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Introduction

Navigation is defined as the science of getting a craft or person from one place to another. Driving or even walking in our daily lives can be considered as a fundamental use of our navigational skills. The eyes, common senses and the landmarks serve as the means to know as they are our fundamental navigational skills. But in many different applications a more accurate knowledge of our position, intended path or destination, or transit time to a desired destination is required, navigation support other than landmarks are used. Precise navigational aids such as radio navigation systems are used in many applications such as driving, travelling, calculating the landmarks and much more. This technique involves the use of electronic signal transmission to calculate the exact location of the signal receiver and display it on the receiver screen. Global Positioning System (GPS) implies the same technique and the receiver communicates through the GPS satellite so as to compute the position of it by processing the signal received from the satellite. Other radio navigation systems do exist, but the shortcomings of ground-based radio navigation systems led to the development of the satellite based navigational system, namely GPS. An Automotive Navigation System (ANS) is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. It typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in its map database. The exact location of the automotive unit can be determined by the GPS receiver used in it. Using the database created for the navigation purpose and the positioning data from the GPS receiver unit, the system can give location including the map and directions to other locations in its database. The GPS used in it provides accurate, continuous, worldwide, threedimensional position and velocity information to users with the appropriate receiving equipment. Then the location is matched into the database and a complete map is displayed onto the screen. ANS can even calculate the time required for reaching the required destination along with the accurate directions based on the driving routes in the location. That’s why it has become much popular in automotive units. Apart from GPS system, the navigation system uses gyroscope, accelerometer, and sensors attached to drivetrain
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but the ranging codes used by the satellites are different. Parts of Automotive Navigation System GPS system It is the unit inside the ANS which does all the locationing task. But the main unit in the system is the communication via GPS satellites as the locations are found out using the GPS unit. The satellite constellation consists of 24 satellites arranged in 6 orbital planes with 4 satellites per plane. Satellite transmissions are referenced to highly accurate atomic frequency standards onboard the satellites..575. called L1 (1. there are only two frequencies in use by the system. that is. propagation) time of the signal and thereby determine the satellite-to-user range.6 MHz).227. The satellites broadcast ranging codes and navigation data on two frequencies using a technique called code division multiple access (CDMA). whereas the ranging code enables the user’s receiver to determine the transit (i. GPS can provide service to an unlimited number of users since the user receivers operate passively (i. The road databases are also accessed by using the same communication system. Locating and navigating using GPS requires a satellite link between a GPS receiver and multiple satellites placed. This network also uploads navigation and other data to the satellites.42 MHz) and L2 (1.e.e. GPS overview GPS system is the main part of the Automotive Navigation System since it is the unit in which the real time location of the vehicle is found out. GPS also uses a form of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). which are in synchronism with a GPS time base. A worldwide ground control/monitoring network monitors the health and status of the satellites.for greater reliability as the GPS computations can be faulty sometimes. receive only). The navigation data provides the means for the receiver to determine the location of the satellite at the time of signal transmission. The system utilizes the concept of one-way time of arrival (TOA) ranging. the real time location of the vehicle is computed and its location is matched with the road database to access the map of that area. These codes are used to provide the time basis for the receiver so they change along with time. This technique 2 . Using a GPS receiver inside the ANS unit.. Each satellite transmits on these frequencies.

requires that the user receiver also contain a clock. Concept of Ranging measurements using Time of Arrival (TOA) GPS utilizes the concept of TOA ranging to determine user position. By measuring the propagation time of the signal broadcast from multiple emitters (i. Thus. referred to as the signal propagation time. But the distance of the user from the satellite is of no use to the user and the complete position of the receiver unit must be calculated. height. So utilizing this technique to measure the receiver’s three-dimensional location requires that TOA ranging measurements be made to four satellites. the receiver can determine its position. longitude. The four satellites form a sphere of radius equal to the 3 .e. as the ranging codes give the reference of time taken by the signal to reach to the receiver after transmitted by the satellite. is then multiplied by the speed of the signal (e. However. speed of sound or speed of light) to obtain the emitter to receiver distance. This time interval. then the location of the GPS receiver is be methodologically calculated. only three range measurements would be required.. Hence after all the distances from the corresponding satellites are known. navigation aids) at known locations. the distance between the satellite and receiver unit is found out. TOA ranging involves measuring the time it takes for a signal transmitted by an emitter (satellite) at a known location to reach a user receiver. complexity.g. Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) positioning calculations are implied in order to compute the real location of the GPS receiver. So by utilizing the ranging codes. four measurements are required to determine user latitude. The distances from at least four satellites must be known. If the receiver clock were synchronized with the satellite clocks. a crystal clock is usually employed in navigation receivers to minimize the cost.. Computation of Location As discussed earlier. the process of ranging is utilized to calculate the distance of the receiver unit from the satellites. and size of the receiver. and receiver clock offset from internal system time.

Basic Overview of GNSS Trilateration Technique It is the mathematical technique for the calculation of the coordinates of GPS receiver unit. when it is known that a point lies on three surfaces such as the surfaces of three spheres then the centers of the three spheres along with their radii provide sufficient information to locate the possible locations down to no more than two. trilateration is the process of determination of absolute or relative locations of points by measurement of distances. After finding the solution it can be transformed back to the original three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Also the formulation is such that one center is at the origin. y. In threedimensional geometry.calculated distance from them with the satellite being in the center of the spheres. and z. using the geometry of circles. Derivation: The intersections of the surfaces of three spheres is found by formulating the equations for the three sphere surfaces and then solving the three equations for the three unknowns. It is possible to formulate the equations in this manner since any three non-colinear points lie on a unique plane. x. The GPS unit is somewhere on the surface of each of these imaginary spheres. spheres or triangles. In geometry. Thus the intersection point of these four spheres gives the exact 3D location of the user. To simplify the calculations. the equations are formulated so that the centers of the spheres are on the z=0 plane. The equations for the three spheres are: 4 . If it is known that the point lies on the surface of a fourth sphere then knowledge of this sphere's center along with its radius is sufficient to determine the one unique location. and one other is on the x-axis.

r2 and r3. A point located at (x.Where the three distances are expressed in r1. First.and y-coordinates of the solution point. Now that we have the x. the solution to the intersection of the first two spheres: Substituting : into the formula for the third sphere and solving for y there results: . that is d − r1 < r2 < d + r1. we can simply rearrange the formula for the first sphere to find the zcoordinate: 5 . the second equation is subtracted from the first and then it is solved for x: . z) that satisfies all three equations is to be found out. y. In this case substituting the equation for x back into the equation for the first sphere produces the equation for a circle. It is assumed that the first two spheres intersect in more than one point.

y and z. one or two solutions to the problem. one of the two points fall on the surface of the fourth sphere. the correction of clock effect is to be done on all the distances by calculating the amount of error. it is possible for there to be zero. Because z is expressed as the positive or negative square root. This is the mathematical calculation for the calculation of position which results two coordinates at last of it. If that circle falls entirely outside or inside of the sphere. If that circle touches the surface of the sphere at two points. This last part can be visualized as taking the circle found from intersecting the first and second sphere and intersecting that with the third sphere. then z is equal to plus or minus the square root of a positive number. Then such two points are again compared with the fourth sphere created by r4 and the fourth GPS satellite at the center. Then one of the two points will fall in the surface or very near to the surface of the fourth sphere which will be the real location of the GPS receiver unit. z is equal to the square root of a negative number: no real solution exists. If that circle touches the sphere on exactly one point. Thus. 6 . there exists some error. but as the clock used in receiver units are not perfectly synchronized with the clock used in the satellite transmitter units. In errorless conditions. z is equal to zero.Now we have the solution to all three points x.

Street names or numbers and house numbers are encoded as geographic coordinates so that the user can find some desired destination by street address (see map database management). The features of the navigation system depend upon the software system available and amount of information it can give. and "parked here" (or "you parked here"). The amount of information contained in the database and the applicability of the information contained is highly focused on as it directly improves the applicability of ANS system itself. fuel stations. Contents The road database is a vector map of some area of interest.Fig. they form a circle in the intersection. Point of interest specialties include speed cameras. Road Database and Location Map The road database of all the locations around the world is built as a software system for navigational purposes. the map of the location is accessed by the ANS system and the GPS data is converted into something more useful and applicable. Since a sphere is a 3D shape.. these two intersection points. time required and many more. public parking. Contents can be produced by the user base as their cars drive along existing streets (Wi-Fi) and communicating via the internet. Intersection of the formed circle and the third sphere. Points of interest (waypoints) will also be stored with their geographic coordinates. One of these two points of intersection is the location of receiver unit.Two spheres intersecting each other. They can search for directions. the users are facilitated in many ways. After the road database is accessed. thus the user vehicle. yielding a free and up-to-date map. 7 . After the location of the vehicle is found out. Fig. formed by the intersection of the circle and the third sphere are compared with the surface of the fourth sphere. look for the map and the traffic system there or even find out information on their destination such as distance. As shown in figure.

The map data vendors such as Tele Atlas and NAVTEQ create the base map in a standard format GDF. GDF is used and converted onto the CD-ROM in the internal format of the navigation system. 8 . • Nearest public transport lines and prices. or a combination. which is accessed by connecting the navigation device to a PC. usually proprietary format. they can also receive and display information on traffic congestion and suggest alternate routes. when there is a traffic jam. which includes: • Real-time data about free/full parkings. downloaded from a CD or DVD via a computer or wireless connection (bluetooth. there is no industry standard for satellite navigation maps. GDF is not a CD standard for car navigation systems. These may use either TMC. Wi-Fi). or directly used utilizing a card reader. magnetic media (hard disk). to go to a destination. A common scheme is to have a base map permanently stored in ROM that can be augmented with detailed information for a region the user is interested in. These updates are often obtained from the vendor's website. or by GPRS/3G data transmission via mobile phones. optical media (CD or DVD). Some navigation device makers provide free map updates for their customers. solid state flash memory. which delivers coded traffic information using radio RDS. A ROM is always programmed at the factory. Some newer systems can not only give precise driving directions. One key type of real-time data is traffic information. but each electronics manufacturer compiles it in an optimized.Map formats Formats are almost uniformly proprietary. the other media may be preprogrammed. Media The road database may be stored in solid state read-only memory (ROM).

Fig. The location of vehicle and map of the present location is currently displayed on the screen of the device. Modern day’s instruments are able to give direction guidance through voice. A graphics processor is required for this task. Block diagram of user interface unit As shown in the diagram. The user can give instructions to the navigation device and the device will display the required information on the screen. an open source routing software. The input is then processed by the CPU inbuilt inside the device and the navigational information is displayed into the display unit.Display and User interface units This unit comprises the input/output units of ANS. The device calculates distance to the nearest turn and instructs the driver to turn in the required location and gives the directions. Navigation with Gosmore. Additional features such as CD/DVD player can also be 9 . on a personal navigation assistant with free map data from OpenStreetMap. this unit consists of input devices such as touchscreen and keyboard.

Examples of ANS module models • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acer e300 series Clarion EB street director Garmin Gizmondo Hertz Neverlost iGo (software) MapmyIndia Kenwood DNX-5120 Magellan Navigation Mio Technology Navigon NDrive Navman iCN series Ovi Maps Pioneer Teletype Software TomTom VDO Dayton Sygic Mobile Maps/Tele Atlas Wayfinder Navigator Waze Fig.integrated into the device which uses the same screen for different entertainment purposes. Navigon ANS Module 10 .

Such devices include the TomTom LIVE series. Advanced car security vehicle tracking systems can relay the vehicle's location via cellular phone services in case of loss or theft. and the Garmin nüvi 1690. Finally. providing interactive course maps and live readings of distance measurements to the green. which is helpful when investigating traffic incidents. Some navigation devices use this feature to store the location of known speed traps or speed cameras. in which case it's known as automatic vehicle location. The central dispatch computer keeps track of all vehicles in its fleet. Many systems can give information on nearby points of interest (POIs). GPS may also be integrated into actual radar detection devices to enhance accuracy. GPS data is recorded along with video surveillance footage. cash machines and gas stations. to find fuel prices. The radio dispatching of taxicabs have been phased out in several countries in favor of GPS technology plus some form of mobile networking with on board computers. and in some cases. Some systems feature internet connectivity.' Unlike radar detectors. implement a logic system where the system only alerts if the driver is traveling above the speed limit or in the direction to be 'caught. as well as to search for local distances. • • • • • 11 . either via Bluetooth to a mobile phone (in which case the device can typically also be used for hands-free calling). and can alert the driver in much the same way as a radar detector. and automatically selects the nearest cab to respond to a passenger request. The technology can also be used to manage fleet vehicles. In Taipei. This connectivity can be used for up-todate traffic information. provides ETA information for passengers waiting at bus stops or using mobile devices. They enable automatic station approach announcements.Applications riv • Golf Carts may have integrated GPS rangefinders tailored to specific golf courses. GPS-based speed trap warnings are currently legal in many countries. such as restaurants. or with a built in GSM SIM card. GPS receivers have several applications on city buses.