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The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Cloning DNA in the Test Tube The polymerase chain reaction is a technique

for quickly "cloning" a particular piece of DNA in the test tube (rather than in living cells like E. coli). Thanks to this procedure, one can make virtually unlimited copies of a single DNA molecule even though it is initially present in a mixture containing many different DNA molecules. •

In order to perform PCR, you must know at least a portion of the sequence of the DNA molecule that you wish to replicate. You must then synthesize primers: short oligonucleotides (containing about two dozen nucleotides) that are precisely complementary to the sequence at the 3' end of each strand of the DNA you wish to amplify. The DNA sample is heated to separate its strands and mixed with the primers. If the primers find their complementary sequences in the DNA, they bind to them. Synthesis begins (as always 5' -> 3') using the original strand as the template. The reaction mixture must contain
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all four deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP) a DNA polymerase. It helps to use a DNA polymerase that is not denatured by the high temperature needed to separate the DNA strands.

Polymerization continues until each newly-synthesized strand has proceeded far enough to contain the site recognized by the other primer. Now you have two DNA molecules identical to the original molecule. You take these two molecules, heat them to separate their strands, and repeat the process. Each cycle doubles the number of DNA molecules.

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Using automated equipment, each cycle of replication can be completed in less than 5 minutes. After 30 cycles, what began as a single molecule of DNA has been amplified into more than a billion copies (230 = 1.02 x 109). Golden rice is a variety of Oryza sativa rice produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of pro-vitamin A in the edible parts of rice.[1] The scientific details of the rice were first published in Science in 2000.[1] Golden rice was developed as a fortified food to be grown in areas where there is a shortage of dietary vitamin A.[2] In 2005 a new variety called Golden Rice 2 was announced which produces up to 23 times more beta-carotene than the original variety of golden rice.[3] Neither variety is currently available for human consumption. Although golden rice was developed as a humanitarian tool, it has met with significant opposition from environmental and anti-globalization activists.[4]

A simplified overview of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in golden rice. The enzymes expressed in the endosperm of golden rice, shown in red, catalyze the biosyntheis of beta-carotene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Beta-carotene is assumed to be converted to retinal and subsequently retinol (vitamin A) in the animal gut Biodegradable plastics are plastics that will decompose in natural aerobic (composting) and anaerobic (landfill) environments. Biodegradation of plastics occurs when microorganisms metabolize the plastics to either assimilable compounds or to humus-like materials that are less harmful to the environment.[1] They may be composed of either bioplastics, which are plastics whose components are derived from renewable raw materials, or petroleum-based plastics which contain additives. Biodegradable plastics typically are produced in two forms: injection molded (solid, 3D shapes), typically in the form of disposable food service items, and films, typically organic fruit packaging and collection bags for leaves and grass trimmings, and agricultural mulch.

Sy is known as the "Father of Philippine Retailing. It was in 1949 when received his first credit line from China Bank and was approved of a one million peso .Henry Sy. Sr. the eldest. He diligently studied the market and decided to pursue the shoe business. He was born on the 25th of December 1923 in a small village in China. He then involved all of them into the business by the age of 13. from early morning up to late in the evening every day. Later. When the World War II began. Starting a business was not that easy. In 1999. Teresita "Tessie” Sy-Coson. who takes care of the real estate ventures of the company and Elizabeth is involved with tourism ventures like the Taal Vista Hotel in Tagaytay City. Sy enrolled as a grade one student at the age of 12 in an Anglo-Chinese School in Quiapo. in a 30-square meter lot. one needs to have capital to start the ball rolling. nothing was left to him and his father. he would always go to Divisoria. His father left China and migrated to the Philippines when he was still a toddler. He went on a long business trip to the East Coast and came back with a lot of grand selling ideas. As his saying goes “a dream is a wish your heart makes"." and the founder and chairman of the SM Group of Companies In spite of his old age remained ageless. As he went through his education together with the business. It was also during this time that their shop was plundered into ashes and rubbles. stocking deliveries. They used to live in Quiapo. It was in 1950’s when he later on changed his legal name into Henry Sy after being granted a Filipino citizenship. their father sincerely followed Confucian values. he ventured into peddling American shoes. near Xiam en in Fujian province. [edit] Early life Henry Sy’s original birth name is Shī Zhì Chéng which literally means "to attain ultimate success”. arranging shelves and cashiering were mainly the jobs given to them. According to Sy children. the young Sy pursued. Henry Jr. Forbes valued his net worth at USD 5 billion. They were brought up knowing the value of hard work and perseverance. (Chinese name 施至成 Pinyin: Shī Zhì Chéng). His success in retail business branches out into different establishments and still continues to unravel different opportunities. Herbert manages the SM Supermarkets and Harley.) just behind Chinatown. St. After the war ended in 1945. Hans is who is now in charge of the shopping centers and president of SM Prime Holdings and vice chairman of China Bank. known for wholesales. the president of the flagship holding company SM Investments Corp. almost all businesses were closed and the country's industries were all destroyed after the Battle of Manila. is still the undisputed richest man of the Philippines for years according to Forbes Magazine. Equitable PCI Bank. In 2010. now 87. The couple had 6 children. manages Banco de Oro. he left his home village Ang-khue of the Dieng-oh municipality in the county of Jinjiang. His father was a trader and took the risk of establishing a business here in the Philippines. It was a tough time for the young lad to know nothing and start from scratch. at the age of twelve. His father owned a tiny grocery store on Echague Street (now Carlos Palanca Sr. to buy cheap goods and sell it at their own ha-ya tiam or sari-sari store to Filipinos. he decided to enroll at the Far Eastern University in 1950 and took up a degree in Associate in Arts in Commercial Studies. Because of such hard life. never stops dreaming. retails and bargains. He married a Chinese immigrant who also became a Filipino citizen under the legal name of Felicidad. the department stores and the retail stores. he acquired the Doctorate degree at theDe La Salle University. Both of them worked hard.

it was also at this time where the construction of the SM Mall of Asia started. SM City Cagayan de Oro which was inaugurated in 2002. SM Centerpoint in 1989. SM City Davao was opened. downtown Manila. and SM City San Lazaro were added to the list. SM City Batangas. The shoe-box look alike mall was clean and fully airconditioned that promotes modern shopping conveniences. 2006. As the vision expands. He opened the very first Shoemart store along Carriedo St. In 2005. SM City Pampanga in Angeles City and the SM City Sucat. then by two other ones again at the Harrison Plaza in central Manila and in Delgado St. It was built on a 19. The very first mall which featured a cinema division called Silverscreen and ice skating rink. Iloilo City. SM City Cebu. the birth of SM City North Edsa. SM City Dasmarinas and SM City Batangas were again opened. It was followed by SM South Mall in Las Piñas including SM City Fairview and SM City Bacoor in the province of Cavite. There was a stretch of esplanade constructed behind the mall where people could take a look at the panoramic view of the Manila Bay sunset. Because of his dissatisfaction. The SM logo was later used to shorten the name shoemart. In 2003.. the first ever IMAX Theater in the Philippines was also built. he conceptualized a new chain of shoe stores. SM City Manila. It has the largest screen in the country at 22 x 33 meters. together with SM Clark and SM Las Pinas. it was also at this time that the Gringo Honasan’s coup de etat occurred. at the Makati Commercial Center in 1963 and then followed by another in Cubao. It was in the year 1975 where the shoe store became a fully operated department store because of the various inclusions of areas such as supermarkets. by the tycoon Mr. the company continued to branch out its supermalls by opening SM City Iloilo in 1999. Yap Tian Siang. The mall's greatest attraction is the Pacifica Entertainment Plaza aside from world-class bowling and billiards facilities. the very controversial and historical. Moreover. he decided to create something new and better. SM City Marilao. The mall also provides office space for investments in Information Technology and Business Outsource Processing. Dell International . so. SM Mall of Asia was finally done. A gigantic roundabout was also built in front of the mall with a huge bronze globe. He added an electronic appliances division in each of his stores and so on. The grand opening followed. The first mall outside Metro Manila was opened in 1996. By the end of the quarter of 2004. SM City Dasmariñas. in 2001. On May 21. as what they used to call it. In 1991. The said logo was a phenomenon because of its simplicity yet with power.5 hectares of reclaimed land west of Roxas Boulevard and at the southernmost tip of EDSA. His big breakout came in 1985 when he opened his first supermall in Quezon City. He expanded his shoe store chain in the new pioneer urban centers. After the launching of SM City the famous SM Megamall was built and inaugurated. several malls were opened. a second mall was opened in Mindanao. It was designed by a Spanish-descended Filipino artist Juvenal Sanso. SM City Lucena. the mall also features the country's first Olympic-size ice skating rink and a special science museum. Both expansions reached Luzon and Visayas. SM Centerpoint was then renamed to SM City Santa Mesa after extensive expansions. [edit] The Shoemart story for main article click SM Shoemart After the construction of the first Shoemart. The shoe store soon became very popular until it expanded into three outlets. in Avenida Rizal. SM City Manila and SM City Baguio.

prestigious sport events and show business celebrations with upscale and high-tech facilities. and OneE-Com Center.Services. Countless of these malls are still to be opened. The SM Group has established three supermalls in China over the past years. This was one of the grandest dreams of the tycoon and now it came to reality. a subsidiary of Dell Inc. . these historical expansions of supermalls even reached the other shore of the world. an SM supermall was also opened in Guam. The main highlight of the project will be a state-of-the-art entertainment dome for concerts. Now. while the proposed MAITRADE Expo and Convention Center will house future showrooms and host trade fair events. Soon after. an Information Technology haven for global firms to set office for their BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) operations. SM South Xiamen and SM Chuan and will soon open in Chengdu City province of more than 70 million people. Several constructions of Supermalls have been in the making ever since covering the whole island of the Philippines. namely SM North Xiamen.