consumption.Probability(i) is the probability of head i as the next top of head j.sink node broadcasts a clustering information which inclueds ID.First.where V is the set of heads and sink . procession model. j ) * N eig h b o ru m ( i ) (6) Where j is the source head in one round.so after some time. March 2011 The receiving energy consumption[17] is ERx (k ) Eelec k (3) Where Eelec is the energy/bit consumed by the sender and receiver electronics.the formula (5)shows a head weight and formula (6)shows the probability of a head becomes next top in the routing:.the weight of each head was computed.and neighbor cluster heads number to compute the probability of a head as next top in the routing.listening. in the case of the same residual energy.shorter distance and more neighbor heads as the next top. Number 3. n1. amp is the J/(bit×m2).i is the directly connected head of node j.in this section.12 - . in the case of the different weight.di.we adopt a method which including redisual energy.In order to maximize lifetime and balance the energy consumption for all heads. in the case of the different residual energy. 3. sensing. So the residual energy of cluster head is: E r (i ) E r (i ) E n 1 n1 Tx ( kn.jis the geometric distance of head i and head j. d n) ln2 E R x ( k l ). The detail description is illustrates as follow: In the initialization phase.EBDRP-P allways select the minimum distance as the next top to reduce erergy consumption.location etc.wireless radio model [18].Second.when a head receives it then store this information. transmitting. j (5) N u m (T ) P r o b a b ility ( i .we introduce a probability to form a dynamic minimum routing.the undirected graph G (V.it selects the larger .Er(i) is the residual energy of cluster head i.location etc to sink and transmits to its neighbor heads. amp =100pJ/bit/m2.the probability was computed.Num(T)is the total number of heads in wireless sensor networks.2.E) will be constructured .Neighbornum(i) is the neighbor number of head i. J/bit. so we can see the directly sending to long distance is consumed more energy than multi-hop sending. j ) w eig h t ( i . Volume 6. w eig h t ( i .it selects more residual energy and distance as the next hop to balance the energy consumption. n 2 N (4) l 1 Where n1.n2 are the cluster head respectively sending and receiving times before time Ti 2.. Energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability(EBDRP-P) In order to prolong network lifetime and balance energy consumption.We commonly assume that the sending distance and d2 is directly proportional for shorter distance. j ) E r ( i ) di. The ideas of EBDRP-P: it always selects more residual energy.weight(i)is the weight of head i.

the minimum routing is determided by the distance and neighbor number.if one cluster head residual energy is lower than threshold.h1). E is the set of connections of cluster-head.where H is the set of clusterheads (hi)and sink. Step4.k) from head k to all directly connected cluster heads i ( i is in the set of cluster heads which directly connect to head k) and respectively compute the probability(i.1).then.k)through formula(56).N) . Initializatio:H1=Sink.hj H2 and e=(hk. In initialization phase. According to Prim algorithm.such as h1.N is the set of neighbor number.it will constructure the dynamic minimum routing from sink.E.D is the set of distance between two connected heads.we suppose undirected graph G (H. H2=H2-hj. which hk H1.H2=H-H1.k).so the routing is decided by distance and neighbor number.else goto step.and H2=H-H1. suppose undirected graph G (H. E1={(sink.If H2 is empty then end. Step3.E is the set of edges which connects between cluster-heads.select a maximum probability. In the first round.second is residual energy (such as 10w)and last is neighbor munber(such as 4). Number 3.Constructure the residual routing:for each cluster-head hk in H1 do : compute the distance(di.N) .h2)}.h1. For example.h2(shows in Fig. .D is the set of distance between two connected cluster heads.the process of energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability(EBDRP-P) is illustrated as below: Step1.but is not∈E1.such as probability(j.h2}. March 2011 probability head as the next hop to balance the energy consumption.D. which is showns in Figure 1. The undirected graph in one time .the value of edges is the geometric distance of two directed head.hj)∈ E .where H is the set of cluster-heads (hi)and sink. When one head residual energy is lower than threshold.13 - . then H1=H1∪hj. Figure 1.3.sink node will implement the EBDRP-P algorithm to dynamic constructure routing.Some heads which directly connected with sink will be in the H1.then sink must constructure new routing.hj)} ∪E1. we suppose the connected graph of all heads after some time.but in the subsequent rounds. Volume 6.so set H1= {sink.all heads have the same energy.there are three parameter for each head :first is the number of cluster(such as h1).An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology.(sink.E.N is the set of neighbor number. E1=null. Step2.D. E1={(hk.so it can simultaneous prolong network lifetime and balance the energy consumption.

March 2011 Figure 2.4 shows the probability matrix of all heads and sink. Number 3.but h1 is very important in the routing tree.h8 only transmit small data and the larger residual energy heads and more neighbor number heads will transmit more data.An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology. Figure 3.so the routing will quickly reconstructure.h8 are also responsible for large transmitting.only increases 5. The diagram of energy balanced dynamic routing based on probability .14 - . The diagram of minimum cost spanning routing tree Figure 2 shows the results of using minimum cost spanning tree. Sink node implements our algorithm and the results is in Figure 3.the vast majority of nodes transmit data to sink through h1.but the network lifetime can increase 31%.so h1 energy will be rapidly comsumed which will disrupt the network.The total distance is 1455m.2% than minimum cost spanning tree.The total distance is 1530m.h9 and h16.we also can see that the smaller residual energy head h5. so it can better balance the energy consumption in WSNs and prolong the network lifetime.we can see that the residual energy of head h1is minimum.we can see that there are small data through the minimum residual energy head h1.such as h6.Figure.and we know that the other smaller residual energy head h5.and the lifetime of h1 will prolong. Volume 6.

and with the increase of nodes .it periodic automatic forms the enhanced path. The same topology is used for all simulated protocols (or algorithms) like and DD and EER. so the energy consumption is rapidly increase. Number 3. 2. Table 1. each data packet has 64 bytes. The probability matrix of sink and all heads 4. the most of data is transmited by the enhanced path. We considered a 600 node random network deployed in an area of 360 X 360 m. and the others are 36 bytes long. the consumption is slowly increase. Simulation parameters: We have implemented our proposed protocol in NS-2(ver. the enhanced path will be different in different period.1. Project selection matrix rules .15 - . March 2011 Figure 4.so the energy consumption is approximate linear increase.An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology. it uses a method tobalance energy consumption and keep approximate network wide energy equivalence by replacing heavily dissipated nodes with their unused or less used neighbors. Simulation results 4. For EER . we can see that there are considerable difference on the energy consumption among the three algorithms. The only Sink node is assumed to be situated 50 meters away from the above specified area.EBDRP-P has the minimum energy consumption. Experimental results and analysis From the diagram of Figure 5.31) [19]. Initially the nodes are placed randomly in the specified area. Summary of parameters and defined values are shown in Table 1. The initial energy of all the nodes assumed as 5 joules.For DD.2. Volume 6. 4.

always select the maximum probability head as the next hop.16 - . Volume 6. which is able to prolong network lifetime and balance energy consumption between cluster heads. As Fig.distance and neighbor cluster head number to compute probability of a head becomes the next hop. March 2011 Figure 5.we use residual energy. it is necessary to let the smaller residual energy nodes sleep rather than form enhanced path so as to reduce the energy consumption in these nodes and further prolong network lifetime. The network lifetime vs. 6 shows. 5.Further. In the future work. an novel energy balanced dynamic routing protocol based on probability (EBDRP-P)in wireless sensor networks is proposed. which will be researched .An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology. In addition. simulation experiments are conducted to compare the EBDRP-P with some well-known clustering algorithms and simulation results show that the proposed methods overcomes the existing methods in the aspects of energy consumption and network lifetime in wireless sensor networks. We introduce the typical energy model to compute energy consumption and state conversion to reduce energy consumption.namely. The energy consumption of different algorithm Figure 6. In addition. only a certain number of nodes are needed to sense the whole network region. we do not consider mobile nodes and propagation delay. Number 3. When the node density is high enough. we will study the more effective method to save energy and prolong network lifetime. Conclusions and Future Work This paper studies the energy balanced technology and routing protocol.which can balance the energy consumption between cluster heads and to prolong network lifetime. Thus.then reference the ideas of minimum cost spanning routing tree to constructure dynamic routing. This is because that the algorithm do not take the energy balance into account instead of periodic automatic forms the enhanced path. It is worth to note that as the number of nodes increases DD protocol fail to prolong network lifetime. sensor network lifetime almost is linear in the number of nodes in EBDMRP-P. the number of nodes for different algorithm Figure 6 illustrates the relationship between the number of nodes and network lifetime.

Vol. [18] Lin Kai.et.Halpen. Chul Kim.Sun Ho Hong.2004. [16] ZHOU Si-Wang.isi. Improving wireless sensor network lifetime through power aware organization. [19] NS-2.Estdn D，et a1．Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking [J]．IEEE／ACM Transactions on Networking，Vol.2010.289–298. Iyengar . No.pp.2008.in Proc.2.of 37-th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication. Netw.Li and J.vol.Areas Communi. [10] L. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications. An energy-efﬁcient protocol for data gathering and aggregation in wireless sensor networks. Minimum energy mobile wireless networks revisited. Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences.No.5.2003.1999. Harold N.2. [9] V. Gabow.Chang and L.1.Yin zhen-yu.QIU Chen-xi.IEEE INFOCOM.Rodoaplu and T.18.pp.No.1999. Sensors 2009. Node Task Allocation based on PSO in WSN Multitarget Tracking.21-27.Govindan R. J Supercomput (2008) 43.no 8.No.H.No. [6] Intanagonwiwat C.pp.pp.pp.351-362. Energy efﬁcient clustering algorithm for maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Router Chip.2005.5.Chen li-jun. Zhang Yinga. Energy equivalence routing in wireless sensor networks.pp.11. Vol. Du. March 2011 in the future 6..2010.Vol.2007. Minimum energy mobile wireless networks.11.4. Rajgopal Kannan .5.pp.pp. Energy efficient routing in ad hoc disaster recovery networks.17.. References [1] Hee Wan Kim.2003.2001. [14] Liu ming.2-16.pp.b. S. Modeling of Energy-efficient Applicable Routing Algorithm in WSN.7.No.edu/nsnam/ns/.pp. [4] Selcuk Okdem and Dervis Karaboga. IEEE J. [2] QI Xiao-gang. William Rummler.HUANG Dao-ping1. Journal of Convergence Information Technology.pp.Vol. Wirel.al.2010.3.S.pp. An Improvement of GAF for Lifetime Elongation in Wireless Sensor Networks. 909-921.27.pp.Journal of Software.Hee Suk Seo. LIN Ya-Ping etc.1318.pp.Journal of Communication.22-31. [13] G.International Journal of Electronics and Communications 2010(64).in Proc.1.pp. [15] Ming Liu · Jiannong Cao · Yuan Zheng. [11] Timthoy X.2000. [12] J.Meng.17 - .Z.18.23-27. Brown . Number 3. [5] Cardei. INFOCOM.333-340.Energy prediction and routing algorithm in wireless sensor network. Vol.467–475.2010.Control and Computing.Routing for maximum system lifetime in wireless ad-hoc networks.Gong hai-gang. [17] LIU Mei.Journal of Software.XU Xiao-ling.Vol.1333-1334.2001.Chen gui-hai. D.pp.Zhang xi-yuan. ShiWei-rena.Qi Zhang. M. Energy conserving routing in wireless ad-hoc networks .Select.An Novel Energy Balanced Dynamic Routing Protocol Based on Probability in Wireless Sensor Netwoks Ming Zhang Journal of Convergence Information Technology.2006. [8] Wei Ding. http://www.128-136.pp.IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC).Wang xiao-min. . Jiang Chang-jianga.Cao jian-nong.EADEEG:An energy-aware data gathering protocol for wireless sensor. A Wavelet Data Compression Algorithm Using Ring Topology for Wireless Sensor Networks.9.networks. 107–125.2009. Microprocessors and Microsystems 28 (2004) .tassiulas.pp.13-22.No. [3] Xiang Mina.Y.669-680.2007. [7] Manjeshwar A，Agrawal D．TEEN：A Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks．In Proceeding of the lth International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing’ 01.Zhao Hai.278-283.H.112-119. Vol.Vol.Zussman and A. Vol.5.1092-1109.Segall. Volume 6.

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