Filing System in Verka Milk Plant INTRODUCTION TO VERKA MILK PLANT

Historical background The Punjab State verka Milk Producers¶ Federation limited popularly known as MILKFED Punjab came into existence in 1973 with a twin objective: To providing remunerative milk market to the Milk Producers in the State by value addition and marketing of produce on one hand and  To provide technical inputs to the milk producers for enhancement of milk production on the other hand. Although the federation was registered much earlier, but it came to real self in the year 1983 when all the milk plants of the erstwhile Punjab Dairy Development Corporation Limited were handed over to Cooperative sector and the entire State was covered under Operation Flood to give the farmers a better deal and our valued customers better products. Today, when we look back, we think we have fulfilled the promise to some extent. The setup of the organization is a three-tier system, Milk Producers Cooperative Societies at the village level, Milk Unions at District level and Federation as an Apex Body at State level. MILKFED Punjab has continuously advanced towards its coveted objectives well defined in its bylaws

A place is called verka
For away from the din and the madding pace of the city there rests, near Amritsar, a sleepy village is called verka. It is a prefect picture of health and happiness. It is the first milk plant of verka.

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Filing System in Verka Milk Plant
Name and location & products manufacture/offered by Verka

Milk fed has a strong value addition base though its 11 District cooperative milk producer¶s unions and chilling capacity of about 15 Lac liters per day, all of whom have attained self sufficiency or are on the thresh-old of attaining it. 

GURDASPUR
General Manager, The Gurdaspur Distt Co-Op. Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. Pathankot Road, Gurdaspur. Ph:.30787, Fax- 30787. Products: Ghee, S.M.P., W.M.P. & S.F.M Installed Handling Capacity 150 ('000' Liter per Day) Milk Chilling Centers under Gurdaspur Kalanaur, Tugalwala, Batala 

Amritsar
General Manager, The Amritsar Distt Co-Op. Milk Producers¶union Ltd. Verka, Amritsar Ph. 263032, 263062 Pbx-263022-72 Fax- 263062.

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Filing System in Verka Milk Plant
Products Ghee, S.M.P., W.M.P. Butter, Paneer, Milk-Cake & S.F.M. Installed Handling Capacity 100 ('000' Liters per Day 

Hoshairpur
General Manager, The Hoshiarpur Distt Co-Op.Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. Dharamshala Road, Hoshiarpur. Ph-231157, Pbx-22822, 22319, 22628 Fax-23157. Products Ghee, S.M.P., W.M.P., Butter, Paneer Etc. Installed Handling Capacity 100 ('000' Liter Per Day) Milk Chilling Centers under Hoshiarpur Dasuya, Padrana, Balachour 

Jalandhar
General Manager, The Doaba Co-Op. Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. G.T Road Bye Pass , Jalandhar. Ph. 290451, Pbx- 290650, 290301, Fax-291628. Products Ghee, S.M.P, W.M.P., Dairy Whitener, Butter, Paneer, Vigour (Malted Milk Food) & Ice ±Cream.
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Filing System in Verka Milk Plant
Installed Handling Capacity 300 ('000' Liters per Day) Khat Kar Kalan, Shahkot, Sultan Pur Lodhi 

Ropar
General Manager, The Ropar Distt Co-Op Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. S.A.S. Nagar, (Mohali). Ph: 670412 PBX: 670782-83-84. Fax: 224669. E-mail: Milk_Rmu@Chd.Nic.In Products Ghee, Cheese, Paneer, Curd, Sm, Tm, Dtm. Installed Handling Capacity 100 ('000' Liter Per Day) 

Ferozepur
General Manager, The Ferozepur Distt Co-Op Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. Vill. Malwal Kadimb, P.O. Bazidpur, Ferozepur. Ph: 44577. Milk Chilling Centers under Ferozpur Malwal, Ghallu, Kotissaa Khan (Hif)

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Filing System in Verka Milk Plant 

Chandigarh
General Manager, Milkfed Milk Plant, Industrial Area, Phase-I, Chandigarh-160002. Ph: 0172-650271 Products: S.F.M, Lassi, Raseela, Ice-Cream, Pinni, Milk Cake 

Bassi Pathana
Seed Processing Plant Bassi Pathana, Distt, Fatehgarh Sahib Ph. 01767-50248 Production, Gradation, Packing & Distribution of Fodder Seed. 

Faridkot
General Manager, The Faridkot Distt Co-Op Milk Producers Union Ltd. Kothubra Road, Faridkot. Ph: 50386 Milk Chilling Centers under Faridkot Badal, Doda, Baja Khana, Moga (Hif), Malout (Hif) 

Bathinda
General Manager, The Bathinda Distt Co-Op Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd.
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Talwandi  Sangrur General Manager. Bathinda.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Dabwalli Road. Fax.M.M.P. Ph-31193. Etc. 212825.P. Post Box No-9 Sangrur. S. Butter. Paneer. Sardulgarh. Products Ghee. Sehna. Rampura Phool. S..M. Installed Handling Capacity 150 ('000' Liters per Day) Milk Chilling Centers under Sangrur Changliwala. Milk Cake. Mehal Kalan Office Management File Page 6 .P. The Sangrur Distt Co-Op Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. Etc. 211834 Pbx-212406. Fax-220334.. W..P.M. W.. Jorepul. Ph: 212679. Installed Handling Capacity 125 ('000' Litres Per Day) Milk Chilling Centers under Bathinda Bhikhi.35093 Products Ghee.

& S. Pbx: 214614. The Patiala Distt Co-Op. Installed Handling Capacity 100 ('000' Liter per Day) Milk Chilling Centers under Patiala Sanam (Hif). Milk Producers¶ Union Ltd. Products: Ghee. Fax-225167.M. Cheese.F. Patiala Ph: 215076.225167. Hassanpur Sirhind Road. Sirhind (Hif).Filing System in Verka Milk Plant  Patiala General Manager. Vill. Nabha (Hif) Office Management File Page 7 .

Patiala. Ludhiana -141004  Head office : Punjab State co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd. 1974 Feb 1979 Production  Constitution : Co-operative Office Management File Page 8 . Ferozpur road. Co-operative Milk producers union Ltd.  Registered office : Milk Plant.C.O 153-155 sector 34-A  Date of Registration  Date of inauguration  Commencement of : : 1972 with PDDC 31st Oct. S.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Profile  Name : The Patiala Distt.

Capacity utilization of the plant is more than 80%. 5. 7. Office Management File Page 9 . Profit of the union has increased manifold. Highest milk price is being paid to the milk producers as compare to other plants in the state. No. 3. Milk products like ghee. Skimmed Milk Powder. 50.000 LPD. Patiala. of societies increased from 94 to 751 and its membership from 5400 to 7800 2. 6. 60. Table Butter. Turnover of the plant touched to 180 crores. Whole Milk Powder. Curd. 4. Products being manufactured by Patiala Plant are sold at premium rates through out the country and in the international Market. Milk procurement has increased from 10200 LPD to 2. Milk cake etc are being manufactured by Milk Plant. Paneer.000 LPD. 8. City supply has increase from 66000 LPD to 1.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Present Status / Achievements of the Plant 1.

2007 was to the tune of Rs. have 38. This has resulted into tremendous achievements in all fields. EQUITY PARTICIPATION: The paid-up equity of Milk fed as on 31.15 crores which comprises of Rs. That shows that co-operative members have 61.47.3.02 crores from the cooperative members and balance Rs.13 crores from State Government.29.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant MISSION OF VERKA To become the market leader in market of milk and milk products. Office Management File Page 10 .18.46% equity participation.55% of total equity and state govt. Achievements On the basis of quality with efficient administration. MILKFED has not only established new mile stone of providing services to Dairy farmers but scaled new heights in delighting esteemed customers also.

at the most affordable prices. infant food. And all this. its home made taste. And of course.02 Series1 MARKETING OF MILKFED Milk fed is serving nationwide consumers through its net work of Regional offices and strong Distribution channels. skimmed milk powder. SFM. Milkfed markets a wide Variety of Products which include liquid milk. To people today.13 29. Verka is the part of their daily lives. Office Management File Page 11 . etc.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Equity Participation 35 30 Equity Partcipation in crores 25 20 15 10 5 0 Co-operative member Mem bers State govt. butter. Now Verka has arrived on the sheer strength of its quality. ghee. cheese. Ice Cream. Malted food Verka etc. Verka is a brand leader in milk powders particularly in northern eastern sectors and SMP marketed by Milkfed commands a premium price over powders manufactured by competitors who include multi-national as well as private trade and other Cooperative Federations. lassi. whole milk powder. freshness and purity. The annual turnover of Milkfed has crossed Rs 668 crores. 18.

Verka ghee reaches all the emirates and is available almost in all super markets.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant EXPORT OF MILK PRODUCTS: With competition in the national market zooming up efforts to export products have been made. Milkfed has established its ghee market in Middle East Market. The penetration is so deep that verka ghee is available in far off labor camps. Bangla Desh and Sri-Lanka. Verka Malt Plus (Malted Milk food) has also been exported to Bangla Desh. SMP was also exported to Asian Countries like Philippines. Office Management File Page 12 . In addition to ghee.

Milk Chilling Center. Distance From Milk Plant ii.000 liters per days 111 40 km 20. Khanna i. The main objective of the programme is to improve efficiency of Plants coupled with loss management to bring down the cost of production. Distance From Milk Plant ii. Distance From Milk Plant ii. im-prove the quality of milk and milk products manufactured to ameliorate the general hygienic and housekeeping standards and above all to enhance the profitability and financial viability of the Milk Plants to enable milk producers to get better price for their produce. Milk plant has set up six milk chilling centers at different towns. A brief description of these centers as under: 1. Capacity iii.000 liters per days 31 Page 13 .000 liters per days 31 55 km 30. Milk Chilling Center. Capacity iii. Societies 2. Societies 3. Bija i. Societies Office Management File 40 km 20.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMME Quality Assurance Programme (QAP) which is a part and parcel of Dairy Plant Improvement Programme (DPIP) was taken up in Ludhiana Milk Union with the Technical guidance from NDDB. Machhiwara i. Milk Chilling Center. Capacity iii.

Societies 6. Distance From Milk Plant ii. Capacity iii. Ramgarh Sardaran i. Capacity iii. Milk Chilling Center. Milk Chilling Center.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant 4. Distance From Milk Plant ii.000 liters per days 84 30. Milk Chilling Center. Societies 5. Societies 39 km 40 km 44 km 20.Raikot i. Distance From Milk Plant ii.000 liters per days 65 30. Capacity iii.000 liters per days 86 Office Management File Page 14 . Baundli i.

Patiala procures milk through co-operative societies. The milk producers receive rate of milk from milk plant on the basis of fat. morning and evening. the chilling center were setup. Firstly milk is collected by these societies then sent the milk to the milk plant Patiala two times. firstly milk is reached in the huge quantity. average and lean. Firstly milk is received in dock through tempo in higher basis of routes. Raikot. after this process milk is sent to the laboratory to find out fat and S. The milk plant has two Docks. then milk cans are washed by the machines and again these cans are kept in the carriers after this process tempo sheets are Office Management File Page 15 . It is send to the milk plant. At the present the plant has the 751 societies. The lean period is during April and July and this period supply of milk received in less quantity. the societies are for away from the milk plant and milk is perishable in nature so to avoid the wastage of milk.There are 3 seasons of milk fluid. Reception and processing) Procurement The milk plant.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant DETAILS OF OPERATIONS (Procurement. RECEPTION OF MILK Reception of milk is done at the dock. Ramgarh Sardaran. the purpose to setup the center are that. Dock is like a station. Bija and Samrala. contents. Firstly milk is received at the chilling center and after chilling the milk. There are six milk-chilling centers at Machhiwara.F. The flush is in winter and the milk is highly produced. The average is During August to November and in this period the supply of milk received is average.N.

³Marketing is the process getting the right goods to the right consumers at the right place at the right price´. The numbers of milk cans of buffalo and cows milk is recorded on these sheets are sent to the societies for the information of quantity of milk. It export Ghee to Dubai but no any tetra pack is export Office Management File Page 16 . Exports Milk union is famous all over the country and outside the country for its quality of milk and milk products. Due to these certificates its products are easily acceptable in the international market. Then the milk is immediately chilled and pasteurized Pasteurization is a process which was found by pasteurization MARKET SERVED . Return of Tetra Packs Due to the expire time of tetra pack is 6 month.DOMESTIC/FOREIGN The success of a concern lies not only in production. Patiala milk plant is solely responsible for the marketing of fluid milk products are marked by ³the Punjab state co-operative milk producers union Ltd. It holds international quality Louse Pasteur. good packing and fresh supply from Patiala there is no replacement of the tetra packs. but also mainly in successful marketing. All the get during certificates ISO 9002 and IS-15000 (HACCP). PROCESSING All the received is passed on to the tank lying under the weighing bowl. In Verka Milk Plant Patiala four types of tetra packs and other products are marked under the brand name ³VERKA´.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant prepared.

5%)  Full Cream Milk (Fat Contents 5. Patiala produces a variety of products which are available in different packing. These products are as under:  Flavored Milk  Flavored Lassi  Mango Rassila  Yoghurt Fruit Drink  Kaju Pinni  Ice Cream Office Management File Page 17 .5%) (Fat Contents 1.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Other information:Products Manufactured and marketed by Milk Union. Milk plant. It charges commission on the sale of the products.5%)  Ghee  Butter  Skimmed Milk Powder(SMP)  Paneer  Milk Cake Besides these products milk plants sells various products procured from plants. Raw material for all these products is milk which procured from milk producers. Products manufactured by milk plant are:  Sterilized Fluid Milk  Standardized milk  Double Toned Milk (Fat Contents 4.

The verka milk plant.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Aims of Milk Union Every organization is formed for achieving some objectives.  To provide veterinary aids to animals of milk producers at their doorsteps.  To uplift social and economic states of the milk producers. Setting of objectives and aims serves as guidelines for excellent or smooth working of the concern.  To increase the bargaining power of milk producers at their doorsteps.  To create employment opportunities for rural youth by milk production activities Office Management File Page 18 .  To procure milk and execute marketing efforts so that milk producers get good prices of their milk. Chandigarh was constituted to fulfil the following aims.  To provide better quality cattle feed at reasonable prices.  To develop dairy as an industry allied to agriculture.

At present it has 767 co-operative societies. its processing and production of milk products.C. after charging commission from milk Plant at rates specified by Milk Union. Manager is responsible for production planning.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Study of functioning of all departments Milk Procurement Section Milk procurement business is being looked after mainly by milk union. He also guides workers for better Office Management File Page 19 . Patiala Milk is collected by milk producer co-operative societies at the village level and purchased by Milk Union.P.) Manager (Milk Chilling Center) M. Production Department: This department is headed by production manager and technical staff and officers and operation. D.A.Manager (Proc. receiving good quality of milk.H. Patiala which further supplies that milk to the Milk Plant. He is responsible for achieving production target with minimum wastage. milk Procurement Dy. Staff Structure of procurement section: Manager.C. The plant was registered in the year 1972 with primary membership of 45 milk producer co-operative society.

 To buy goods or materials wisely at reasonable prices.  To record particulars of purchase orders.C PURCHASE DEPARTMENT This department his headed by purchase officers who is assisted by supporting staff in maintaining regular supply of store items. Functions of purchase department:  To received purchase requisition from stores.  To invite quotation from number suppliers and preparing comparative statement to choose a right supplier. Different milk products are produced as per availability of milk and as per demand of market. butter. Office Management File Page 20 . Manager. This required store items at very section ensures timely purchase of reasonable cost. Plant Operator Jr.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant performance. Production Dy.C. First of all the requirement of milk demand is fulfilled and then remaining milk is used for producing various products such as Ghee. cheese etc.H. Staff Structure of production section: Manager. Production Sr. The production is an important activity because other department purchasing extra revolve around it.. Plant Operator D.

Accurate and precise information to support the operation management analysis and decision making function in an organization. He is responsible for identifies all machine needing maintenance to avoid any breakdown during the production. Engineering Dy. He is also supposed to introduce to new machinery by which the cost of production can be decreased it also insured are transport vehicles of milk plan Staff Structure of engineering section Manager. ENGINEERING SECTION This section is headed by engineering manager who is assisted by technical officers. quantity.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant  To check the supplier¶s invoices as regards price. Here data are collected from different section in an Office Management File Page 21 . Engineering Foreman Electrical Foreman Refrigeration Foreman Boiler Foreman Transportation Management Information System MIS is a system where information about the activities of plant is supplied to management. quality etc. Manager.

In bringing he producer and consumer together. certain activities are performed which is the concern of marketing. This section ensures compliance of labor laws. which can be useful to the management for decision making. Marketing is a process of getting the right goods Office Management File Page 22 . This involves the movement of goods from the manufacturers to ultimate consumers. Production of goods and services has no meanings unless goods and services are exchanged profitably for money or money¶s worth. Personnel and HRD department Manger P & HRD Department who is assisted by supporting staff to carry out function of this section head this section. This section is responsible for timely payment to all the employees of milk plant and also to the parties dealing with it.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant organization. Accounts Department A manager account is the head of this department. maintenance of proper records and completion of administrative formalities for timely payments of dues to employees. It records all the transactions in the proper books to provide necessary information to the authorities whenever required. He is responsible for the overall management of accounts. It is also responsible for maintaining cordial relationship between workers and management. Marketing Department The success of concern lies not only is production but mainly in successful marketing.

Quality control laboratory helps in maintaining high quality of milk and milk product assist ensures quality by testing the raw material as well as finished products. Quality Control Dy.Manager. Manager. Staff Structure of Quality Control section.C. In the marketing section there is head of the section and other employees work under him. It also keeps the records of goods purchase and goods in stock as well as the Office Management File Page 23 . Quality Control Department Quality control manager heads this department and the technical staff assists the manager by conducting all type of tests on raw materials and finished products with the help of sophisticated equipment and machines purchased.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant to right consumers at the right place. at right time and prices . Chemist Labobratory Assistant Helper STORE DEPARTMENT This department stores all the essential equipment and material and stationary required in all the departments. Quality Control Asstt. Manager. Q.Marketing section play very important role sale of goods in the marketing.

Production planning of milk products is done in keeping in the view the procurement of the milk plant and also tentative demand in the city. The product is stored at clean and cool places. Patiala milk plant does not face any major competition. purchasing and personal revolve around it. and machinery. who is assisted by a team of well-trained personnel manager the security department. capital. Production of milk products:-Production is a more important activity of an organization. SECURITY DEPARTMENT:.Production is a process by which raw material are converted into finished products with the help of energy. The main purpose of this section is to keep the full record of packed material. the remaining milk is used for producing various products.per day.One senior security employee. Milk cake constitutes a very small production of their daily production with an average production of twenty-five kg. The production departments play a very important role in formulation of the production policies Production planning is done by the head office and send to the production manager according to this planning production manager arrange to produce the products. manpower. Every distract has its own Office Management File Page 24 . This department keeps proper watch on men. In occupies an important and significant place because other functional areas of management viz. After the supply of the pasteurized milk. money and materials while entering in and going out of the plant. Different milk products are produced as per availabilities of milk and as per demand of sales and keeping in view the production plan given by head office In the case of fresh milk products. Production policy aims at maximum output with minimum input.financing. marketing.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant goods the used by the particular department.

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant plant. The products which are not manufactured here are bought from the Ludhiana or any other union and the further sold in Patiala. Office Management File Page 25 .

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Verka products range 1 Ghee 2 Butter 3 Skimmed milk powder 4 Flavored milk 5 Flavored Lassi 6 Mango Rassila 7 Paneer 8 Milk Cake 9 Dahi 10 Ice Cream Ghee & Butter Office Management File Page 26 .

6 6.5 6.30 MILK GENERAL COMPOSITION FOR MILK MILK Percentage Cow Milk Buffalo Milk Fat Proteins Lactose Ash Water 4.reading (40 degree C.50 5 B.6 3. (Max.A.0 .2 Phosphates Test Office Management File Page 27 .43 RM Value (Min.6 3.4 4.9 5.) Curd % (Max) Salt % (Max) Coli form/ml.15 1.5 8.0 1. (Max.9 0.7 86.8 5 hrs Neg 84.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant GHEE (AGMARK) Boudine Test Neg.) Y&M (Max)/g 80 .R.) Acidity %L.0 0.06 1.) 40 .8 5 20 82 .2 0. BUTTER Fat% (Min.) P.00 2.2.Value FFA % Oleic Acid (Max) 28.8 STANDARD Milk Fat % (Min) Milk SNF % (Min) PH (Max) MBRT (Min) 4.

4.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant UHT MILK FAT SNF pH Acidity L.A.6 0.6% 6.130% LA DRINKS Office Management File Page 28 .6% 8.

(Max.4 20 .65 17.00 ICE CREAM & SWEETS Office Management File Page 29 .5 10.) 5 LASSI Milk Fat % Total Solids % (By wt.) Turbidity Test Acidity (%Citric Acid) Creaming Index Neg.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant SWEETENED FLAVOURED MILK Milk Fat % (Min.9-4.) Sugar % (Max.28 20 pH 3.23 12.1 1. 0.0 RASEEELA Cheese Whey % Sugar % Mango Pulp% Bricks 40 12-12.0 to 3.00 15 Bacterial Spores per ml.) Total Milk Solids % (Min.) Sugar % 3.0 6.

By wt.) Stab.50 . (By Wt. c) To ensure viability and growth of Milk Unions by converting surplus milk into products and ensure their marketing.) (By wt.) Min. By wt. By wt.) Milk Fat % (Minimum) 13 Total Solid (%Min. Office Management File Page 30 . Emul. Bacterial Count/g (Max) Coliform/g (Max.5.) 38. % Max.) Phosphates Test Objectives a) To bring prosperity to Milk Producers in the State through assured market and remunerative prices all round the year. d) To modernize existing Plants and upgrade technology from time to time.30 14 Acidity. Sucrose % Min.A. L.) 0.25 Acidity % Max (By wt. (By wt.) 0. % (Max) By Wt Sucrose % Max.) 140.50 2.560-580 Total Solids (Min. 42 13 3.) Protein (%Min.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant ICE CREAM KULFI AND F/N CHOCOLATE Kulfi Weight (g/lts.5 Milk Fat %( %Min. b) To provide fresh hygienic milk to urban consumers at reasonable rates. 50. 000 90 Neg.

K. IAS. Iqbal Singh Tarmala. IAS. Managing Director Milk fed. Bathinda. Jalandhar. Sandhura Singh. (Govt. Ropar. Sharma. (Govt. Milk Union. (Govt. Faridkot Sh. Cooperative Societies. Milk Union.). Milk Union Patiala Milk Union Sangrur. Director. Sh. Nominee) Usha R.Nominee) Sh. Director. Milk Union. Secretary (AH & D) Govt. Milk Union. Financial Commissioner (Coop.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant EXISTING BOARD OF DIRECTORS Sh. Zone Vacant Office Management File Page 31 . Registrar. V. Singh. Ferozepur. Sh. IAS Secretary (Expenditure). IAS. Director. Milk Union. Sukhjinder Singh.Zone Vacant. Milk Union. Gurbachan Singh Babehali Chairman Sh. Ludhiana.Zone Vacant. Director. of Punjab. V. Sh. Punjab NDDB (Nominee) Milk Union. Singh.K. Karnail Singh. Punjab.Suresh Kumar. IAS. Zone Vacant Sh. Zone Vacant. Nominee) Sh. Amritsar.Karandeep Singh Bhullar.

Many valuable orders and customer can be lost and wrong decisions taken due to inefficient system of filing. very sophisticated filing methods and equipment. Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Patiala has large number of papers relating to different transactions.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant FILING SYSTEM IN VERKA MILK PLANT PATIALA. In the Verka Milk Plant Filing is treated as an important Office Management File Page 32 . obligations and other matters have to keep in every office. records provide documentary evidence in case of disputes. A few decades ago filing was considered as an unimportant and unproductive routine and it was a matter of few thick papers files or pigeon holes and spike files. so that these can be quickly and conveniently located. decisions. Papers are the memory of the office. In filing System in Verka Milk Plant Patiala arranging papers in a systematic manner. IMPORTANCE OF FILING SYSTEM IN VERKA MILK PLANT PATIALA In Verka Milk Plant all the planning is done on the information of past which can be obtained from records. plans. Nothing caresses more confusion in an office than a bad system of filing. In the Verka Milk Plant with the realization of importance of filing we find. It is necessary that these papers should be placed and stored in such a manner that they can be easily located when required. today. For efficient working of the office the existence of a simple. efficient and comprehensive system of maintaining records is essential.

CONVENIENCE OF READY REFERENCE In Verka Milk Plant if letters and documents relating to a subject or transaction can be found at one place on the relevant file. Modern records management involves much mote than merely the methodology of filing. 4. DOCUMENTARY PROOF In Verka Milk Plant old records can be produced as evidence in legal suits in case of dispute regarding terms of contract the original contract can be produce as a proof. microphotography and sophisticated equipment of keeping records. record retention. it is easier to link up information and know the previous history of the case. it deals with wider aspects like indexing. SAFETY OF RECORDS In Verka Milk Plant under filing system. 2. Nobody can remember what has transpired earlier without files. follow-up. 3.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant aspect of office management and this function now is put under the supervision of a senior executive. PROMPT HANDLING OF MAILS Office Management File Page 33 . records remain protected against insects. weather and mishandling. ADVANTAGES OF FILING SYSTEM IN THE VERKA MILK PLANT 1.

6. Office Management File Page 34 . FOLLOW UP ACTION In Verka Milk Plant for perusal of matters follow up action is essential. They serve as the basis of future action. For example. This facilitates quick decision in the matter.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant In Verka Milk Plant if the records are kept in a systematic manner it becomes easy do link them up. In the absence of good filing system many business opportunities may be lost due to non-availability of required information. for recovery of an outstanding debt reminder have to be send to the parties. For securing orders from old and new customers report has to be maintained with them for which there is the need of records. HELP IN POLICY FORMATION In Verka Milk Plant past records help to framing future policies. To whom the reminders should be sent and when they should be sent can be known only from files. 5.

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant ESSENTIALS 1. ACCESSIBILITY In Verka Milk Plant quick accessibility to records is very essential. yet an inadequate filing system can defeat the very purpose drawers of cabinets or shelves of racks are a common sight in many offices. A good filing system is one in which the required files and information can be easily. ADEQUACY OF GOOD FILING SYSTEM IN VERKA MILK PLANT In Verka Milk Plant it is essential that the filing system should be adequate for the purpose for which it is to be used. Filing system should allow writing on the papers contained in a file without disturbing their arrangement. Required information should be available within reasonable time. The system should meet the requirements of the organization. 3. Records should be within the reach of the users. mean that if the needs of the office demand a complex or an elaborate type of filing system it should not be adopted because it is not simple. It does not. however. SIMPLICITY In Verka Milk Plant the system of filing should be simple to understand and easy to operate. 2. An office must adopt a system suitable for it but efforts should be made to make it simple. While an over elaborate filing system and sophisticated filing equipment may prove a waste for a small office where a few cardboard boxes of file covers can serve the purpose. Office Management File Page 35 . it is a Clair indication that the existing system is not adequate for the requirements of the organization.

ELASTICITY In Verka Milk Plant the system should e capable of expanding and contracting with the needs of the organization. EASE OF LOCATION In Verka Milk Plant records should be so located that they can be traced without delay. The filing department should use such equipment which occupies less space. There is no use of having an elaborate and expensive system of filing when a simple one can do the job. Space is quite costly in big cities. It is better to place current records at some nearby place and old records at some obscure place. This facilitates tracing the files. To know about the whereabouts¶ of files taken out ³out guides´ should be placed in the racks/shelves from where the files have been taken out. 6. The cost of installing and operating the filing system should commensurate with benefits accruing from it. As a measure or economy. Office Management File Page 36 . records no longer needed should be destroyed this will ease space problem also. it has to be substituted by a new filing system which involves much additional expenditure. In menu big offices. An inelastic filing system ultimately proves costly when the needs of business increase.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant 4. a separate room or a hall under the charge of a supervisor is allocated for storing old records in a systematic manner. 5. ECONOMY In Verka Milk Plant the filing system should not be too expensive to install or costly to operate.

8. they should be stored in fire proof almirahs or safes or be kept in they custody of banks. FACILITY OF CROSS REFERENCE In Verka Milk Plant a good system of filing should permit cross referencing. insects. PROPER CLASSIFICATION In Verka Milk Plant a suitable method of classifying the files should be adopted so that files relevant to subject or a period can conveniently be sorted out. Proper classification helps in putting the document in proper files. have to be preserved throughout the life of the organization. weather.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant 7. theft. it also facilitates in locating them in case of need. and fraud and mishandling. Systematic classification of records reduces the chances of misfiling. INDEXING In Verka Milk Plant if there are a large number of files the filing system should be supplemented by a well-designed index system. How elaborate the index system of their classification. Office Management File Page 37 . Sometimes one letter may concern different files. The index will help in quick location lf files. 10. Number miscellaneous files should be kept to minimum. arrangements should be made to place a copy of such a litter in every relevant file. SAFETY In Verka Milk Plant it is necessary that records should be kept in such a manner that they remain safe from dust. 9. Certain documents like title deeds of the property etc.

.Ba««z etc. For example the files of those customers whose name or surname begin with alphabet´ A´ will be arranged separately.aba«.z. v. Aishwarya. for example files of Aman. iii. There are five broad methods of classifying records: i. Under this method files are arranged in accordance with the first letter of the subject or the correspondent. If desired files under each alphabet can be further grouped in dictionary order. Alphabetically Numerically Geographically Chronologically. ALPHABETICALLY Every file has a name or a title. and Subjectwise 1. Arpita will be arranged in that order. paper or records on some common basis is called classification of files. If there are many correspondents whose names begin with ³A´ their files will be arranged in strict alphabetical order of subsequent litters too like Aa««z. Office Management File Page 38 . Grouping of documents. iv. ii.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant CLASSIFICATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF FILES IN VERKA MILK PLANT In Verka Milk Plant assigning particular class or category to individual items in the basis of similarity or common characteristics is known as classification.

if there are four files relating to Ms. NUMERICALLY In Verka Milk Plant some file or the folder is given a code number and the files are placed strictly in that serial order. the digit 33 may stand for finance and 33. it may become difficult to decide in which that letter should be filed or which file should be sing to link that paper up 2. For example. This is called terminal digit filing. new files can be added and old files destroyed without disturbing the existing arrangement. Sometimes a subject is given one number and different files of that subject are given a sub-number in the form of decimal number. A letter can appear to be relating to more then one subject. A common practice is to make 26 divisions which are based on 26 alphabets of English. If there are more than one file of any correspondent the number can be alters in decimal. c) The need for maintaining an index of files does not arise. For example. MERITS a) This method is simple to understand and easy to operate. LIMITATIONS a) It is not possible to demarcate subjects precisely. It is essential to have an index of files which will show the serial number number of particular file.41 may stand for corporation finance. b) It is flexible. this is known as consecutive filing. Priyanka Office Management File Page 39 .Filing System in Verka Milk Plant For classification different shelves of racks are allotted to different Alphabets.

c) The index can be used for obtaining or collecting other relevant information regarding correspondents.5 and 110. for example files relating to state of Uttar Pradesh. This system can be used in combination with alphabetical or numerical systems. b) It permits unlimited expansion specially id the numbers are allotted on decimal system. MERITS a) Under this system greater accuracy is ensured. b) Business can make an assessment of his success or failure in different regions if the files are kept on geographical basis.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant and his code number is 110. files of customer¶s of Madhya Pradesh can further be arranged in alphabetical or numerical order. Madhya Pradesh and Punjab will be arranged in that order and. Reference can be linked up if geographical location only is known. For example. if desired. 3. MERITS a) This system facilitates direct filing without reference to the index. He can Office Management File Page 40 . for example the file index can be used as list of addresses of customers or suppliers. the main advantages of terminal digit filing is that even if many files become dead. there will not be gaps in serial number will be felt. GEOGRAPHOCALLY In Verka Milk Plant some files are arranged on the basis of geographical region or area. files relating to different districts of these states can be arranged separately.6.

Under this method files are arranged on the basis of subject. The files of different subjects can further be arranged in alphabetic order. It is useful when time element is important as in the case of recovery of outstanding dues or vouchers etc. 5.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant adopt suitable policies for each region on the basis of analysis of regional information. Papers relating to different subjects like accounts. files for loans granted to different persons may be arranged firstly in chronological order and then in alphabetical order with the result that there will be different files for same debtors for loans granted to him in different yerars. This method is generally used in combination with other methods. For example. 4. but this method can be of hardly any use when used in its pure form. Files on the same subject relating to different correspondents can be arranged alphabetically so that the system becomes combination of subject and alphabetical classification. CHRONOLOGOCALLY In Verka Milk Plant some files relating to different years or periods are arranged date wise. advertisements etc.. are kept separately. Office Management File Page 41 . This type of classification proves better where the subject is more important than the name of the correspondent. SUBJECTWISE This has been found to be the best method of classification in most of the faces and s the most commonly used method. budget.

entire correspondence on this subject can be found in one file. for example if negotiation are going on for the purchase of office premises. c) It permits unlimited expansion.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant MERITS a) Required files can be easily found if their subject is known. b) It is not suitable for filing miscellaneous papers. Office Management File Page 42 . c) If there is any ambiguity about the subject of a paper there are chances that it may go to a wrong file and may not be easily traceable when needed. b) this method proves specially useful if papers of divers nature relating to a subject have to be kept at one place. LIMITATION a) Difficulties can arise in classifying papers on the basis of subject.

specially when departments are situated wide apart. Whenever any department needs any file. DISADVANTAGES  It causes much delay and inconvenience whenever any department needs a file it will have to requisition it from the central filing section which may take some time. it asks the central filing section for it.  Uniformity and standardization in filing routines can be maintained which ensures prompt handing. ADVANTAGES  The work is handled by expert file clerks who are trained and experienced in the art of filing papers accurately. CENTRALISED FILLING Under this system files relating to the whole organization we located in the central filing section.  If a file concerns many departments it may remain out of central filing section.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant CENTRALISED AND DECENTRALISED FILING In organizing the filing system the office manager has to decide whether files relating to each department should be kept in the respective department or at a centralized place known as central filing section. The purpose of centralizing is to render better and central filing section.  Department secrets cannot be kept safe if the secret files are kept in central filing section.  The other entire department will be saved from the both ration of maintaining their own records. Office Management File Page 43 . most of the times as a result of which some departments may have to wait for their turn.

 It is possible to keep secrecy of documents or information. Office Management File Page 44 . equipment and staff to handle files: Hence this system proves uneconomical. ADVENTAGE  As the relevant files are within easy reach of the users this system ensures prompt action. DISADVANTAGES  There is needless duplication of work.  A paper concerning more than one department will have to be filed in files of different departments and hence more copies of that will have to be made. this will create more work.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant DECENTRALISED FILING Under this system each department of the organization makes its own arrangements for filing.  It is not possible to follow standards and routines.

3. But in big organizations. Prevention of theft or unauthorized reference. Protection of documents against: 2. The papers (letters or other documents) are placed in metal holders in chronological order. new types of filing equipment and method are being used because of the importance of the following factors. While selecting the filing equipment. It is not of much use in practice. all the letters etc. 1. We can classify them under two heads. Office Management File Page 45 . (2) BOUND BOOK Under this method. and (2) New Methods. OLD FILING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT (1)METAL HOLDERS These are used for holding the papers together.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant METHOD AND EQUIPMENT OF FILING IN VERKA MILK PLANT Filing equipment plays an important role in the efficiency and effectiveness of a filing system. the office manager must determine which of the above purposes must be served. are pasted in the bound book in chorological order to avoid the possibility of loss or misplacement of any paper. location and extracting documents. This method is also not used these days because of very limited utility. This method is inconvenient and does not serve the real purpose of filing if the number of papers is large. Reduction of physical effort on the part of filing staff in inserting. namely. (1) old Methods. Old Method are still being used by small concerns.

However. (4) CONCERTINA FILE It provides a series of cardboard pockets usually sufficient to permit alphabetical classification and is readily portable. it is said to be an important landmark in the development of vertical filing. are to be filed for a short period. electricity bill. It can be used where the letters and other documents such as water bill. For instance. (5) PIGEON HOLE FILING OR DOCKETING It involves a cupboard divided into a number of small compartments. This system is very much followed in post offices for sorting letters posted for different cities or localities. also known as ³pigeon-holes´. It is suitable for keeping only a small number of papers since its capacity is limited. Each pigeon-hole usually bears a litter of the alphabet. a letter received from shikha may be inserted into the pigeon hole merked with´S´. They pole up one above the other on the wooden base. The letters which are intended to be filed are punched through the sharp point of the spike. etc. Office Management File Page 46 . The cupboard is open from one side and the compartments are square holes. It may even bear the name of a geographical area or a subject or the name of the correspondent and then inserted into respective pigeon holes. This equipment is very cheap and simple one and may be used by small shop vendors.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant (3) SPIKE OR PILLAR AND POST FILE This method uses a spike or wire fixed to a small wooden stand which may be placed on the desk or table or may be hung on the wall.

BOX FILE:. Deep. eight to ten CMA. Office Management File Page 47 .this system is used to serve as the evidence of the letters sent by the organization in its ordinary course of business. cardboards boxes.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant The pigeon-hole method or docketing suffers from the following limitations: i. iv. It is an old method which is suitable for small business only. v. insects. Some dockets become overcrowded if a large number of letters are received from correspondents whose names begin with the same alphabet. etc. PRESS COPY BOOK: . ii. Under this all letters which are sent out are copied in a book marked for this purpose. Documents are exposed to dust. Finding of documents is difficult. They consist of loose manila sheets which are used to classify the documents according to alphabetical order.under this system. Spring clips are fitted within the boxes to hold the papers. are used for filing papers. iii.

A cabinet can contain from 4 to 6 Office Management File Page 48 . these are not placed in upright position. all that we need is a thick paper file. Letters or papers to be filed are put in the file through tags or hinges in chronological order. Generally a separate file is opened for each correspondent or subject. It is the cheapest. 1. This is also called flat filing method because the files are placed feat on the shelves. In many offices the file is divided in two parts.e. The right hand side cover is for tagging incoming letters and copies of outgoing lattes while the left hand cover is used for keeping nothing i. FLAT FILES This is the most commonly used system. A description of important horizontal filing methods follows.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant MODERN METHOD OF FILING IN VERKA MILK PLANT Following are the modern methods of filing in Verka Milk Plant: HORIZONTAL FILING METHODS These methods are called horizontal because papers or documents are kept in drawers or cupboards one over the other so that they one parallel to the horizon. SHENON FILE Papers under this system are attached to hinger of metal drawers which remain inserted in steel cabinets. a tag and wrapper. 2.

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Drawers. The drawers can be classified in alphabetical. The equipment for vertical filing consists of: 1. insects and dust. are punched on the papers to be inserted in the file. apart. 4. Two holes. After putting the papers in holds arches are fastened and the levers are closed. On the top of each folder there is a projected tab on which code or an indication of the contents of the envelop are mentioned. LEVER ARCH FILES These files are made of strong card-board folders which are fitted with metal archer which can be opened by operation of levers. Folders with tabs: . VERTICAL FILING Under this system the papers are kept in special type of thick paper folders.´ 2. about 6 or 8 cm. These envelopes are arranged in drawers of cabinets in vertical upright position according to different methods of classification. The papers remain well protected from theft.tabs show particulars of contents in brief. Guides are also placed in between the envelopes to demarcate one class of correspondence from other. Cabinet: . Folders are made of strong manila papers and can be of different Office Management File Page 49 .a wooden of flame proof steel cabinet with one to six drawers within runs smoothly on a device known as ³ball bearings. pr any other convenient order. Separate folders are made for each correspondent or subject.

they do not get unnecessary folds or twists.connected folders which have hooks are hung on the railing of shelves in the same manner as cloth hangers are hung in wardrobes. MERITS 1. which have hinges. 3. Under this system folders. The top of folders are fitted with the indicators which can be adjusts for the required angle of vision. 2. Titles of all files this can be viewed without touching of shuffling the folders. Lateral filing is ideal where Office Management File Page 50 .Filing System in Verka Milk Plant colors to distinguish different groups of files. The folder remains in position. This is quite flexible system. Front side of sheet is used for pasting title paper slips. Papers after being put in inter. Suspension filing is an improved form of vertical filing. it becomes like a visible system. As papers are kept in folders which lie hanging from railings fitted on drawers. The top of each folder is made of metal sheet. ³Out guides´ replace the files taken away from drawers and show their whereabouts. instead of being put in the drawers are kept suspended vertically from metal railing fitted on the upper side of drawers. these paper slips exhibit title of the correspondence contained in that folder. It is the method of storing files side by side. SUSPENSION FILING If folders are put vertically there is possibility that some of them may slip or sag lower down the drawer and get lost. LATERAL FILING Lateral filing is a variation of the suspension system of filing.

the shelves do not have shutter but provision can be made for them. MICROFILMING Microfilming is also a filing method and is becoming popular because of space problem. It is the filing method of the near future. To hold the files in position or to divide the files according to some classification pivoting o to divide the files according to some classification pivoting dividers are also used. Lateral filing cupboards or racks can be built up as high as the calling of the room. can record the same Office Management File Page 51 . OPEN-SHELF FILING Open shelf filing offers the same advantages as the lateral filing but the files instead of being suspended from rails are arranged in open shelves like books are kept in libraries.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant space for filing is limited because no space is needed for opening the drawers and leaning over them. Generally. The information photographed on a film can be projected on a screen with the help of machine called µViewer´ or ³Reader´. In the film of 30 cubic centimeters. The files are generally arranged in numerical order and the outer edges of file show the serial number of file. It saves floor space floor space. gives greater visibility and affords facility of quick reference. It is gaining importance because it saves office space. a record of ten lakh cheques can be kept. Under this method records of documents are kept by taking their photograph on very small films. paper and overhead expenditure in maintaining huge filing.

With the help of a special device the needed information can be found out in just 30 seconds. yet it will have the authenticity like the original document.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant information permanently and safely in 2% of the space. 2. the files are put in folders which is also a part of vertical filing system. SPACE REQUIREMENTS Office Management File Page 52 . SYSTEM OF PLACEMENTS Under horizontal filing system files are placed one over the other while in vertical filing system the files are placed in upright standing position. It is quite cumbersome process. the files are put in folders which lie hanging from railings of drawers and can be easily located by seeing chit of the title of file which is stuck to the edges of the folders. COMPARISON OF HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL FILING SYSTEM 1. Under suspended filing system. which is also a part of vertical filing system. to find the required file. For example a Kodak instamatic microfilm system can records 30000 letter-sized documents on a single roll of film at the speed of 200 documents per minute. all other files lying on the required file have to be shuffled and removed. 3. FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF LOCATION OF FILES Under horizontal system. Reference to information is faster and surer too. Under vertical system the required can be easily found by having a look an tabs showing title of the file without disturbing other files.

4. expansion can take place without disturbing the expansion without much shuffling.e. More files can be accommodated in a drawer if placed in upright position than in horizontal position i. CONVENEIENCE OF GROUPING AND RE-GROUPING Any kind of classification can be adopted and changed in the case of vertical system of filing without much difficulty. If the number of files increases they can be accommodated in same drawers and if the need arises more filing cabinets can be procured.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant There is much saving of space under vertical system of filing. 5 POSSIBILITY OF EZPANSION Vertical system is more flexible. Hence. one over the other. more safely and in orderly manner. Equipment used for vertical filing is very compact which can store more files in limited space. Reclassification is quite difficult in the case of horizontal filing. Office Management File Page 53 .

Verka milk plant has various functional departments viz. credit memos. During my one month practical training I got chance to work in all the departments. invoices or bills to them while retaining the duplicate copies of these documents with it. or bill. When a Verka milk plant makes purchases it receives. six days in Inventory Department. During my practical training I have come to know that every department uses the different types of vouchers. But my main department was Clerical Department which gives supporting service to all the departments. Financial Department. These documents are proof¶s Office Management File Page 54 . It helps the students to familiar with the day to day working environment of the office. and similarly. when the business sells goods to its customers it issues similar types of cash memos. or invoice. Human Resource Department. a cash memo. inventory control supervisor in inventory department. Cost centers.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Practical Training Report The practical training is very essential for the office management students to face the practical life of the business. I have also got chance to enter the vouchers in tally software installed in accounting department of Verka Milk Plant. create salary statements as accounting clerk and handle the filing system as office clerk in clerical department. In each and every department the vouchers are used as the documentary evidence which prove beyond doubt that the transaction actually took place. Inventory department. Clerical Department and Accounting Department etc. I have spent five days in Financial Department. During my training I have perform the jobs like cash manger in financial department. Some of the vouchers are given below with their use. six days in accounting department and other days in Clerical Department. from suppliers. Production Department.

for the purpose of recording the transactions in the journal proper or subsidiary books. Accounting vouchers of Verka Milk Plant is divided into two categories. Supporting vouchers. It can be used as legal evidence of a business transaction having taken place. for e. They can be further subdivided into two categories i. Vouchers which support business transactions are called supporting vouchers. The analysis of business transactions for the purpose of recording is done by preparing another set of vouchers called µaccounting vouchers¶. are handed over to the accountant..Filing System in Verka Milk Plant of transactions having taken place. An accounting voucher. therefore. shapes and sizes. These supporting vouchers may be in different forms. Office Management File Page 55 . A supporting voucher is a written document having details of the business transaction and signed by the maker. No doubt that supporting vouchers support business transactions but before the transactions are recorded in the books of accounts of Verka Milk Plant they are properly analyzed. The accounting voucher is countersigned by some authorized and responsible person of the Verka Milk Plant. On the basis of these documents the accountant records the transactions in the books of accounts.e. In Verka Milk Plant mainly two types of Vouchers are used i.e. invoices. i) Cash vouchers ii) Non-cash vouchers Cash vouchers are prepared for cash transactions i. Supporting vouchers are the primary evidence of business transactions having taken place.g. cash receipts.e. bills. refers to a written document containing the analysis of business transaction for accounting and recording purposes. supporting vouchers and accounting vouchers. cash receipts and cash payments. prepared by the accountant on the basis of supporting vouchers. counterfoils of pay-in-slips confirming the deposit of cash or cheques in the bank etc.

Format of Debit Voucher Used in Verka Milk Plant During my training I have found that Verka Milk Plant undertakes large number of credit transactions. Credit vouchers are prepared for recording transactions related to receipt of cash only. the transactions do not involve any cash Office Management File Page 56 . A transfer voucher. is a voucher prepared for recording credit and other non-cash transactions. thus. therefore. Format of Credit Voucher Used in Verka Milk Plant Debit vouchers are prepared for recording transactions pertaining to payment of cash only. For recording such transactions another type of voucher is prepared which is called a transfer voucher.Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Credit vouchers and Debit Vouchers. As Transfer vouchers are prepared for noncash transactions.

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant receipt or cash payment. The working environment is also very healthy and all the employees are very helpful. Format of Transfer Voucher Used in Verka Milk Plant My practical training is non forgettable for me as I have learnt so many aspects of practical work. Since every transaction has two aspects. Office Management File Page 57 . these vouchers are simultaneously prepared both in debit and credit forms. The format of such a voucher is as follows. I am waiting for my next practical training to learn which I unable to learn in this training because of shortage of time. and here one of the aspects involves cash. The transfer voucher has a column for the account to be debited and another column for the account to be credited. therefore.

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant LIMITATION OF THE FILING SYSTEM  Decentralized system of filing increase the cost as more persons are required. BIBLIOGRAPHY Office Management File Page 58 .  Filing system is weak in respect of up keepment and usage of files.  Posts are remaining empty and no further recruitments are taking place.  Posts are remaining empty and no further recruitments are going in.  Folders and papers are being destroyed by rats.  Shelves are deluged with old files which are more than 20 to 30 years old and are lying without any use.

Filing System in Verka Milk Plant Office Management File Page 59 .

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