Introduction

Name: Shrushti Shah Class: 11th ± B Roll no. : 43 Subject: Biology Topic: How cigarettes affect your health?

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. Bulbul. Mrs. My deepest thanks to lecturer. She has taken pain to go through the project and make correction as and when needed. Mrs. I express my thanks to principle ma¶am. Anjali Bowen for extending her support. the guide of the project for guiding and correcting my various documents with attention and care.Acknowledgement I owe a great many thanks to great many people who helped and supported me during this project.

Through this topic we can spread awareness about smoking and help people to quit smoking. he /she can still try to stop smoking. . Even if the person has started smoking at an early age due to any reason.Why I chose this topic? I chose the topic ± How cigarettes affect your health? because it¶s the most common and well known thing among people. And through this project I could help my friend to stop smoking.

8) Reference.Index 1) What is a cigarette? 2) Smoking. 5) Side effects of smoking. . 6) How to quit smoking? 7) Case study. 3) How smoking affects your health? 4) Physical Addiction.

Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely. The term cigarette. About half of cigarette smokers die of tobaccorelated disease and lose on average 14 years of life. is addictive. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco. which is normally white.since cigarettes were first widely used in the mid-20th century. and paper wrapping. including mental and physical disabilities. they continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes like other tobacco products do carry serious health effects with them. and have changed considerably over the course of history . though other colors are occasionally available. refers to a tobacco cigarette but can apply to similar devices containing other herbs. which is held in or to the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be used as well. Nicotine. such as cloves or cannabis.What is a cigarette? A cigarette is a small roll of finely cut tobacco leaves wrapped in a cylinder of thin paper for smoking. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size. Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects. its smoke is inhaled from the other end. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted tobacco and other additives. use of processed leaf. commonly used. the primary psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore cigarettes. While rates of smoking have over time leveled off or declined in the developed world. . The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder.

Some think it looks cool. That's why people say it's just so much easier to not start smoking at all. Others start because their family members or friends smoke. It's Hard to Stop. Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies are no longer allowed to advertise on TV.Smoking In the early times. Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains nicotine. . the body and mind quickly become so used to the nicotine in cigarettes that a person needs to have it just to feel normal. which is highly addictive. So how come people are still lighting up? The answer. Once You Start. people could buy cigarettes and smoke pretty much anywhere ² even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over the place. that it can shorten your life by 10 years or more. Most adults who started smoking in their teens never expected to become addicted. and in many magazines. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. People start smoking for a variety of different reasons. in a word. Like heroin or other addictive drugs. radio. emphysema. Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer. Statistics show that about 9 out of 10 tobacco user¶s start before they're 18 years old. and heart disease. is addiction. and that the habit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year.

And many of the chemicals in cigarettes. smoking leads people to develop health problems like heart disease. throat. Firsttime smokers often feel pain or burning in the throat and lungs. and some people feel sick or even throw up the first few times they try tobacco. and bladder cancer. stomach. like nicotine and cyanide. People who smoke also have an increased risk of infections like bronchitis and pneumonia. and exercise. stroke. The consequences of this poisoning happen gradually. It goes on the defense when it's being poisoned. The body doesn't need tobacco the way it needs food. are actually poisons that can kill in high enough doses. and many types of cancer -including lung. Over the long term. water.How smoking affects your health? There are no physical reasons to start smoking. emphysema. sleep. The body is smart. .

but long-term health problems aren't the only hazard of smoking. Nicotine and the other toxins in cigarettes.which is why smokers often appear pale and unhealthy. The consequences of smoking may seem very far off. Smoking can also cause fertility problems and can impact sexual health in both men and women. and they can be fatal. they also lose bone density. . Girls who are on the pill or other hormone-based methods of birth control increase their risk of serious health problems. if they smoke. cigars. and pipes can affect a person's body quickly. Smokers not only develop wrinkles and yellow teeth. which means that teen smokers experience many of these problems: y Bad skin. which increases their risk of osteoporosis. such as heart attacks. Smokers also tend to be less active than nonsmokers because smoking affects lung power. Because smoking restricts blood vessels. a condition that causes older people to become bent over and their bones to break more easily.These diseases limit a person's ability to be normally active. it can prevent oxygen and nutrients from getting to the skin . Studies have also linked smoking to an increased risk of getting a type of skin rash called psoriasis.

bronchitis. Reduced athletic performance. heart. Infections. and fight off illness properly. and pneumonia than nonsmokers. Greater risk of injury and slower healing time.not just on people's clothing. become sicker if they smoke because teens who smoke as a way to manage weight often light up instead of eating. Increased risk of illness. muscles and other organs. There is an association between smoking and the increased incidence of certain malignant diseases and respiratory infections. But this process can be reversed if a smoker gives up cigarettes. Bad-smelling clothes and hair. Lung function is reduced because of the narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lungs. People who smoke usually can't compete with nonsmoking peers because the physical effects of smoking impair sports performance. Carbon monoxide is carried through the body by smoke. like asthma. Studies show that smokers get more colds. y y y y y y . Lung irritation and damage result from invading substances. their bodies also lack the nutrients they need to grow. There is also a significant decrease in immune cells that normally help the body. so common sports injuries. Many cancer-causing chemicals from cigarette smoke travel throughout a smoker's bloodstream to reach the organs of the body and damage the immune response. or persistent bad breath. Cigarettes leave smokers with a condition called halitosis. Smokers who stop show increased levels of natural killer cell (NK) activity that targets cancerous cells in the body. Smoking weakens the immune system by depressing antibodies and cells that are in the body to protect against foreign invaders. flu. Immune Cells. And it's often hard to get the smell of smoke out. according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). And people with certain health conditions. such as damage to tendons and ligaments will heal more slowly in smokers than nonsmokers. The smell of stale smoke tends to linger . interfering with oxygen levels. furniture. Less oxygen reaches the brain.y Bad breath. and cars. Smoking affects the body's ability to produce collagen. develop. but on their hair.

The research shows that smoking actually activates certain parts of the immune system. Current and former smokers who developed the disease had evidence of those lung signals. They found that patients who had never smoked had no trace of the lung cells that triggered the immune system to attack lung tissue. Smoking can cause the body's immune system to attack lung tissue and result in severe respiratory disorders. which works against the lungs and attacks the tissue. it was reported in the March 2009 issue of the "Journal of Clinical Investigation. smokers with COPD and smokers who did not have COPD. a serious lung disease characterized by emphysema and severe inflammation of the lung tissue.leading to lung infection. Health scientists examined mice to study the link between cigarette exposure. After lung cells were damaged from cigarette smoke in the lab research. Researchers compared the results with tissue samples from humans who included nonsmokers. . such as pneumonia and influenza." The researchers found a strong correlation between cellular stress signals. y Lung Tissue. the immune system and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). according to research at the University of Cincinnati. activation of the immune system and development of diseases similar to COPD. The immune system does not work as well and smokers become more prone to infections. It takes smokers longer than nonsmokers to get over illnesses. Blood pressure and heart rate are affected negatively by smoking chemicals carried through the blood. the cells signaled the immune system when the damaged cells needed to be destroyed. Ohio.

such as changes in mood or weight loss or gain. Someone who is physically addicted and stops using a substance like drugs. (These also are signs of other conditions too. so that a person needs a larger dose than ever before to get the same effects. A person crosses the line between abuse and addiction when he or she is no longer trying the drug to have fun or get high.no longer feels like there is a choice in taking a substance. shaking. or cigarettes may experience withdrawal symptoms. They may lie or steal to get it. though. It also means building tolerance to that substance. Common symptoms of withdrawal are diarrhea. but has come to depend on it. Signs of Addiction The most obvious sign of an addiction is the need to have a particular drug or substance. An addicted person .) .whether it's a physical or psychological addiction or both . many other signs can suggest a possible addiction. People who are psychologically addicted feel overcome by the desire to have a drug. alcohol. and generally feeling awful. such as depression or eating disorders. Psychological Addiction Psychological addiction happens when the cravings for a drug are psychological or emotional. However.Physical Addiction Being physically addicted means a person's body actually becomes dependent on a particular substance (even smoking is physically addictive). His or her whole life centers on the need for the drug.

or depression.Signs that you or someone you know may have a cigarette addiction include: Psychological signals: y y y y y y y y y y Use of drugs or alcohol as a way to forget problems or to relax. Feeling shaky or sick when trying to stop. Loss of interest in activities that used to be important. including weight loss or gain. Anxiety. Changes in eating habits. such as hanging out only with friends who use drugs. Failed attempts to stop taking cigarette or drinking. Stealing or selling belongings to be able to afford cigarette. such as slipping grades or absences. Needing to take more of the substance to get the same effect. Spending a lot of time figuring out how to get cigarette. anger. . Changes in friendships. Mood swings. Physical signals: y y y y Changes in sleeping habits. Problems with schoolwork. Withdrawal or keeping secrets from family and friends.

Side effects of smoking Dangers of Smoking with Nicotine: One of the main dangers of smoking is due to Nicotine. Inhaled into the lungs. Dangers of Smoking with Tar: There are other dangers of smoking as well. In another 5 to 10 seconds the nicotine has spread to all parts of the body. The smoker quickly feels more alert and relaxed. and it causes those who use it to want to smoke one cigarette after another. Nicotine enters the body as tiny droplets resting on particles of tar in cigarette smoke. however. and the smoker starts feeling less alert. It is. the smoker starts needing more cigarettes throughout the day to satisfy the craving. . Over time. So he or she reaches for another cigarette to get a new ³hit´ of nicotine. Nicotine is found naturally in tobacco. about half of the nicotine has left the bloodstream. more edgy. reaching the brain within about 10 seconds. The nicotine raises both the heart rate and blood pressure. The hot smoke burns the tiny hair like projections (called cilia) that trap harmful particles before they enter the lungs. both physically and psychologically addictive. the drug passes quickly into the bloodstream. however. The tar from tobacco smoke starts to accumulate on the bronchial tubes leading to the lungs. It has no odor and no color. In less than 30 minutes.

perception of time. This poisonous gas is quickly absorbed into the blood. Oxides of nitrogen: Animal experiments showed that nitrogen oxides lungs.Carbon Monoxide: One more of the dangers of smoking are Carbon monoxide. . Hydrogen cyanide prevents the development process of clearing. Hydrogen cyanide: The lungs have some hairs (cilia) that help to ³clean´ lungs by removing the foreign substances. the smoker has to exert more physical effort to attain a given task than does a nonsmoker. reducing its capacity to carry oxygen. which is also harmful to the lungs. Increased levels of carbon monoxide in the blood can impair vision. it is used to preserve human bodies in the morgue. The heart in particular must work harder. The substances of cigarette smoke remains in the lungs. As a result. It is believed that nitrogen oxides are some specific chemicals in tobacco that causes lung disease and efizem. Ammonia: Ammonia is a powerful chemical found in household products. Smoking also increases the level of carbon monoxide in the lungs. and coordination. particularly during rigorous exercise.

You may be successful with the first method you try. Using nicotine replacement therapy or non-nicotine medications to reduce withdrawal symptoms.S. Reducing your intake of nicotine gradually over time. such as nicotine gum or a nicotine patch. Talk to your doctor about your options and whether an anti-smoking medication is right for you. U. and are most effective when used as part of a comprehensive stop smoking program monitored by your physician. y Utilizing nicotine support groups. including: y y y y Quitting smoking cold turkey. you¶ll have to try a number of different methods or a combination of treatments to find the ones that work best for you. or counseling using cognitive behavioral techniques. Medication therapy Smoking cessation medications can ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings. acupuncture. More likely. Systematically decreasing the number of cigarettes you smoke. y Trying hypnosis.How to quit smoking? There are many different methods that have successfully helped people to quit smoking. It works by . Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options are: Nicotine Replacement Therapy Nicotine replacement therapy involves "replacing" cigarettes with other nicotine substitutes.

Non-medication therapies There are several things you can do to stop smoking that don¶t involve nicotine replacement therapy or prescription medications: Hypnosis A popular option that has produced good results. and it reduces the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. This type of treatment helps smokers focus on breaking their psychological addiction and makes it easier to concentrate on learning new behaviors and coping skills. hypnosis works by getting you into a deeply relaxed state where you are open to suggestions that strengthen your resolve to quit smoking and increase your negative feelings toward cigarettes. Varenicline should be started a week before your Quit Day. It works by interfering with nicotine receptors in the brain. This drug acts on chemicals in the brain that are related to nicotine craving. Non-Nicotine Medication These medications help you stop smoking by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms without the use of nicotine. Medications such as Bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) and Varenicline (Chantix) are intended for short-term use only. The usual dosage is one or two 150 mg tablets per day.delivering small and steady doses of nicotine into the body to relieve some of the withdrawal symptoms without the tars and poisonous gases found in cigarettes. Bupropion works best if it is started a week or 2 weeks before you quit smoking. It does not contain nicotine. This means it has 2 effects: it lessens the pleasurable effects a person gets from smoking. Ask your doctor to recommend a qualified smoking cessation . Forget anything you may have seen from stage hypnotists. Bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) is a prescription anti-depressant in an extended-release form that reduces symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Varenicline (Chantix) is a newer prescription medicine developed to help people stop smoking.

Filters Filters that reduce tar and nicotine in cigarettes do not work. such as over-thecounter products that change the taste of tobacco. To find a local behavioral therapist. check with your doctor or search at the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT). stop-smoking diets that . Smoking deterrents Other methods have been used to help stop smoking. In fact. Some people have been able to find the motivation to quit just by calculating how much money they will save after they quit. The American Lung Association offers afree online smoking cessation program that focuses on behavioral change. Behavior therapy focuses on learning new coping skills and breaking those habits.hypnotherapist in your area or refer to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) for guidelines on selecting a qualified professional. acupuncture can be helpful in managing smoking withdrawal symptoms. studies have shown that smokers who use filters tend to smoke more. Ask your doctor for a referral or search for a local practitioner at the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM). Motivational Therapies Self-help books and websites can provide a number of ways to motivate you to quit smoking. Acupuncture One of the oldest known medical techniques. It may be enough to pay for a summer vacation. As a smoking cessation aid. Behavioral Therapy Nicotine addiction is related to the habitual behaviors (the ³rituals´) involved in smoking. One well known example is calculating the monetary savings. acupuncture is believed to work by triggering the release of endorphins (natural pain relievers) that allow the body to relax.

2) Disputes with friends. The client started smoking after the 10th std.602 C wing Shiv Darshan Apt. (III) History of present illness (HPI) [ODP] The client is facing problems with his studies due to lack of concentration. board exams. At this time there is little scientific evidence that any of these work. Case study I) Basic Information Name: Monang Patel Age: 17 years Sex: Male Address: 601. But he tries working on it and is gradually improving. 4) Client is a chain smoker. The next problem that the client is facing is his disputes with friends. and combinations of vitamins. Kandivali (W) Phone no: 9123456789 Language: Guajarati Marital Status: Unmarried II) Chief Complaints 1) Lack of concentration. He started using cigarette due to peer Religion: Hindu Ref by: .curb nicotine cravings. These conflicts always bother him due to which he started smoking. 3) Severe headaches.

His father is very friendly with him but the client doesn¶t share his problems as much as he does with his mother. (VI) Family History The client lives in a joint family of 6 members. He usually gets severe headaches and even feels like puking after smoking when he doesn¶t have any food intake. (IV) Psychiatric history There has been no psychiatric history either in the client or any of his family members. The client is very close to his mother and shares everything with her. (V) Medical History The client by far has never been hospitalized but has suffered from jaundice in standard VII due to eating of junk food. The client is also very close to his grandparents.pressure and depression. His mother expects him to understand their perception and follow their opinion rather than doing things by him wish. Due to excess of smoking the client suffer from severe headaches. The client has also suffered from chicken pox in standard VIII. He has clear bonding with his brother. The client finds his brother as a supporter and helper when needed. Shivram Patel 68 yrs 67 yrs Pushpa Patel Bharat Patel Businessman 46 yrs 46 yrs Urmila Patel Homemaker .

Vatsal Patel Student 20 yrs 17 yrs (VII) Development and social history Prenatal & Postnatal: The client was a full term normal baby. Social history: The client is enthusiastic and positive about going to new places and meeting new people. He started smoking after the 10th std boards. He tried smoking due to peer pressure. He easily loses confidence while talking to new person if betrayed before by someone else. He was a mischievous and naughty student in his school. gets easily attached to new people and values others feelings. He has an understanding nature. Anne¶s High School till 10th std. The client had a habit of nail biting. He is given all the amenities that he wishes from his parents. The milestones were perfect according to the age. (IX) Educational history The client studied in St. He didn¶t like smoking at . The client had been an average student in his academics. (XI) Drug and alcohol addiction The client has smoking addiction. He was always pampered by his family. Now the client is in Vartak College and has opted for science stream. (VIII) Childhood history The client was stubborn during his childhood. (X) Current living situation The client¶s current living situation is very good.

2) Behavior & Psychomotor activity: Well behaved and all the psychomotor activities were normal. Usually the client has 15 ± 16 cigarettes per day. The client tried to stop smoking but most of the failed to do so. 5) Speech: Clear and specific. . 4) Mood: There were lots of mood swings. cause of the peers around him. the client also has hookah but mostly he¶s switched to smoking through cigarettes. 6) Perception: Optimistic towards all the situations provided by the examiner. (XII) Mental status examination 1) Appearance: Neatly dressed. he¶ll have a headache as he¶s addicted to smoking. If he doesn¶t smoke for a day.first but due to peer pressure he kept trying and eventually learned to love it. Other than cigarette. 7) Orientation & Memory: Poor memory 8) Concentration & Attention: Was getting distracted and there was lack of concentration. 3) Attitude towards examiner: Co-operative.

net 4) http://www.google.org/mental/quit_smoking_cessation.helpguide.htm .Reference 1) www.causesofsmoking.com 3) www.com 2) www.esmokingsideeffects.

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