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Practical Learning Series 1:1; 1-4 Cesarean section in the buffalo G N Purohit Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary

and Animal Sciences, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner Rajasthan India 334001 Indications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Uncorrectable uterine torsion Pelvic fractures Monstrosities Fetal oversize Other conditions Uncorrectable dystocia

Anesthesia Local infiltration anesthesia combined with mild sedation is sufficient for cesarean section in the buffalo. The use of xylazine should be very judicious and not more than 1-2 ml of commercially available xylazine should be used as it causes plenty of salivation. Sites: The operative sites suggested include a flank laparotomy or a oblique ventrolateral incision starting just above the arcus cruralis is suggested. Preoperative care Sufficinet fluid replacement, antibiotics, corticosteroids and other medicines should be administered before hand to avoid shock during or after the operation. Operative procedure The usual operative procedures utilized for surgical interventions are to be followed. After shaving and scrubbing the operative site is prepared and local infiltration anesthesia is infused at the operative site using 2% lidocaine or xylocaine. The skin is incised and separated from the subcutaneous layer. The muscles are then incised ligating all the bleeding vessels. The assistant should hold the muscle layers with tissue holding forceps and the surgeon should cut the muscles. The peritoneum which is a glistening white layer is cut by first making a nick with a scissor and then guiding the cut by a finger placed underneath the skin. The attachment of the muscles is cut when using the ventrolateral approach. The omental fat sometimes covers the uterus which is pushed to the side or sometimes incised. The uterus is located and brought to the operative site by holding the uterus over a fetal leg. The uterus is packed on the sides by surgical drapes. In long standing cases of dystocia or uterine 1

torsion sometimes it is not possible to bring the uterus at the operative site and under such conditions the uterus has to be incised in the abdominal cavity. Avoid incising over the cotyledons. The fetus is removed and the margins of the uterus are washed with sterile normal saline. The uterus is sutured using absorbable suture material (Chromic catgut 2/0 or 3/0) employing lambert or uterecht inversion suture pattern. The uterus is replaced back in the abdomen after thorough washing. The muscle and peritoneal layers are sutured using the same suture material and employing continuous suture pattern. Sometimes interrupted sutures may be used. The skin is sutured using silk. A sterile drape is applied over the suture line and this should be protected by applying a cloth over the abdomen. Post-operative care The success of the operation depends upon the post-operative care. Sufficient fluid replacements, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs should be given for 3-5 days. If an animal is off feed for 72 hours post-operative peritonitis should be suspected. It is better to administer sufficient drugs to combat anaerobic infections like metronidazole. The operative site should be cleaned daily with spirit. Antihistaminics should be given along with other drugs as required. The sutures can be removed 8-10 days post-operative.