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# Introduction

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Basic Overview of GNSS Trilateration Technique It is the mathematical technique for the calculation of the coordinates of GPS receiver unit. when it is known that a point lies on three surfaces such as the surfaces of three spheres then the centers of the three spheres along with their radii provide sufficient information to locate the possible locations down to no more than two. trilateration is the process of determination of absolute or relative locations of points by measurement of distances. After finding the solution it can be transformed back to the original three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Also the formulation is such that one center is at the origin. y. In threedimensional geometry.calculated distance from them with the satellite being in the center of the spheres. and z. using the geometry of circles. Derivation: The intersections of the surfaces of three spheres is found by formulating the equations for the three sphere surfaces and then solving the three equations for the three unknowns. It is possible to formulate the equations in this manner since any three non-colinear points lie on a unique plane. x. The GPS unit is somewhere on the surface of each of these imaginary spheres. spheres or triangles. In geometry. Thus the intersection point of these four spheres gives the exact 3D location of the user. To simplify the calculations. the equations are formulated so that the centers of the spheres are on the z=0 plane. The equations for the three spheres are: 4 . If it is known that the point lies on the surface of a fourth sphere then knowledge of this sphere's center along with its radius is sufficient to determine the one unique location. and one other is on the x-axis.

r2 and r3. A point located at (x.Where the three distances are expressed in r1. First.and y-coordinates of the solution point. Now that we have the x. the solution to the intersection of the first two spheres: Substituting : into the formula for the third sphere and solving for y there results: . that is d − r1 < r2 < d + r1. we can simply rearrange the formula for the first sphere to find the zcoordinate: 5 . the second equation is subtracted from the first and then it is solved for x: . z) that satisfies all three equations is to be found out. y. In this case substituting the equation for x back into the equation for the first sphere produces the equation for a circle. It is assumed that the first two spheres intersect in more than one point.

y and z. one or two solutions to the problem. one of the two points fall on the surface of the fourth sphere. the correction of clock effect is to be done on all the distances by calculating the amount of error. it is possible for there to be zero. Because z is expressed as the positive or negative square root. This is the mathematical calculation for the calculation of position which results two coordinates at last of it. If that circle falls entirely outside or inside of the sphere. If that circle touches the surface of the sphere at two points. This last part can be visualized as taking the circle found from intersecting the first and second sphere and intersecting that with the third sphere. then z is equal to plus or minus the square root of a positive number. Then such two points are again compared with the fourth sphere created by r4 and the fourth GPS satellite at the center. Then one of the two points will fall in the surface or very near to the surface of the fourth sphere which will be the real location of the GPS receiver unit. z is equal to the square root of a negative number: no real solution exists. If that circle touches the sphere on exactly one point. Thus. 6 . there exists some error. but as the clock used in receiver units are not perfectly synchronized with the clock used in the satellite transmitter units. In errorless conditions. z is equal to zero.Now we have the solution to all three points x.

Street names or numbers and house numbers are encoded as geographic coordinates so that the user can find some desired destination by street address (see map database management). The features of the navigation system depend upon the software system available and amount of information it can give. and "parked here" (or "you parked here"). The amount of information contained in the database and the applicability of the information contained is highly focused on as it directly improves the applicability of ANS system itself. fuel stations. Contents The road database is a vector map of some area of interest.Fig. they form a circle in the intersection. Point of interest specialties include speed cameras. Road Database and Location Map The road database of all the locations around the world is built as a software system for navigational purposes. the map of the location is accessed by the ANS system and the GPS data is converted into something more useful and applicable. Since a sphere is a 3D shape.. these two intersection points. time required and many more. public parking. Contents can be produced by the user base as their cars drive along existing streets (Wi-Fi) and communicating via the internet. Intersection of the formed circle and the third sphere. Points of interest (waypoints) will also be stored with their geographic coordinates. One of these two points of intersection is the location of receiver unit.Two spheres intersecting each other. They can search for directions. the users are facilitated in many ways. After the road database is accessed. thus the user vehicle. yielding a free and up-to-date map. 7 . After the location of the vehicle is found out. Fig. formed by the intersection of the circle and the third sphere are compared with the surface of the fourth sphere. look for the map and the traffic system there or even find out information on their destination such as distance. As shown in figure.