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A PREMIUM ENGLISH LANGUAGE GO MAGAZINE
A Letter from Our Founder
As the ﬁrst year of The Enclave draws to a close, I ﬁnd myself looking back at some fond memories. The Enclave has turned out to be everything I wanted it to be, with some minor setbacks , and some very unexpected developments here and there. When the room started, there was just me, and sometimes my brother for moral support. In a few days, we’d managed to spread word among our friends, and it grew. Within just a few days we had doubled our numbers to four! Then, as we gained members, we started to gain volunteers. Without the help of our volunteers, we may never have le� the proverbial ground. When it became clear that we would grow larger, I began looking for stronger teachers. The ones we eventually chose were Shygost, an excellent teacher, and Ba�ousai, also an excellent teacher. With the advent of lessons from Shygost and Ba�ousai, the room almost literally exploded. Within weeks, the Enclave was the single largest social room on KGS outside of Computer Go. As the numbers grew, so did my ambition. We had some wonderful programs going for a while, and the room gained recognition from some of the be�er known KGS users, including the admins, whom I was constantly pestering with questions. Alas, a real life change le� me with the hard decision to leave the Enclave for the real world for a while. It took a few months, but I’ve now made my return. And I’m so happy I have. Through the Enclave, I’ve met people I never would have, and made some friends that have changed the way I look at the world, politics, the internet, and life as a whole. I’ve passed on learning to people I may never get to know, and I’ve even helped people become be�er players than I am. When I ﬁrst founded the Enclave, I thought I might enjoy doing it for a few months, then I could let it go and it would slowly erode and I would be forgo�en and go back to my niche in KGS and be happy. But instead of eroding, the room keeps going, instead of being just a room where people come to learn, the Enclave has turned into a kind of extended family for me, where I don’t just help people with Go, but I get to know them as people and we become friends. While my purpose in founding the Enclave hasn’t changed, the way I do it and my priorities for it have. I’ve learned that Go is not everything, even if it is an obsession. As someone said just yesterday, ‘I enjoy the game while I make friends.’ Remember, though Go may be a deep road, it is an empty one without friends. And that’s why you, and all of your fellow Enclavers hold such a special place in my heart. I may never meet you outside of the computer screen, but your words and your actions have touched lives thousands of miles away. Thank you all for everything you have done. Here’s to another great year, for many years to come. ~Eric Dunham
2 A Letter From Our Founder 4 Beginner Lessons 4 Beginner Life and Death Object is to Take Control Lessons — The 8 8 Amateur Life and Death 9 Beginner Life and Death 9 Amateur Life and Death Alexander Dinerchtein, 3p 12 From Heights Above — 12 A Matter of Life and Death 17 From Heights Above—Alexander Dinerchtein, 3p 17 Insights 22 Go: A Matter of Life and Death 22 A History of Go 32 Insights 28 A Picture Worth a Thousand Moves 35 History of Go—Sunjang Special 31 A Picture Worth a Thousand Moves 36 Marketplace 30 Marketplace
Go in a Land of Ice and Snow: The Norwegian Go Championships p. 5 Man vs. Machine: World 9x9 Go Championships p. 16
5 Go in a Land of Ice and Snow 10 Future History 18 Man vs. Machine 37 2007 Volunteers and Contributors
From Heights Above: Alexander Dinerchtein, Russian 3p p. 12
The Object is to Take Control
by Lamar Bishop
Within the ﬁrst few pages of his book, Go - A Complete Introduction to the Game, Cho Chikun, 9p, makes the point: “The object of Go is to take control of territory. At the end of the game, the side which controls more territory wins the game.” Many beginners do not truly understand this concept. Raised on a steady diet of Checkers and Sorry, they believe that the object of all board games is to capture their opponent’s pieces. However, in Go, capturing stones that do not need to be captured is likely to be a wasted move, lead to bad positions and even cause dead groups. Diagram 3 shows a typical case. In the last three moves, white has completely surrounded his opponent’s stones. At move 4, black has played a tenuki elsewhere, realizing his stones are dead. Many a beginner would follow up with A and kill black’s stones. However, since black cannot hope to save his surrounded stones, this move is worthless in the end. Many a beginner is excited to see his opponent’s stones removed from the board. But if he wants to win the game, he is best served by playing elsewhere and surrounding territory rather than killing stones that his opponent cannot save. To put this in harmony with Cho Chikun’s quote, white is already in control here. He does not need to prove the point. If he does, he is not only wasting a valuable move, but he is also stealing a point from himself by moving inside of his own territory. The beginner must not focus on capturing stones, as his instinct will almost invariably lead him to do, but realize that it is territory, not stones, that win Go. His restraint will lead to greater control of the board. Such restraint can lead to the difference between a major win or a minor loss. Be careful what you think while playing Go
The board is a mirror of the mind of the players as the moments pass. When a master studies the record of a game he can tell at what point greed overtook the pupil, when he became tired, when he fell into stupidity, and when the maid came by with tea.
The Norwegian Go Championships
Far north of where most of us call home, the Norwegians are pu�ing out record numbers of Go players for their Go championship.
In a Land of Ice and Snow
It was time again for the yearly Norwegian Go Championship. So I packed my bags and got ready to go. There were about 35 participants this year, which was a new record! The event took place at the Informatics building at the University of Oslo, with gobans, clocks and coﬀee for evEvery move must be carefully considered when you are among the best players in your eryone, so all was set for country a successful event. At the last championship there were around 30 participants, which was also a record at the time. Go in Norway is growing, which is great! Most of the growth seems to be comong from the clubs in Bergen, Stavanger and Trondheim. There hasn’t been that much activity surrounding the Go clubs in these cities before, so this is really good news. It’s exciting to see that clubs are starting to form in every self-respecting city in Norway. Even though Go in has been around in Oslo for about three decades, clubs in other cities are still relatively new. There were volunteers scurrying around se�ing up the event, carrying gobans, opening doors, bringing the coﬀeemaker and many other things that I had no time to keep track of. New this year were the gobans; each had an exquisitely hand drawn number, which made it easier to pair up at the start of each game. The Championships started out at 10 am on Saturday. Due to a long trip, the players from Stavanger and Bergen were slightly delayed, so we started out a bit behind schedule, but everybody was in good sprits, still. A laptop was used to keep track of the score and pair players. A�er each game was played, the players entered a win or a loss on the laptop. When all the games were played, the so�ware calculated which players should play next. The ﬁrst day had one round, then lunch, another round, dinner and then the ﬁnal round at the end of the day. At lunchtime most people just relaxed and showed funny Go-challenges to each other. At dinner time, most of us went two subway stations away to eat at some restaurant. The tradition is to eat Indian food, but this year the restaurant we had in mind was full, so some of us ended up at a Chinese restaurant instead. Since a lot of us were involved in
mathematics, and computers or who liked XKCD, many a conversation circled around those topics that night. The second day we started a few minutes past 10. It’s hard to make 35 people meet up at the exact same time, but the atmosphere was relaxed, so there weren’t any nervous breakdowns. It helped that people behaved very responsibly and helpfully throughout the championship. At the end the top players took turns playing for the grand prize, which was being sent to championships in Japan and Korea. For us mere mortals there were also chinese Go books that we had a chance to win, but this was considered a bonus, since it’s not a hard rule that they are there every year. The winner of the Norwegian ChampiOpening moves during a break at the Norwegian Go Championship onship this year was Morten Ofstad. Congratulations, Morten! For anyone interested, the results of the championship can be found at: h�p://norway.european-go.org/norway/ nm2008.txt
Thanks to all the participants and everyone involved, I hope to see you all again next year!
Story by Alexander Rødseth Alexander is a 27 year old Norwegian Go player, a graduate of the Norwegian University of Science & Technology. He lives in Oslo and plays Go on KGS while discussing Linux with anybody interested. Photos by Andreas Oppebøen
Beginner Life and Death
Life and death is a vital element of improving one’s game. Every problem requires the player to kill or save a group of stones. In each problem there is a vital point. The vital point is a brilliant play that will either save or kill the group. Take a look at these problems and see if you can solve them!
White to kill
White to get the best possible result
White to kill
White to kill
White to kill
White to kill
Amateur Life and Death
Tsumego for amateur players. These tsumego are not as easy as the beginner life and death problems, and some will present a challenge even for fairly good amateurs. Some are relatively easy, and some are much more diﬃcult. Either way, we hope your game gets be�er!
Black to kill
Black to live
White to move
White to move
White to kill
Black to kill
A review of projects and future goals
by Eric Dunham
From November 16, 2007, when the Enclave was founded, it has been striving to up the ante and deliver improved service completely free of cost. We have certainly had our ups and downs, with some very high ups and very low downs. But overall, the Enclave has put forth its contribution to Go players worldwide, with a modest degree of success. And to keep that contribution going, we would like to propose a few new projects, and gauge the overall interest. Please review the proposed programs if you have time and let us know if you’d like to join or help make them a reality! The Enclave is dependent upon volunteers just like you who are willing to set aside some time to promote Go worldwide. Mentor Program: The mentor program was an ongoing Enclave project in late 2007 through early 2008. It enjoyed a modest degree of success, and helped quite a few beginners learn to play Go be�er. This id the ﬁrst program we would like to rebuild, as it is the most eﬀective way to reach a variety of players. Any former members would be welcome to rejoin, keeping their previous partners if they like, or ge�ing diﬀerent ones if necessary. The long-term goal of the mentor program will be to establish a constant cycle of learning, as previous students may mentor new players in exchange for what they themselves were taught. Those with comments or wishing to join as mentors or students, may write to: firstname.lastname@example.org Newsle�er: This is the ﬁrst edition of The Enclave, the Enclave’s self-titled e-magazine. The magazine has been a long-term goal of ours, only now being realized a�er months of a�empting to start it. The magazine will provide go problems of all kinds, interviews of professionals and strong amateurs, reviews of strong games, both current and old, articles on go for beginners as well as amateurs, and more. The magazine will be published on an ‘as-ready’ basis, with the goal being a bimonthly production schedule. There will never be a cost for this publication. Anyone with the will and the patience is welcome to write an applicable article for
this publication; however, all articles submi�ed are subject to editing and/or rejection. This is so we may continue the high standard which we strive to provide to the Go world. The long term goal of this project will be to provide a permanent, renewing source of teaching for Go players to learn from. Anyone interested in submi�ing go problems, articles, interviews, quotations or anything else may write to: newsle�email@example.com Lesson Records: Lesson records have been a long-term goal of the Enclave since it was founded, but there has never been a way for them to be realized. At the moment, we are still trying to ﬁnd a way to make video records of our lessons that are both high quality and easily accessible to our members. When we have the ability, this program will be one of the ﬁrst we implement. The goal of lesson records is to provide an easily accessible way to access all past information the Enclave has provided, so that new members may learn immediately from old lessons and current members may remember material more easily. Anybody who can provide video, and is willing to record lessons is welcome to contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org Advertisement: The Enclave is a not-for-proﬁt organization; all money donated to the Enclave becomes property of its members, no individual may use it for anything other than Enclave projects. In the past, the Enclave has made ends meet through generous donations from many people worldwide, but this has become harder as those generous individuals have fallen upon hard times. Therefore, the Enclave proposes using advertisment as a way to help make ends meet once again. Any money made through advertisement will become property of the Enclave’s members, it will not be pocketed by anyone at any point. The long term goal of advertising is to make the Enclave self-sustainable and to help it improve general quality. Anyone interested in advertising may contact: email@example.com If anyone has any suggestions for new projects, or if anyone is willing to volunteer to help with current projects, such as teaching, please contact: administration@kgsencl ave.com
From Heights Above
Alexander Dinerchtein, 3p
Alexander Dinerchtein is a Russian born professional Go player. He is also one of the most-sought a�er Go professionals in the English speaking world. A�er extensive studying in Korea, he a�ained professional status, and a�erward returned to Russia to spread the love of Go throughout his homeland. In recent years, he has founded Go4Go, a website with reviews of professional games. He has also founded Goama, a free newsle�er that includes Go news, interviews with professional players, and game reviews. He also represented Russia in the World Mind Sports Games 2008. We managed to catch him right a�er the WMSG and ask him a few questions.
The Enclave: First of all, let’s start at the beginning. It is widely known that at a young age you competed in both Chess and Go, but as you matured, you leaned more and more towards Go. Why did you make the switch? Alexander: My father, who introduced me to both games, is a strong chess player, but he is only 10-kyu in Go. It was easier to beat him in Go, so I decided to pay more a�ention to Go. Soon I was able to beat my father and was very happy about it. E: A�er you began taking more interest in Go, you studied in your hometown of Kazan, correct? On your website you state that at the time, Kazan was the center for Russian Go, and you were surrounded by many stronger players. Has this changed to any large degree? A: Kazan is still the strongest Go playing city. First of all, Go is doing well here because of our local Sports Commi�ee. They budget good money for the best players and teachers our city can aﬀord. For example, our Sports Commi�ee sent seven players from Kazan to the World Mind Sports Games (WMSG) in Beĳing, their support totaling about 10,000 Euros. We have 2 professionals (me and Svetlana) and 2 players of almost-pro-strength (Ilya Shikshin and Andrey Kulkov). I am sure that we can beat any European city easily on 5-10 boards. E: By the way, how was the WMSG in Beĳing? A: Terrible event. They didn’t even allow us to watch the games played by other players! For the ﬁrst time in my Go life! Game records were not available, you could not watch games yourself, you couldn’t ﬁnd any tournament tables in normal format… It was organized by real amateurs that had never played Go themselves. E: I guess we’ll skip questions about WMSG in the future. In 1996, you and Svetlana Shikshina were invited to study in Korea under Chun Pungcho, 8-dan pro. What were your ﬁrst impressions of Korean Go? Was it extremely diﬀerent than European Go? Or was it merely, as you say on your website, at a higher level than European Go? A: I was about 5-dan in 1996-1997. Here in Russia I was the youngest player in most of the important tournaments – the Russian Championship, for example. When I went to Korea I was surprised to ﬁnd seven to eight year old Korean kids who were not only not weaker but sometimes even stronger than me. Take Kim Chiseok, 4p for example (He played for the Korean team in the last WMSG). He was 7 years old
while we were staying at one Go club. He had about a 50-50 score with me and Svetlana. We were probably stronger at strategy, but his reading ability was much be�er than ours. At the age of 7 he was able to solve Go problems be�er than 80 percent of the Korean pros! Another impression: My teachers spoke really badly about Go books I had studied in Russia. I was impressed by Kajiwara, 9p’s ideas, but they were laughing at him! E: Did you study Go very diﬀerently in Korea? I have heard from many people that Asian Go players are more insistent on form and style, whereas Western Go players are more about ‘the idea’ of the game. Would you say this is true, or did you have a diﬀerent impression? A: I know of only one big diﬀerence. In Korea they don’t use computer databases at all. I don’t know why, but they keep all variations in their heads. The main reason why Koreans are stronger is because they study Go much more seriously – some top professionals never visited any schools or universities. The average level of a Korean Go lover is six to eight kyu. There are plenty of such players around the world. But the Koreans are more aggressive and they are usually be�er at reading than at strategy. That’s all. No secrets or special weapons here.
“...Koreans are more aggressive and they are usually be�er at reading...
No secrets or special weapons here.”
E: How long did you study in Korea? A: I stayed in Korea for ﬁve years in four diﬀerent clubs. E: Who were some of your teachers? Who would you choose as your best teacher? A: I worked with over 20 pro teachers and over ten amateur teachers. Who was the best teacher? It’s hard for me to decide just one person. All of them were very kind to me. E: Having participated in Go events in both Europe and Asia, how large would you
say the skill gap between the two continents is? A: If we played a 100 board match, the score between Asia and Europe would be 1000 or maybe 99-1, if we were lucky. E: In 2002, you became the ﬁrst honorary Russian Go professional. How did this come about? A: It was the special decision of the Hankuk Kiwon. Chun Pungcho, 8-dan, suggested the idea of giving us 1-dan and most of the other professionals agreed with him. We were lucky, actually.
“If we played a 100 board match,
the score between Asia and Europe would be
E: Would you say you are an average Go professional in Korea, or are you be�er or worse than others? A: In my last Go club for Korean inseis I was ranked around twel�h or thriteenth place, but suddenly I became a 1-dan. I am pre�y sure that nowadays there are several hundred Korean kids who are stronger than me, but only few of them will ever have a chance to become pro. There are 240 professionals in Korea. I am in the bottom 40, I believe, but I’m not the last one. I played maybe 15-20 oﬃcial pro games before I returned to Russia and I won about 30% of my games. E: In 2008, you and Svetlana Shikshina were both promoted to 3p by the Korean Baduk Association. First of all, congratulations! However, some speculated that this was a move to a�ract a�ention to European Go, rather than to reﬂect upon your skill level. What would you say to this? Would you tend to agree, or do you believe your rank was earned? A: I feel that my Go has improved since I came back. I also feel that if I stayed in Korea, I could reach 3-dan myself without any help, but what is the diﬀerence? Korean 1-dan players are not weaker than most 9-dans. Dan level is not important at all in
Korea. For them, rating is more important, but here in Europe high dan Go players. get more respect, so I am glad to become 3d. E: In recent years, you have made a lot of steps to help advance Go in Europe and the US, such as founding Go4go.net, thus giving average players access to cheap reviews of professional games, and founding Goama, the e-magazine giving professional interviews and comments of exciting games. What inspired you to do these things, and who has helped you along the way? Has it been a good investment of your time, overall? A: I learned Korean, so now I have to use it if I don’t want to forget the language. Most of the Goama articles are translated from Korean Go sites. Now you know one of the reasons I keep it up. E: You also oﬀer Go lessons, easily available over the internet. What has been the most satisfying thing about teaching Go? A: I think that today I have the largest internet Go school in Europe. I can make a living from giving Go lessons and I enjoy them a lot. I learn some things from my students, too, and they make it so that I have to study a lot myself, so I can explain modern pa�erns to them. E: Being a teacher, may I ask you what you would suggest a beginning student ﬁrst study when they learn to play Go? A: If you want to become a strong player, you must start with reading. Lots of Life and Death problems every day! It’s not necessary to study strategy at all during the ﬁrst few years of playing. If you start with reading, you will easily learn strategy with playing experience. But if you start from strategy you will always have reading problems in your games. Alexander Dinerchtein Alexander started playing Go and Chess as a child, but began focusing his eﬀorts on Go as he grew older. He achieved honorary Korean 1p status in 2002, and in 2008 became the ﬁrst Russian 3p. He currently live in Russia, where he spends his time promoting Go.
Go: A Matter of Life and Death
Because Go players are the only ones who learn by dying OrangeKyo [13k]: you know... the winner of a ko ba�le only gets like 1 more pt than the loser right?
We can all take comfort in this tidbit that Shygost points out:
apotheosis [-]: Battousai: SE says w is winning by 4.5, so bow on knees, okay?
Some scribes are better than others. Here’s an example of a not particularly accurate one: apotheosis [-]: Battousai: just because you have a two space extension, does not mean you are alive apotheosis [-]: Battousai: lots of weak players think it’s true apotheosis [-]: Battousai: they do this dumb stuff, then wonder why they died apotheosis [-]: Battousai: well, it’s cause they were dumb
You get strong when you learn to hate weakness.
classic: You know you’ve been playing go too much recently when you are reading a book and you are trying to trap the words with imaginary stones
Quietp [17k]: if he’s called TheOne, why does he have TWO accounts?
We all need help winning once in a while. Maybe we could take a lesson in Subliminal Messaging: Lynx: In the middle of a game, casually li� up a sheet of paper with “YOU ARE LOSING” on it in bright pink... Lynx: then pretend as if nothing is happening, and put it down a few minutes later.. Mu�ley: no, I think you should say I am going to the your bar group would will you die like a drink too? Have a funny Go-related story that you would like to share? A favorite Go joke? Another lame Life and Death pun that we could pretend we didn’t base this section’s name off of? Maybe you think you can outdo our bad sense of humor? If you do, send your joke to us, and if we like it, we’ll stick it in the next issue! Send all jokes to: firstname.lastname@example.org Please be tasteful, all jokes can and will be viewed by children.
MAN vs. MACHINE
by Lamar Bishop
In 1992, TD Gammon, a computer program, played at the World Cup of Backgammon, and achieved an even record with the best players in the world. Since then, humans have never been able to overcome backgammon programs. In 1997, Gary Kasparov, then-world chess champion, was dethroned by Deep Blue, an IBM supercomputer. That day, chess ceased to be a stronghold of human intelligence. And on other fronts, humans are losing ground to machines. Most board games are already being won by computers. Humans can still win in Scrabble, poker, bridge, and others. But computers are already starting to win those games. The only game where computers really fall short is Go. That’s because Go is an incredibly complex game, hundreds and hundreds of times more complex than chess. In chess, there are 1050 possible moves, in Go 2.08x10170 possible moves on a 19x19 goban. On a chess board, each turn presents just a dozen diﬀerent viable moves, but in Go, this can jump up easily to a few hundred diﬀerent moves. Where chess programs can read some 500,000 moves in a second, Go programs can run only 50 moves in a second. To put it in perspective, a supercomputer as powerful as Deep Blue could calculate some 200 million chess moves in a second, but it would take a year and a half to do the exact same thing in a game of Go.
Therefore Go presents a much greater challenge to computers and their programmers. To even the playing ﬁeld, computers and humans face each other on much smaller 9x9 boards. The smaller boardsize cuts down on the number of possible moves, greatly decreasing the workload for the computer. On a 9x9 goban, Go programs have already beaten players as strong as 5p in oﬃcial matches. Around the world, supercomputers are starting to win against strong amateur players. Soon, even Go will no longer be a game dominated by humans. As processing power increases, and ever more intelligent algorithms are brought to the fore, computers will begin to win even in this last board game. In Tainan, Taiwan, at the National University of Tainan (NUTN), the ba�le was brought to the front in September during the World 9x9 Computer Go Championships. On September 27, MoGo, a Go program, running on the Dutch National Supercomputer, known as Huygens, faced oﬀ against Zhou Junxun, 9p. The event began on the 25th, with MoGo playing against two amateurs, Professor Dong [5d], and Mr. Luoh [6d]. MoGo beat Dong in every game, but lost every game to Mr. Luoh. That same day the forum heard from many speakers, including Dr. Olivier Teytaud, one of MoGo’s developers. This was followed on the 27th by the main a�raction—MoGo facing oﬀ against Junxun in three rounds. In Conference Room B309, in Chengzheng Hall, the movers and shakers of the World 9x9 Computer Go Championships are ge�ing ready for the highlight. The ﬁrst two games will be MoGo versus Junxun on a 9x9 board. As the time draws near for the ﬁrst game, the participants sit and prepare for the game. In front of the computer is Dr. Olivier Teytaud, one of MoGo’s designers, who will read the moves oﬀ of the computer and place them on a physical board. Si�ing beside him is Professor Tsai, who will be the witness for the game. Across from them sits Zhou Junxun, his face drawn into a mask of concentration as he prepares for the game. Across the room, photographers watch and snap pictures as the game begins.
1992—TD Gammon achieves an even score against top backgammon players at the World Cup of Backgammon
August, 2008—Dutch supercomputer Huygens beats Kim Myungwan, 8p on a 19x19 board with a nine stone handicap
Photo by Brian Allen
1997—IBM’s Deep Blue beats chess world champion Garry Kasparov in a traditional match
September, 2008—Huygens plays against Zhou Junxung in a three round match for the World 9x9 Go Championships
Junxun has a lot to think about. MoGo has been playing decently against strong amateur players, not well enough to threaten Junxun, but in those games MoGo has been using no more than half the power Huygens will bring to bear in this match. In these rounds, MoGo will be using the full power of 800 processor cores. Just a single one of these processors is powerful enough to beat the average Go player. Zhou Junxun makes a move during the second round The tension in the room is a palpable Photo provided by the National University of Tainan, Taiwan (h�p:// go.nutn.edu.tw/) thing for the players. MoGo will be moving ﬁrst in this game. MoGo makes its ﬁrst move at tengen. It is well known that tengen is the best possible move on a 9x9 board, so this is not a surprise. Junxun places a stone, Teytaud copies it on the computer screen, and the game begins. As the game goes back and forth between the liquid screen and the wooden goban, it becomes apparent that MoGo is winning. At move 11, Junxun stops and examines the game closely. His turn stretches on for a long time; over ﬁve minutes have passed since his last move. Watchers over the internet begin to speculate that Junxun has already lost this match. Nobody expects Junxun to be able to win against such a powerful computer on such a small board. However, Junxun continues the game, in spite of what people were expecting. At ﬁrst his move looks desperate, almost unecessary, like the last-ditch eﬀort of a losing team. But then, as it plays out, suddenly it becomes clear that Junxun knew exactly what he was doing. Within another few moves, onlookers have changed their mind about the game. Everyone agrees the game looks fairly even. Suddenly, a�er just eleven moves, the game doesn’t just look even, it looks like Junxun has won. By move 36, even MoGo agrees, and resigns. A�er the match, Junxun comments, “In the ﬁrst 9x9 game with MoGo, I was shocked to ﬁnd a�er eleven moves that I had already lost the game. I was really very shocked. It took me ﬁve minutes to calm down and start designing a hamete that the computer could not see and could not reverse.” On the second game, Junxun takes black and makes the ﬁrst move. In this second game, he is much more conﬁdent and almost immediately he begins to take the lead. Within 25 moves, the game is decided. MoGo takes another 15 moves and then resigns. Junxun says, “I took black in the second game, and it was a relatively easy game.” A�er a short break, the matches continued with the third game, a full-sized 19x19 match. Because of the enormously larger workload it will be facing, Mogo takes a seven stone handicap. But unfortunately for MoGo and its developers, seven stones is not enough. Though Mogo has been able to beat many strong players with
eight and nine stones, it seems that is not yet ready to move down to seven stones. Almost immediately MoGo makes a costly mistake and loses a corner. Mogo cannot immediately see that it has lost the corner and ends up wasting precious moves trying to save it. As it struggles to make the dead group live again, Junxun strengthens his hold on the corner. The onlookers are not too surprised. Some comment that MoGo could have kept the corner, but nobody says much else. On a 19x19 board, this is expected. A�er the ﬁrst mistake, Junxun takes each corner of the goban, one by one, stripping MoGo of its lead. Less than halfway into the game, onlookers are proclaiming the game over. And as MoGo makes mistake a�er mistake, they are proved right. Junxun later says that he ﬁgured he had won the game by move 30. Their is an almost nonchalant air about the way that the internet watchers dismiss MoGo as unimportant. There has not yet been a computer program that can challenge a professional Go player on a 19x19 board, and this one is the same as all the others. What many of them are forge�ing is that just a few years ago, Go programs could barely compete with the average club Go player, much less a professional. But, with the advent of Monte Carlo algorithms, that has changed completely. Where computers used to barely manage an 8 kyu level of play, they now are able to average low amateur dan play. As Dr. Jaap van den Herik of Maastricht University said, “This is remarkable, since around 2000 it was generally believed that the game of Go was safe to any a�ack by a computer program.” Mr. Junxun may have won the match today, and he may win in the years to come, but soon it will be much more diﬃcult. Dr. Herik predicts, “...before 2020 a computer program will defeat the best human Go player on a 19x19 Go board in a regular match under normal tournament conditions.” For now, Go players laugh at the prospect. But the next few years may tell a very diﬀerent story.
Many thanks to Dr. Chang-Shing of the National University of Tainan for his help in writing this article!
MoGo TiTan vs. Zhou Junxung Seven handicap. Result: Junxung by resign
MoGo TiTan vs. Zhou Junxung Result: Junxung by resign
MoGo TiTan vs. Zhou Junxung Result: Junxung by resign
Koram [7d KGS] vs. Aguilar [7d KGS]
contributed by Joshua Allen
This is a review of a game played on October 16, 2008 between Koram and Aguilar, both KGS 7 dans. White won the game by resignation. Our reviewer for this issue is Joshua Allen, Ba�ousai on KGS, 5d AGA.
Game Notes: B3 @ q4 B37 @ q11 B151 @ p10 B197 @ r3 B203 @ q11 B209 @ q11 B229 @ r3 B235 @ r3 B241 @ r3 B245 @ g11 B247 @ r3 W76 @ p11 W186 @ q3 W200 @ p11 W206 @ p11 W224 @ q3 W232 @ q3 W238 @ q3 W244 @ q3 Interesting approach. Some of us might take a look at this low approach, glance across the board at the 4-4 stones, and say to ourselves ‘this feels wrong’. If you were a�empting to play this game with a more inﬂuence oriented strategy in mind, that would be correct. White now has a few choices. Some common ones would be A and B, as shown in Diagram 2. Let’s take a closer look at the results of these moves.
Diagram 2 Diagram 1
We can see in Diagram 3 that if white moves at A, we see a common variation. I recommend, if you don’t already know this variation, to memorize it, especially since its so short. It gains black a base without being denied access to the center. It’s one way to se�le nicely if you’re unsure of what to do.
The move at B is also possible, however, as you’re glancing at the sequence to come, ask yourself, why would it be inappropriate here? If you answered, ‘Because white lacks a stone at K16 in order to eﬀectively use the newly gained wall he has created, you would be quite correct! If we look at Diagram 4, we can see an example of the result.
In the game, the players choose standard joseki. Both white and black get some territory, a tiny bit of inﬂuence, while keeping some lingering aji (the cut at f14 and the a�achment at f17) for later.
A�er ﬁnishing up the top for now, black chooses an aggressive approach towards the bo�om, as shown in Diagram 6. If he had chosen a more peaceful variation at B, as shown in Diagram 7, both players would be able to develop frameworks/moyo. Diagram 7 However, this is a variation that black has decided to reject.
Modern (at least to me) joseki. To some, the a�achment at e8 looks strange. Why go through all that trouble if you’re just going to turn around and dive into the 3-3? Surely your moves are wasted at that point? If that is your reasoning, I must say its sound. However, you might notice that white is now ﬂat on the bo�om. Sure, the 2 marked stones are deep in enemy territory (and I use the term territory here loosely), but they aren’t oﬀ the board Diagram 8 yet! Now the question is raised, how does one deal with all that aji lingering from them? White answers most simply by burying them even deeper, Diagram 9.
This is a very telling move. White could have dove into the corner and gained himself some territory. Looking at the board, we see that white is completely without a corner at the moment. So why doesnt he?
A variation like Diagram 11 is why. If white had chosen this, for example, black gets inﬂuence and doesnt really have many other considerations besides reducing the le�
Now a loose plan is formed. Black has two weak groups that white can a�ack, as shown in Diagram 12.
Seeing the double threat, black chooses to aid the original group, abandoning the second.
Now this group is in ko, thanks to the aggressive playing.
This may not be obvious to newer players, but what white is doing here is seeking threats for the ko.
Here we see the value of the ko. But, did white lose out here? Lets examine more closely. White had inﬂuence towards the center of the board and still does. Black had weak groups toward the center which could be taken advantage of and those groups are still there. Black gains points but loses development along the top.
Some might wonder, why not respond to white’s a�achment? The reason is simple; he would have 2 weak groups. As it stands, he still needs to be wary of k17 being cut oﬀ, because of the a�achment that lingers at f17.
This is the best result that white could hope for. Once again he has 2 weak groups to assault.
Vital. O�entimes while we are playing our game we like to play instinctively. For some of us that would mean responding to p12 immediately. To do so, however, would mean that black would get to connect his two weak groups and not have to worry about living, just reducing and taking proﬁt. I cannot stress enough just how many points would be thrown away by allowing that.
Again, do we respond? This is the point in our ﬁghting that we must force ourselves to stop and constantly assess what is going on in the game. Here, it seems that one of black’s groups is on its way to being alive. White’s group on the right is in no immediate danger.
My feeling here is that black cannot live without a miracle and thus the game is already over.
Black now agrees with me and changes ideas. Instead of uselessly trying to live, perhaps he can take enough on the bo�om to compensate.
This is a nice defense.
This is a shape point. Remember: don’t get greedy when you are trying to live! Diagram 26 is an example of greed when trying to take the corner.
If we follow that greedy path the whole way through, we get to here. Now what? This time, white has two diﬀerent groups that need to live.
This is an odd move. White doesnt have to worry about life anymore.
I think perhaps this is the variation black wanted. This would have been great for him. However, as we’ll see, that’s not what happened.
Looking at white’s move in Diagram 30, we notice immediately that this has to die for black to hope to win.
So, as we see in Diagram 31, black totally ignores it. Very interesting.
A bit further down the road, and we are back to a ko.
Black could take this, but then white would live and he knows that he cannot allow that. A few moves later, and game over.
Special thanks to William Shubert, creator of KGS, for permission to use screenshots.
Diagram 33 Screenshots used by permission of William Shubert
A Hiﬆory of Go:
Go is an ancient game. In fact, it’s the oldest game known to man that is still played as it was in ancient times. It’s been known by many diﬀerent names, been played by royalty in various countries, and decided the result of real-life ba�les. Along with all of that, Go has aquired quite a few variations in rules and structure. In this issue we’ll be focusing on one of these variants: Sunjang. Sunjang Baduk (Hangul: 순장 바둑) is an old Korean variant of Go, or Baduk (바둑) as it is known in Korea. Sunjang enjoyed a Golden Age in Korea from the 16th to mid-20th centuries, during which it was almost the exclusive variant of Go played in Korea. There is evidence that Koreans also played ‘open board’ games during this time as well, but Sunjang was a much more popular version. During the early 20th century, modern Go spread to Korea from Japan. Korean players accepted the new rules as an improvement over old rules, and for a while played both versions alongside each other, but as time went on, Sunjang became less and less popular as players began to think of the Japanese rules as the prod- Cho Namchul, ‘Pioneer and Father’ of Korean Go, helped solidify the end of Sunjang Baduk uct of a ‘superior’ modern culture. In 1945, Cho Namchul (조남철), the ‘Pioneer and Father’ of Korean Go, returned to Korea from studying Go in Japan, and immediately went about founding the ﬁrst private Go school in Korea, the Hansung Kiwon (한성 기원). In his new school, Cho taught the Japanese version of the game, which cemented Japanese rules as the accepted version in Korea. The main diﬀerence between Sunjang and modern Go is in the very
beginning of the game, before any players have made a move. Both players set eight stones on prescribed points of the board. This is called poseok (布石), a word now equivalent to fuseki. A�er the stones have been placed for poseok, the move virtually prescribed for black is cheonweon (천원)—tengen. Though the black player is not required to play at tengen, it is widely considered to be the best move he can play. Diagram 1 shows the poseok and ﬁrst move of Sunjang. Because of the placement of the stones, once the players have ﬁnished poseok, the
Diagram 1: Poseok and black’s ﬁrst move at cheonweon
game leads immediately into a ﬁerce jungban (중반)—chuban, or middlegame. The violent middlegame is impossible to avoid, every single move made builds tension with the pre-placed stones. In Diagram 2 we can see an example of this from the ‘Last Game’ between Ch’ae Keuk-mun (채 극문) and No Sach’o (노 사초). Within just a few moves, both players must take the defensive, while simultaneously keeping up an Diagram 2: Sunjang openings cannot help but be violent oﬀensive so that their opponent does not gain an advantage. Note that none of the groups appear to be alive right away, and that major threats are ignored for bigger ones. In just a few moves, this game has turned into the passive player’s nightmare. As the game progresses, it gets even more ferocious and diﬃcult. Weak groups are abandoned in favor of large points. While neither player is willing to lose a large group, they are also unwilling to give up even larger areas to defend them.
Such playing is typical of Sunjang games, it is in the nature of the game. From the moment that the poseok has been laid, the board is set for a ﬁght. The second way that Sunjang diﬀers from modern Go is in scoring. Diagram 3 shows the end position of the ‘Last Game.’ In modern Go, dead stones are removed and territory is then counted up. If the ‘Last Game’ were scored like this, we would see a position like Diagram 4. But in Sunjang, all unecessary stones are removed from the territory before scoring. If the stone doesn’t hold territory in, it is removed before scoring. An example of this can be found in Diagram 5.
The scoring method is a cross between modern Japanese scoring, where no stone has any point value, and modern Chinese scoring, where all stones are worth a point. Though stones are not worth points, placing stones in your territory will not take away points. Sunjang is a great option for players who would like to strengthen their chuban, or an exciting game without the option of being calm or, let’s face it, boring.
B45 at n1 B47 at q2 B157 at s15 B173 at q2 B177 at l3 B185 at q2 B191 at q2 B197 at q2 B203 at q2 B225 at s10 B231 at s10 B233 at t4 B241 at s10 W60 at p2 W182 at p2 W188 at p2 W194 at p2 W200 at p2 W228 at r10 W238 at r10 W244 at r10
Ch’ae Keuk-mun (채 극문) and No Sach’o (노 사초) Result: No Sach’o (노 사초) +.5
A Picture Worth a Thousand Moves
A Graphic Celebration of Go
This issue’s photo was submi�ed by Vance Dunham.
Do you have a photo that captures your love of Go? A drawing that expresses the depth of the game? Artwork that you think should be shared? If so, send it to us at: newlse�email@example.com! The best piece of art recieved by the next issue will be featured here! A few quick requirements: Please make certain the picture is high-resolution. It’s not that we don’t like small pictures, they just aren’t magazine friendly. All pictures need to be family friendly, nothing you wouldn’t want your children or grandmother to see. And ﬁnally, make sure that it’s a picture that the whole world needs to see!
What your game says about you
Those interested in impressing others with their intelligence play chess. Those who would se�le for being chic play backgammon. Those who wish to become individuals of quality take up Go. 35
Battousai, AGA 5d
Oﬀers online teaching on both KGS and IGS for a small, negotiable fee. Ba�ousai has been teaching for ﬁve years, and is the Enclave’s premier teacher. Highly recommended by Enclave staﬀ and students! ‘Ba�ousai is our oldest teacher, and I have never been displeased with him. His sharp tongue and fun sense of humor lend a memorability to his lessons not paralleled by any other teacher I know. He is also very aﬀordable and extremely reasonable in dealing with students.’ —Eric Dunham, Owner and Founder, the KGS Enclave Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org for pricing, questions, comments, or to set up a lesson.
GeorgeW, Chinese 2d
Oﬀers online teaching on KGS for a small fee. GeorgeW has been teaching for two years, and highly recommended! He is also ﬂuent in Chinese, for anyone wishing to study with a Chinese speaker ‘GeorgeW has been volunteering lessons for the Enclave for the past few months and has done an excellent job every time. I guarantee, personally that he is worth his weight in gold, not to mention the paltry price he asks.’ —Eric Dunham, Owner and Founder, the KGS Enclave Contact: georgew@kgsenclave. com with any questions or comments, or to set up a lesson.
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In our ﬁrst year, we have had some wonderful volunteers, and some dedicated contributors. It is thanks to the contributions of people like these that the Enclave has been able to continue providing its services to the Go community, so we would like to publicly thank them for their help.
2007 Volunteers and Contributors
Enclave Administration: $383.86 Nathan Wall $50.00 Magnus Jensen $50.00 Felix Ufer: $38.38 Shishinn Sun: $20.00 Chedo�: $20.00 Uberness: $19.87 Jonathan Nyquist: $10.00 David Boss Jr.: $5.00
GeorgeW [4d] TCHATTE [2d] Krayle [1d] acid [1k] hikarujr [1k] Iink ~[1k] Meepy ~[1k] backpack [2k] xioshe [2k] Dice [3k]
Vance Dunham Alexander Rødseth Nqua Xiong Hu of KGS NoKno� Zachary Dunham Cheddot Joshua Allen
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