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Name: Shrushti Shah Class: 11th ± B Roll no. : 43 Subject: Biology Topic: How cigarettes affect your health?

The work done in this file is satisfactorily performed by Ms ____________ studying in _____________ Class _______ Division _______ Roll No _____ during the academic year_______.

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Mrs. . the guide of the project for guiding and correcting my various documents with attention and care. I express my thanks to principle ma¶am.Acknowledgement I owe a great many thanks to great many people who helped and supported me during this project. She has taken pain to go through the project and make correction as and when needed. Anjali Bowen for extending her support. Bulbul. My deepest thanks to lecturer. Mrs.

he /she can still try to stop smoking. And through this project I could help my friend to stop smoking. .Why I chose this topic? I chose the topic ± How cigarettes affect your health? because it¶s the most common and well known thing among people. Even if the person has started smoking at an early age due to any reason. Through this topic we can spread awareness about smoking and help people to quit smoking.

8) Reference. 6) How to quit smoking? 7) Case study. 3) How smoking affects your health? 4) Physical Addiction. 5) Side effects of smoking.Index 1) What is a cigarette? 2) Smoking. .

The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder. the primary psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore cigarettes. Nicotine. refers to a tobacco cigarette but can apply to similar devices containing other herbs. they continue to rise in developing nations. use of processed leaf. Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects. though other colors are occasionally available. its smoke is inhaled from the other end. About half of cigarette smokers die of tobaccorelated disease and lose on average 14 years of life. which is normally white.What is a cigarette? A cigarette is a small roll of finely cut tobacco leaves wrapped in a cylinder of thin paper for smoking. While rates of smoking have over time leveled off or declined in the developed world. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size. . and paper wrapping. Cigarettes like other tobacco products do carry serious health effects with them. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted tobacco and other additives.since cigarettes were first widely used in the mid-20th century. Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely. which is held in or to the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be used as well. commonly used. The term cigarette. including mental and physical disabilities. and have changed considerably over the course of history . such as cloves or cannabis. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco. is addictive.

Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Most adults who started smoking in their teens never expected to become addicted. Statistics show that about 9 out of 10 tobacco user¶s start before they're 18 years old. that it can shorten your life by 10 years or more. It's Hard to Stop. in a word. People start smoking for a variety of different reasons. . and in many magazines. Once You Start. emphysema. Some think it looks cool. That's why people say it's just so much easier to not start smoking at all. people could buy cigarettes and smoke pretty much anywhere ² even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over the place. radio.Smoking In the early times. So how come people are still lighting up? The answer. which is highly addictive. and heart disease. and that the habit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains nicotine. is addiction. Like heroin or other addictive drugs. Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies are no longer allowed to advertise on TV. the body and mind quickly become so used to the nicotine in cigarettes that a person needs to have it just to feel normal. Others start because their family members or friends smoke.

and many types of cancer -including lung. . and bladder cancer. and exercise. throat. And many of the chemicals in cigarettes. stroke. and some people feel sick or even throw up the first few times they try tobacco. Firsttime smokers often feel pain or burning in the throat and lungs. stomach. like nicotine and cyanide.How smoking affects your health? There are no physical reasons to start smoking. It goes on the defense when it's being poisoned. emphysema. Over the long term. are actually poisons that can kill in high enough doses. smoking leads people to develop health problems like heart disease. The body is smart. The consequences of this poisoning happen gradually. water. sleep. People who smoke also have an increased risk of infections like bronchitis and pneumonia. The body doesn't need tobacco the way it needs food.

it can prevent oxygen and nutrients from getting to the skin . . but long-term health problems aren't the only hazard of smoking. they also lose bone density.which is why smokers often appear pale and unhealthy. a condition that causes older people to become bent over and their bones to break more easily. such as heart attacks. Smoking can also cause fertility problems and can impact sexual health in both men and women. and pipes can affect a person's body quickly. if they smoke. Girls who are on the pill or other hormone-based methods of birth control increase their risk of serious health problems. which increases their risk of osteoporosis. Smokers not only develop wrinkles and yellow teeth. which means that teen smokers experience many of these problems: y Bad skin. and they can be fatal. Nicotine and the other toxins in cigarettes. Smokers also tend to be less active than nonsmokers because smoking affects lung power. The consequences of smoking may seem very far off. Studies have also linked smoking to an increased risk of getting a type of skin rash called psoriasis. Because smoking restricts blood vessels.These diseases limit a person's ability to be normally active. cigars.

Bad-smelling clothes and hair. Smoking affects the body's ability to produce collagen. Studies show that smokers get more colds. bronchitis. according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). And it's often hard to get the smell of smoke out. or persistent bad breath. and cars. Infections.not just on people's clothing. Immune Cells. like asthma. Lung function is reduced because of the narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lungs. Carbon monoxide is carried through the body by smoke. muscles and other organs. become sicker if they smoke because teens who smoke as a way to manage weight often light up instead of eating. Greater risk of injury and slower healing time. People who smoke usually can't compete with nonsmoking peers because the physical effects of smoking impair sports performance. their bodies also lack the nutrients they need to grow.y Bad breath. and fight off illness properly. such as damage to tendons and ligaments will heal more slowly in smokers than nonsmokers. There is also a significant decrease in immune cells that normally help the body. Smokers who stop show increased levels of natural killer cell (NK) activity that targets cancerous cells in the body. heart. y y y y y y . There is an association between smoking and the increased incidence of certain malignant diseases and respiratory infections. Reduced athletic performance. And people with certain health conditions. so common sports injuries. flu. but on their hair. Increased risk of illness. Lung irritation and damage result from invading substances. furniture. Less oxygen reaches the brain. develop. Many cancer-causing chemicals from cigarette smoke travel throughout a smoker's bloodstream to reach the organs of the body and damage the immune response. Cigarettes leave smokers with a condition called halitosis. The smell of stale smoke tends to linger . and pneumonia than nonsmokers. interfering with oxygen levels. But this process can be reversed if a smoker gives up cigarettes. Smoking weakens the immune system by depressing antibodies and cells that are in the body to protect against foreign invaders.

It takes smokers longer than nonsmokers to get over illnesses. Health scientists examined mice to study the link between cigarette exposure. smokers with COPD and smokers who did not have COPD. the cells signaled the immune system when the damaged cells needed to be destroyed. The research shows that smoking actually activates certain parts of the immune system. Ohio." The researchers found a strong correlation between cellular stress signals. activation of the immune system and development of diseases similar to COPD. After lung cells were damaged from cigarette smoke in the lab research. They found that patients who had never smoked had no trace of the lung cells that triggered the immune system to attack lung tissue. which works against the lungs and attacks the tissue. Blood pressure and heart rate are affected negatively by smoking chemicals carried through the blood.leading to lung infection. it was reported in the March 2009 issue of the "Journal of Clinical Investigation. y Lung Tissue. Smoking can cause the body's immune system to attack lung tissue and result in severe respiratory disorders. such as pneumonia and influenza. a serious lung disease characterized by emphysema and severe inflammation of the lung tissue. according to research at the University of Cincinnati. Researchers compared the results with tissue samples from humans who included nonsmokers. the immune system and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Current and former smokers who developed the disease had evidence of those lung signals. . The immune system does not work as well and smokers become more prone to infections.

) . An addicted person . It also means building tolerance to that substance. However. Common symptoms of withdrawal are diarrhea. such as changes in mood or weight loss or gain. many other signs can suggest a possible addiction. (These also are signs of other conditions too. Signs of Addiction The most obvious sign of an addiction is the need to have a particular drug or substance. His or her whole life centers on the need for the drug. such as depression or eating disorders.whether it's a physical or psychological addiction or both . People who are psychologically addicted feel overcome by the desire to have a drug. or cigarettes may experience withdrawal symptoms. shaking.Physical Addiction Being physically addicted means a person's body actually becomes dependent on a particular substance (even smoking is physically addictive). but has come to depend on it. and generally feeling awful. Someone who is physically addicted and stops using a substance like drugs. so that a person needs a larger dose than ever before to get the same effects. Psychological Addiction Psychological addiction happens when the cravings for a drug are psychological or emotional. A person crosses the line between abuse and addiction when he or she is no longer trying the drug to have fun or get high. alcohol. They may lie or steal to get it. longer feels like there is a choice in taking a substance.

anger. Spending a lot of time figuring out how to get cigarette. Needing to take more of the substance to get the same effect. Problems with schoolwork. Feeling shaky or sick when trying to stop. Changes in eating habits. Failed attempts to stop taking cigarette or drinking. Anxiety.Signs that you or someone you know may have a cigarette addiction include: Psychological signals: y y y y y y y y y y Use of drugs or alcohol as a way to forget problems or to relax. Physical signals: y y y y Changes in sleeping habits. Changes in friendships. . Loss of interest in activities that used to be important. Stealing or selling belongings to be able to afford cigarette. such as hanging out only with friends who use drugs. including weight loss or gain. Mood swings. Withdrawal or keeping secrets from family and friends. or depression. such as slipping grades or absences.

The nicotine raises both the heart rate and blood pressure. Inhaled into the lungs. reaching the brain within about 10 seconds. Nicotine is found naturally in tobacco. and it causes those who use it to want to smoke one cigarette after another. Nicotine enters the body as tiny droplets resting on particles of tar in cigarette smoke. both physically and psychologically addictive. The hot smoke burns the tiny hair like projections (called cilia) that trap harmful particles before they enter the lungs. however. Over time.Side effects of smoking Dangers of Smoking with Nicotine: One of the main dangers of smoking is due to Nicotine. the smoker starts needing more cigarettes throughout the day to satisfy the craving. Dangers of Smoking with Tar: There are other dangers of smoking as well. . the drug passes quickly into the bloodstream. It is. and the smoker starts feeling less alert. more edgy. In another 5 to 10 seconds the nicotine has spread to all parts of the body. The tar from tobacco smoke starts to accumulate on the bronchial tubes leading to the lungs. So he or she reaches for another cigarette to get a new ³hit´ of nicotine. about half of the nicotine has left the bloodstream. It has no odor and no color. In less than 30 minutes. The smoker quickly feels more alert and relaxed. however.

reducing its capacity to carry oxygen. it is used to preserve human bodies in the morgue. The substances of cigarette smoke remains in the lungs. This poisonous gas is quickly absorbed into the blood. Hydrogen cyanide: The lungs have some hairs (cilia) that help to ³clean´ lungs by removing the foreign substances. Smoking also increases the level of carbon monoxide in the lungs. Ammonia: Ammonia is a powerful chemical found in household products. particularly during rigorous exercise. perception of time. As a result. . It is believed that nitrogen oxides are some specific chemicals in tobacco that causes lung disease and efizem. The heart in particular must work harder. which is also harmful to the lungs. and coordination.Carbon Monoxide: One more of the dangers of smoking are Carbon monoxide. the smoker has to exert more physical effort to attain a given task than does a nonsmoker. Hydrogen cyanide prevents the development process of clearing. Oxides of nitrogen: Animal experiments showed that nitrogen oxides lungs. Increased levels of carbon monoxide in the blood can impair vision.

Medication therapy Smoking cessation medications can ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings. y Utilizing nicotine support groups. You may be successful with the first method you try. and are most effective when used as part of a comprehensive stop smoking program monitored by your physician. you¶ll have to try a number of different methods or a combination of treatments to find the ones that work best for you. It works by . or counseling using cognitive behavioral techniques. such as nicotine gum or a nicotine patch. More likely. U. Reducing your intake of nicotine gradually over time.How to quit smoking? There are many different methods that have successfully helped people to quit smoking. Using nicotine replacement therapy or non-nicotine medications to reduce withdrawal symptoms. Talk to your doctor about your options and whether an anti-smoking medication is right for you. Systematically decreasing the number of cigarettes you smoke.S. including: y y y y Quitting smoking cold turkey. acupuncture. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options are: Nicotine Replacement Therapy Nicotine replacement therapy involves "replacing" cigarettes with other nicotine substitutes. y Trying hypnosis.

Medications such as Bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) and Varenicline (Chantix) are intended for short-term use only. It does not contain nicotine. hypnosis works by getting you into a deeply relaxed state where you are open to suggestions that strengthen your resolve to quit smoking and increase your negative feelings toward cigarettes. Varenicline should be started a week before your Quit Day. This means it has 2 effects: it lessens the pleasurable effects a person gets from smoking. Non-Nicotine Medication These medications help you stop smoking by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms without the use of nicotine. Bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) is a prescription anti-depressant in an extended-release form that reduces symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. This drug acts on chemicals in the brain that are related to nicotine craving. Forget anything you may have seen from stage hypnotists. Non-medication therapies There are several things you can do to stop smoking that don¶t involve nicotine replacement therapy or prescription medications: Hypnosis A popular option that has produced good results. It works by interfering with nicotine receptors in the brain. Ask your doctor to recommend a qualified smoking cessation . The usual dosage is one or two 150 mg tablets per day.delivering small and steady doses of nicotine into the body to relieve some of the withdrawal symptoms without the tars and poisonous gases found in cigarettes. Varenicline (Chantix) is a newer prescription medicine developed to help people stop smoking. This type of treatment helps smokers focus on breaking their psychological addiction and makes it easier to concentrate on learning new behaviors and coping skills. Bupropion works best if it is started a week or 2 weeks before you quit smoking. and it reduces the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

The American Lung Association offers afree online smoking cessation program that focuses on behavioral change. Acupuncture One of the oldest known medical techniques. One well known example is calculating the monetary savings. It may be enough to pay for a summer vacation. check with your doctor or search at the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT). Behavior therapy focuses on learning new coping skills and breaking those habits. Behavioral Therapy Nicotine addiction is related to the habitual behaviors (the ³rituals´) involved in smoking. As a smoking cessation aid. stop-smoking diets that .hypnotherapist in your area or refer to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) for guidelines on selecting a qualified professional. such as over-thecounter products that change the taste of tobacco. Filters Filters that reduce tar and nicotine in cigarettes do not work. acupuncture can be helpful in managing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Ask your doctor for a referral or search for a local practitioner at the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM). To find a local behavioral therapist. Some people have been able to find the motivation to quit just by calculating how much money they will save after they quit. In fact. studies have shown that smokers who use filters tend to smoke more. Motivational Therapies Self-help books and websites can provide a number of ways to motivate you to quit smoking. acupuncture is believed to work by triggering the release of endorphins (natural pain relievers) that allow the body to relax. Smoking deterrents Other methods have been used to help stop smoking.

602 C wing Shiv Darshan Apt. He started using cigarette due to peer Religion: Hindu Ref by: . 2) Disputes with friends. The next problem that the client is facing is his disputes with friends. But he tries working on it and is gradually improving. and combinations of vitamins.curb nicotine cravings. (III) History of present illness (HPI) [ODP] The client is facing problems with his studies due to lack of concentration. 4) Client is a chain smoker. board exams. These conflicts always bother him due to which he started smoking. Case study I) Basic Information Name: Monang Patel Age: 17 years Sex: Male Address: 601. Kandivali (W) Phone no: 9123456789 Language: Guajarati Marital Status: Unmarried II) Chief Complaints 1) Lack of concentration. The client started smoking after the 10th std. At this time there is little scientific evidence that any of these work. 3) Severe headaches.

The client is very close to his mother and shares everything with her. Shivram Patel 68 yrs 67 yrs Pushpa Patel Bharat Patel Businessman 46 yrs 46 yrs Urmila Patel Homemaker . The client has also suffered from chicken pox in standard VIII. His mother expects him to understand their perception and follow their opinion rather than doing things by him wish. (IV) Psychiatric history There has been no psychiatric history either in the client or any of his family members. (V) Medical History The client by far has never been hospitalized but has suffered from jaundice in standard VII due to eating of junk food. His father is very friendly with him but the client doesn¶t share his problems as much as he does with his mother.pressure and depression. (VI) Family History The client lives in a joint family of 6 members. Due to excess of smoking the client suffer from severe headaches. The client is also very close to his grandparents. He usually gets severe headaches and even feels like puking after smoking when he doesn¶t have any food intake. The client finds his brother as a supporter and helper when needed. He has clear bonding with his brother.

The milestones were perfect according to the age. Now the client is in Vartak College and has opted for science stream. He tried smoking due to peer pressure. He is given all the amenities that he wishes from his parents. Anne¶s High School till 10th std. Social history: The client is enthusiastic and positive about going to new places and meeting new people. He has an understanding nature. He didn¶t like smoking at . The client had a habit of nail biting.Vatsal Patel Student 20 yrs 17 yrs (VII) Development and social history Prenatal & Postnatal: The client was a full term normal baby. He was always pampered by his family. (VIII) Childhood history The client was stubborn during his childhood. (XI) Drug and alcohol addiction The client has smoking addiction. He started smoking after the 10th std boards. The client had been an average student in his academics. (X) Current living situation The client¶s current living situation is very good. He was a mischievous and naughty student in his school. (IX) Educational history The client studied in St. He easily loses confidence while talking to new person if betrayed before by someone else. gets easily attached to new people and values others feelings.

If he doesn¶t smoke for a day.first but due to peer pressure he kept trying and eventually learned to love it. . Other than cigarette. 4) Mood: There were lots of mood swings. cause of the peers around him. Usually the client has 15 ± 16 cigarettes per day. (XII) Mental status examination 1) Appearance: Neatly dressed. 5) Speech: Clear and specific. he¶ll have a headache as he¶s addicted to smoking. The client tried to stop smoking but most of the failed to do so. 2) Behavior & Psychomotor activity: Well behaved and all the psychomotor activities were normal. 7) Orientation & Memory: Poor memory 8) Concentration & Attention: Was getting distracted and there was lack of concentration. the client also has hookah but mostly he¶s switched to smoking through cigarettes. 3) Attitude towards examiner: Co-operative. 6) Perception: Optimistic towards all the situations provided by the examiner.

Reference 1) 3) www.htm 2) 4) http://www.