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Demography of Scotland Scotland has a population of 5,222,100 (2010 estimate).

Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres 2 (30,418 sq mi), Scotland has a population density of 65.6 /km (170 /sq mi). Around 70% of the country's population live in the Central Lowlands a broad, fertile valley stretching in a northeastsouthwest orientation between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including major settlements such asPaisley, Stirling, Falkirk, Perth and Dundee. Other concentrations of population include the northeast coast of Scotland, principally the regions around the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness. The Highlands of 2 Scotland have the lowest population density at 8 /km (21 /sq mi). The City of Glasgow has the highest 2 population density at 3,292 /km (8,530 /sq mi). Estimating the population of Scotland, as well as recording births, deaths and marriages in Scotland is overseen by the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS), headed by the Registrar-General for Scotland. Under the terms of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1965, the RegistrarGeneral must present an annual report of demographic trends to Scottish Ministers(previously the Secretary of State for Scotland prior to devolution). In conjunction with the rest of the United Kingdom a decadal census of population is carried out the last one being 2011, the next taking place in 2021.

Population projections

People on Buchanan Street in Glasgow. boomers approach retirement.

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Since the census of 2001, the Scottish Government and leading academics in Scotland have expressed concern over the falling number of births in Scotland and the ageing and decline of the population which has occurred over recent decades. Scotland's population reached its peak in the mid-1970s, and has slowly declined since that time to its current total of 5.1m. The major reason is seen to be emigration fromScotland - particularly to the rest of the United Kingdom - although recent years have seen that trend reversed with significant immigration to Scotland from the rest of the United Kingdom [1]. Similarly, since 2004 there has been a large influx of arrivals from the new EU accession states such as Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Latvia, contributing to the recent growth of the population. Since 1997 Scotland has generally experienced a natural decrease in population, with an excess of deaths over births. In 2004, for example, there were 4012 more deaths than births, although for the last five years this process has been reversed with 4342 more births than deaths in 2008. Compounding the problem of a declining and ageing population, Scotland is experiencing falling fertility and birth rates - a feature common to much of Europe. The ageing population sees the large numbers of people born in the post war period (1950s and 1960s) approach retirement. A common fear amongst commentators is the strain this could impose on the nation's resources, with a smaller working population being insufficient to support a high number of retirees and dependents. In 2002, according to the GROS, the number of live births in Scotland was the lowest ever recorded, at 51,270. This has however steadily risen, with 53,957 births recorded in 2004 and in 2008 the number of live births was 60,041.[2]

097 48.6%) and East Dunbartonshire (-0.630 148.600 0.340 145.6 +0.2 0.243 90. in which the area lost large volumes of people.400 112.6%) have seen the largest falls in population.8%) Falkirk (1. while most other large Scottish cities would suffer a decline.870 48.4 +0.765 Dundee City East Ayrshire East Dunbartonshire East Lothian East Renfrewshire 142. compared with the last 200 years.0 Dumfries and Galloway 147.1 +0. Immigration was projected to remain steady. positive and constant.800 89.[2] Council Area Population Estimates Area Population Estimates in Scotland (2005) Local Council Area Aberdeen City Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll and Bute Clackmannanshire Population (2001) Population Estimates (2005) % change 2004 2005 212. In December 2005. due to persistently high rates of (forced) emigration particularly to places such as Canada. the United States. with both the numbers of births and deaths expected to drop.2 0.6 0. Conversely Aberdeen City (-0.1%).3 0. West Dunbartonshire (-0.Working in Scotland Scheme open to foreign (non-EU) graduates from Scotland's universities allowing them a 2 year residency period after graduation.370 235.311 .235 108.663 119. Perth and Kinross (0.440 109.5 +1.400 105.088 89.1%). the GROS figures predicted that Scotland's population would rise to 5.3 +0.6%) seeing the largest increases in population between 2004 and 2005. Australia and New Zealand.077 202. Edinburgh (0.170 120.960 91. Edinburgh's population could rise by 18%. Clackmannanshire (0.6%) and West Lothian (0.8 +0.The Scottish Executive has responded to these demographic trends by setting up the Fresh Talent . with areas such as Aberdeenshire (1.[3] Within Scotland itself there is significant regional variation in patterns of population growth.125 226.5%). The Highlands have also seen a significant rise in population over recent years.[4] In January 2008.871 108.170 90. the GROS published a series of population projections which showed that Scotland's population was projected to rise between then and the year 2038.54 million by 2033.9%).

988 112.280 86.830 26.9 +0.1 +0.869 208.5 +0.4 +0.120 135.790 213.714 .245 134.067 19.130 79.6 West Dunbartonshire 93.1 +0.730 22.378 West Lothian 158.000 111.764 21.1 0.000 109.941 86.817 321.502 145.2 +0.6 +0.5 0.190 88.420 19.470 578.370 149.191 349.940 135.5 +0.624 26.867 106.City of Edinburgh Eilean Siar Falkirk Fife Glasgow City Highland Inverclyde Midlothian Moray North Ayrshire North Lanarkshire Orkney Islands Perth and Kinross Renfrewshire Scottish Borders Shetland Islands South Ayrshire South Lanarkshire Stirling 448.3 0.4 +1.930 91.150 356.400 163.6 +0.6 0.590 82.216 86.4 0.4 +0.2 +1.914 84.830 323.097 302.400 170.6 0.1 +0.590 138.780 306.203 80.212 457.780 +0.949 172.3 +0.429 577.

including the highest peak. iron and zinc contributed significantly to the industrial growth of Scotland during the 19th and early 20th centuries. which runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) in a northeasterly direction from the Solway Firth in the west to theNorth Sea on the east coast. the production potential of renewable energy has emerged as an important economic and environmental issue in recent years.[3] Separated by the North Channel. Orkney Islands and the Outer Hebrides. and from large cities to uninhabited islands. .[6] The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountainous terrain. Lowland areas.[8] Today. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. which fringes the coastline of western and northern Scotland and its islands. influences the temperate.[1] Aside from the mainland. Scotland's only land border is with England.[5] The faultline separates two distinctively different physiographic regions.[9] Whilst Scotland is the largest producer of petroleum in the European Union. are flatter and home to most of the population. The Atlantic Ocean. Scotland is surrounded by 790 islandsencompassing the [2] major archipelagoes of the Shetland Islands.[7] An abundance of natural resources such as coal. namely the Highlands to the north and west and thelowlands to the south and east. although Edinburgh is the capital and political centre of the country. energy is a major component of Scotland's economy. Ben Nevis. in the southern part of Scotland. especially the narrow waist of land between theFirth of Clyde and [6] the Firth of Forth known as the Central Belt. Norway is located 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the northeast of Scotland across the North Sea. the [3] island of Ireland lies 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the southwest tip of the Scottish mainland. from rural lowlands to barren uplands. Located in north-westEurope.[4] The topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault a geological rock fracture which traverses the Scottish mainland fromHelensburgh to Stonehaven.Geography of Scotland The geography of Scotland is highly varied. maritime climate of the country. Scotland comprises the northern one third of the island of Great Britain.

409 ft) Atlantic Ocean. fish.[29] However Scotland is a highly urbanised country. potash. with 82% of the population living in settlements of 3.168.500 in June 2008. an increase of 2.[26] Scotland's share of the United Kingdom population has been declining in recent years and stands at just over 8. .[26] Compared with the rest of Europe.hydropower windstorms.coal. Scotland has a low population density at 65 people per square kilometre. bog. timber.414 sq mi) 97% 3% 11. wildlife. natural gas. silica sand. renewable energy. Other concentrations of population include the northeast coast of Scotland .and around Inverness.Continent Subregion Area .1% since the census of April 2001. zinc.344 m (4.5% due to differential rates of growth [28] in the home nations.332 mi) England 96 km (60 mi) Ben Nevis 1.[27] However an increasing birth rate and higher levels of inward migration to Scotland have reversed the decline and contributed to the recent population growth. the total population of Scotland stood at 5. floods climate change.772 km (30.000 people or more. hills.urban iron.800 km (7. the majority of the population live in the Central [31] Lowlands of Scotland. forest. surrounding the chief cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh.petroleum. waste disposal andwater pollution 2 Human geography According to the General Register Office for Scotland.principally surrounding the city of Aberdeen and its [31] environs .Total .[30] As a result. With a population density of 8 people per square kilometre. 0 m River Tay 193 km (120 mi) Loch Lomond 71 km2 (27.41 sq mi) Temperate mountains.Land (%) .Water (%) Coastline Land borders Highest point Lowest point Longest river Largest inland body of water Climate: Terrain: Natural resources Natural hazards Environmental issues Europe Great Britain Northern Europe 78.

[34] At the same time. The Western Isles saw a 9. Inverness and Stirling. The major cities of Scotland.5% respectively. See also our Gazetteer for Scotland for a massive amount of information on all the cities.[32] Between 1991 and 2001. Edinburgh had a population of 448. In these areas. Between 1991 and 2001. in order of size.501. Conversely. small towns and isolated farmsteads or crofts.[33] Inverness experienced population growth of over 10% during the same period. the only burgh of the Outer Hebrides. with a total population of 629.8% decrease in population between 1991 and 2001. the symbols used correspond to the list below. Aberdeen. the most populous being Lewis with 16. Aberdeenshire and Perth and [33] [33] Kinross. islands such as Tiree. tourist attractions.[32] Other island populations range down to very low levels on certain small isles.782 people resident in 2001. the population is scattered [30] in villages. Dundee and Aberdeen all witnessed population decline. Dundee. East Lothian. in the same year. Glasgow. Scotland (30 counties) Aberdeen Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll Clackmannanshire Dumfries East East East Edinburgh Eilean Falkirk Fife Glasgow Highland Inverclyde Midlothian Moray North North Orkney Perth Renfrewshire Shetland South South Stirling The West West Lothian and and Bute Galloway Ayrshire Dunbartonshire Lothian Siar and Ayrshire Lanarkshire Islands Kinross Islands Ayrshire Lanarkshire Scottish Borders Dunbartonshire Scotland's major cities are marked on the map in red. Edinburgh. the total [32] number of people living on Scotland's islands fell by 3%. The 2001 census identified Glasgow as being the largest city in Scotland. bens and glens of Scotland. Skye [32] and Eigg experienced increases in their respective populations over the same decade. towns.9% and 6.624. the populations of Edinburgh and Stirling grew by 2. Glasgow. primarily concentrated in Stornoway. while the [33] Scottish capital. Nearly 100 of Scotland's islands are inhabited. are: Glasgow Edinburgh (The Capital City of Scotland) Aberdeen .[33] Aside from the cities. There are six cities in Scotland. the greatest intra-census population growth was experienced in the local authorities of West Lothian.theHighlands are the most sparsely populated part of the country. villages.

It is then projected to continue rising.04 million in 2010 to 1. according to the Projected Population of Scotland (2010-based).76 million in 2035 . That's because the birth rate has remained high and migration has risen again in the last two years.50 million by 2035 (an increase of 7 per cent from 2010) the number of people of pensionable age is projected to rise from 1. Following the zoom. The assumptions are based largely on past trends and do not take account of any future changes as a result of policy initiatives.32 million in 2035 (an increase of around 26 per cent compared with 2010) the number of people aged 75 and over is projected to increase by around 23 per cent in the first ten years of the projection period." "The new projections indicate that Scotland's population may have reached its highest ever level this year. you will be using the standard Xerox PARC Map Viewer. The projections show what happens under certain assumptions about future fertility.49 million in 2020.27 million in 2010 to 3. with its full set of functions.24 million. The main points in the report are: y y the population of Scotland is projected to rise from 5. rising above the 1974 record of 5.is projected to rise from around 60 per 100 in 2010 to 64 per 100 working age population in 2035 y y y y . But we will have to wait for the census results published next year to get a more accurate estimate of the current population.45 million in 2020 (an increase of 6 per cent). reaching 1.49 million in 2020. which provides a representation of coastlines and major geographical features at 1:10M scale.an increase of 82 per cent over the 25 year period the dependency ratio .Dundee You may click on any location on this map to zoom in much closer. It is then projected to rise more rapidly. Scotland's population 26/10/2011 Scotland's population is projected to rise from 5. forecasts of what the government expects to happen based on policy. They replace previous projections based on the mid-2008 estimates.41 million in 2010 to 0. reaching 0. a report issued today by the National Records of Scotland.96 million.91 to 0.50 million in 2020. It is then projected to decrease slightly to 0.94 million in 2035 (a 3 per cent increase compared with 2010) the number of people of working age is projected to increase from 3.an increase of 10 per cent over the 25 year period between 2010 and 2020 the number of children aged under 16 is projected to increase by 5 per cent from 0.22 million in 2010 to 5. They are not. They also suggest that Scotland's population will continue to rise.07 million in 2020 (an increase of 3 per cent).76 million by 2035. mortality and migration. and to continue to rise to 5. Senior Statistician Kirsty MacLachlan said: "The latest projections suggest a bigger rise in Scotland's population than we expected when we published our previous set two years ago.the ratio of people aged under 16 and over pensionable age to those of working age . This page uses the Xerox PARC Map Viewer to display the map. from 0.74 million in 2035 ." The new projections are based on the estimated population of Scotland in mid-2010.22 million in 2010 to 5. These factors have raised the starting-point for our new figures. the projected working age population then increases to 3. and to reach 5. The maps come from the CIA World Data Bank II (WDBII) map database. therefore. Following a small dip.