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267–270 c International Academic Publishers

Vol. 35, No. 3, March 15, 2001

**Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation
**

ZHANG Jie-Fang

Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, Zhejiang Province, China

(Received January 4, 2000)

Abstract We derive the generalized dromions of the new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation by the arbitrary function presented in the bilinearized linear equations. The rich soliton and dromion structures for this system are released.

PACS numbers: 03.40.Kf, 02.90.+p

Key words: (2 + 1) dimensions, nonlinear evolution equation, soliton, dromion

In the last decade there has been increasing great interest in study of soliton generating nonlinear evolution equations in diﬀerent branches of science not only in (1 + 1)dimensional systems, but also in (2 + 1)-dimensional or higher-dimensional systems. Generally speaking, to ﬁnd exact analyzing coherent-type soliton structures of (2+1)dimensional systems is more complicated than that in (1 + 1)-dimensional systems. Since the pioneering work of Boiti et al.,[1] for some (2+1)-dimensional integrable models such as the Davey–Stewartson (DS) equation,[2] the Kadomtsev–Petviashvilli (KP) equation,[3] the Nizhnik– Novikov–Veselov (NNV) equation,[4] the breaking soliton equation,[5] the long dispersive wave (LDW) equation,[6] the scalar nonlinear Schr¨dinger (NLS) equation[7,8] and o for some (3 + 1)-dimensional integrable models such as the KdV-type equation,[9] the Jimbo–Miwa–Kadomtsev– Petviaashvili (JMKP) equation,[10] some types of exponentially localized soliton solutions, called dromions, are found by using diﬀerent approaches. Usually, dromion solutions are driven by two or more nonparallel straight line ghost solitons. Even more generalized dromion solutions which are driven by curved and straight line soliton solutions for the (1 + 1)-dimensional KdV equation,[11] the (2+1)-dimensional potential breaking soliton equation,[12] the (2 + 1)-dimensional LDW equation[13] and the (2 + 1)dimensional scalar NLS equation,[13] are also found. In this article we investigate the generalized dromion structures of new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation discussed by Maccari[14] by suitably utilizing the arbitrary functions presented in the system. The system is of the form iφτ + φξξ − χφ = 0, χη = (|φ|2 + α|θ|2 )ξ , iθτ + θξξ − χθ = 0 , (1)

where ψ(ξ, η, τ ), θ(ξ, η, τ ) are complex and χ(ξ, η, τ ) is real. Equations (1) are derived from Nizhnik equations through the reduction method. Uthayakunar et al.[15] have established the integrability property of Eqs (1) by using singularity structure analysis. Equations (1) can be bilinearized by means of the following transformations φ= g , f θ= h , f χ = −2(ln f )ξξ , (2)

where g, h are complex functions and f is a real function. Using Eq. (2) and the Hirota’s bilinear operators,[16] equations (1) can be written as (iDτ + D2 )g · f = 0 , ξ (iDτ + D2 )h · f = 0 , ξ (Dξ Dη )f · f = −(|g|2 + α|h|2 ) . (3)

**We expand g, h and f in the form of a power series as g = g (1) + h= h
**

(1) 3 (3)

g

+ ···, + ···,

4 (4)

+ f

3 (3)

h

f =1+

2 (2)

+

f

+ ··· .

(4)

**Substituting Eqs (4) into Eqs (3) and comparing various powers of , we get o( ) :
**

(1) igτ + gξξ = 0 , (1)

ih(1) + hξξ = 0 , τ

(1)

(5) (6)

1 o( 2 ) : fξη = − (g (1) g (1)∗ + αh(1) h(1)∗ ) , 2

(3) o( 3 ) : igτ + gξξ = −(iDτ + D2 )g (1) · f (2) , ξ (3)

ih(3) + hξξ = −(iDτ + D2 )h(1) · f (2) , τ ξ

(3)

(7)

1 (4) o( 4 ) : fξη + Dξ Dη f (2) ·f (2) = − [ g (3) ·g (1)∗ +g (1) ·g (3)∗ 2 + α(h(3) · h(1) + h(1) · h(3)∗ )] , (8)

268

ZHANG Jie-Fang

Vol. 35

**and so on. Solving Eqs (5), we get
**

N

2 + αB1 exp(2k1R χ + 2l1R (η) + 2ω1R τ )] .

(10)

**Solving the above equation, we obtain Ai exp[ki ξ + ωi τ + li (η)] , (9a) f (2) = A2 exp(2k1R ξ + 2G(η) + 2ω1R τ + 2φ1 ) 1
**

2 + αB1 exp(2k1R χ + 2G (η) + 2ω1R τ + 2φ2 ) , (11)

g (1) =

i=1 N

h(1) =

i=1

Bi exp[ki ξ + ωi τ + li (η)] ,

(9b) where

**where li (η), li (η) are arbitrary complex functions of η and ki , ki , ωi , ωi are complex constants,
**

2 2 ωiI = (kiR − kiI ) ,

exp[2G(η)] = − exp[2G (η)] = −

e 2l1R (η) dη, e 2l1R (η) dη,

e 2φ1 = e 2φ2

ωiR = −2kiR kiI , ωiR = −2kiR kiI .

ωiI =

2 (kiR

−

2 kiI ) ,

1 , 4k1R 1 = . 4k1R

(12)

To construct the soliton solution, we put N = 1 so that we have from Eq. (6), 1 (2) fξη = − [A2 exp(2k1R ξ + 2l1R (η) + 2ω1R τ ) 2 1

Substituting g (1) , h(1) and f (2) into Eqs (7) and (8), it can be shown that g (j) = 0, h(j) = 0 for j ≥ 3 and f (j) = 0 for j ≥ 4. Now, using Eqs (9) and (11), we obtain the solution of Eqs (1) as follows:

φ= θ=

g (1) A1 exp[k1 ξ + ω1 τ + l1 (η)] = , 2 exp[2k 2 (2) 1 + A1 1+f 1R ξ + 2G(η) + 2ω1R τ + 2φ1 ] + αB1 exp[2k1R ξ + 2G (η) + 2ω1R τ + 2φ2 ] h(1) B1 exp[k1 ξ + ω1 τ + l1 (η)] = . 2 (2) 1 + A2 exp[2k1R ξ + 2G(η) + 2ω1R τ + 2φ1 ] + αB1 exp[2k1R ξ + 2G (η) + 2ω1R τ + 2φ2 ] 1+f 1 k1 = k1 , ω 1 = ω1 , l1 (η) = l1 (η) ,

(13) (14)

If we choose (15)

then solution of Eqs (1) becomes φ = A1 M (η) sech (k1R ξ + ω1R τ + G(η) + φ1 + φ) exp i[k1I ξ + ω1I τ + l1I (η)] , θ = B1 M (η) sech (k1R ξ + ω1R τ + G(η) + φ1 + φ) exp i[k1I ξ + ω1I τ + l1I (η)] , where exp(2φ) = 1 2 , A2 + αB1 1 M (η) = k1R exp l1R (η) . 2 A2 + αB1 exp G(η) 1 (18) (16) (17)

In Eq. (18) because l1R (η) is an arbitrary function of η, we can take M (η) as an arbitrary function of η. To understand the meaning of solutions (16) and (17), we discuss some special cases. Case 1 Single Dromion Driven by One Line Soliton and One Curve Soliton If we set ϕ= φ θ = , A1 B1

then when M (η) is ﬁxed as a single line soliton which is parallel to the η-axis and we combine the line soliton M (η) and curve soliton sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + χ1R (0) + φ1 ] together properly (multiplying them together simply in the case of solutions (17) or (18)), the original straight line and curved line solitons disappear (become ghost) and only a single peak localized in all directions, which is called a dromion, survives. The dromion is located at the interaction of the line and curve solitons. Because G(η) is an arbitrary function of η, the single dromion still possesses rich structures. Here are ﬁve concrete simple examples, ϕ1 = sech n (η − η0 ) sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] ≡ h1 (η) sech [k1R x + ω1R t + g(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] , (19)

No. 3

Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear · · ·

269

ϕ2 = sech n [cosh(η − η0 − 1)] sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(yη) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] ≡ h2 (η) sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] , ϕ3 = 1 sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] [(η − η0 )2n + 1] ≡ h3 (η) sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] ,

N

(20)

(21)

ai η i ϕ4 =

i=1 M

**sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] bi η
**

i

i=1

≡ h4 (η) sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] , ϕ5 = [A + sin B(η + η0 ) + C]hj sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)] , j = 1, 2, · · · , 4 .

(22)

(23)

The ﬁrst type of generalized dromion (19) decays exponentially in all directions. The second type of generalized dromion (20) decays much more quickly than the ﬁrst in the η direction. The third type of generalized dromion (21) decays much slower than the ﬁrst in the η direction. The fourth type of generalized dromion (22) does not decay quickly in the η direction. While the ﬁfth type of generalized dromion (23) has an oscillatory structure in the η direction. Case 2 Multi-dromion “Bounded” States If G(η) is selected to be N parallel line solitons (parallel to x-axis), then we get N -dromion ‘bound’ state

N

ϕN B =

j=1

fj (η) sech [k1R x + ω1R t + G(η) + φ1 ] exp i[k1I x + ω1I t + l1I (η)]

(24)

driven by N straight line ghost solitons and curved line ghost soliton. In Eq. (24), fj (η) can be selected quite freely, say h1 (η), h2 (η), h3 (η), h4 (η) in Eqs (19) ∼ (23). Because all N parallel line solitons are static in η-direction, the N -dromion can only move with the same speed in the x direction as the curved line ghost soliton moves and they cannot pass through each other. In other words, the behaviors of this dromion looks like a bounded state. Case 3 Single Soliton From Eq. (9), by choosing ki = kiR ,

2 ωi = kiR ,

li (η) = liR η ,

(25)

**we can obtain basic single soliton solution when taking N = 1, ϕ=
**

2 exp[k1R x + ik1R t + l1R (η)] = 1 + exp[2k1R x + 2l1R η + 2φ1 ] 2 l1R k1R sech [k1R x + l1R η + φ1 ] exp ik1R t .

(26)

**Case 4 Basic Dromion To generate a (1, 1) basic dromion solution, if we may put N = 2 in Eq. (9) and take
**

2 f (1) = exp(k1R x + ik1R t) + exp(l1R η) ,

(27)

we have

∗ ∗ g (2) = M11 η exp(ξ1 + ξ1 ) + L11 x exp(2η1 ) + K11 exp(ξ1 + η1 ) + K11 exp(ξ1 + η1 ) ,

(28) (29)

where

1 1 1 , L11 = − , K11 = − , 2k1R 2l1R k1R llR thus a (1, 1) dromion solution is obtained as follows: M11 = − ϕ= 1 + M11 y exp(ξ1 +

∗ ξ1 )

2 ξ1 = k1R x + ik1R t ,

η1 = l1R η ,

exp(ξ1 + η1 ) . ∗ + L11 x exp 2η1 + K11 exp(ξ1 + η1 ) + K11 exp(ξ1 + η1 )

(30)

270

ZHANG Jie-Fang

Vol. 35

This expression describes an exponentially localized solution with one bound state in the x-direction and one bound state in the η-direction. The above analysis can be further generalized to (M, N ) dromions

M N

exp(ξi + ηj ) u= 1+

i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1 M N ∗ ∗ [Mij η exp(ξi + ξj ) + Lij x exp(ηi + ηj ) + Kij exp(ξi + ηj ) + Kij exp(ξi + ηj )]

,

(31)

where

2 ξi = kiR x + iki t,

the η-direction. ηj = ljR η, Kij = − Mij = − 1 , ki + kj (32) In summary, we can not only generate the basic localized solutions but also generate the generalized localized solutions of Eq. (1) by harnessing the diﬀerent arbitrary functions of η suitably. To look for the dromion of other (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations, further studies are worthy to be done.

Lij = −

1 , li + lj

1 , kiR ljR

which represents an exponentially localized solution with M bound states in the x-direction and N bound states in

References

[1] M. Boiti, J.J.P. Leon, L.M. Martina and F. Pempinelli, Phys. Lett. A132 (1988) 432. [2] A.S. Forkas and P.M. Santini, Physica D44 (1990) 99; J. Hietarinta and R. Hirota, Phys. Lett. A145 (1990) 237. [3] J. Hietarinta, Phys. Lett. A149 (1990) 133. [4] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Math. Phys. 35 (1994) 4746. [5] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, Phys. Lett. 197 (1995) 7. [6] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 292. [7] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Phys. A30 (1997) 3229. [8] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 8 (1997) 17.

[9] S.Y. LOU, J. Phys. A29 (1996) 5989. [10] H.Y. RUAN and S.Y. LOU, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 3123. [11] S.Y. LOU, J. Phys. A28 (1995) 7227. [12] S.Y. LOU, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 26 (1996) 487. [13] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 10 (1999) 1821. [14] A. Maccari, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 4151. [15] A. Uthayakumar, K. Nakkeeran and K. Poreszian, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 10 (1999) 1513. [16] R. Hirota, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27 (1971) 1192.

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