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1063–1066 c International Academic Publishers

Vol. 48, No. 6, December 15, 2007

**Peakon Excitations and Fractal Dromions for General (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg de Vries System∗
**

MA Song-Hua,† LI Jiang-Bo, and FANG Jian-Ping

College of Mathematics and Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000, China

(Received December 5, 2006; Revised March 6, 2007)

**Abstract By means of an extended mapping approach and a linear variable separation approach, a new family of
**

exact solutions of the general (2+1)-dimensional Korteweg de Vries system (GKdV) are derived. Based on the derived solitary wave excitation, we obtain some special peakon excitations and fractal dromions in this short note. PACS numbers: 05.45.Yv, 03.65.Ge

Key words: extended mapping approach, GKdV system, peakon excitation, fractal dromion

1 Introduction

Solitons and fractals are the two important aspects of nonlinear science.[1] Because of the wide applications of soliton and fractal in many natural sciences such as chemistry, biology, mathematics, communication, and particularly in almost all branches of physics like ﬂuid dynamics, plasma physics, ﬁeld theory, optics, and condensed matter physics, etc.,[2] searching for exact and explicit solutions of a nonlinear physical model, especially for new exponentially localized structures like soliton solutions or for these excitations with novel properties is a very signiﬁcant work. Since the concept of dromions was introduced by Boiti et al.,[3] the study of soliton-like solutions in higher dimensions has attracted much more attention. Now several signiﬁcant (2+1)and (3+1)-dimensional models, such as (2+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation,[4] Davey–Stewartson equation,[5] generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation,[6] asymmetric NNV equation,[7] sine-Gordon equation,[8] (3+1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries equation,[9] and Jimbo-Miwa–Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation[10] have been investigated and some special types of localized solutions for these models have also been obtained by means of diﬀerent approaches, for instance, the bilinear method, the standard Painlev´ truncated expansion, the e method of “coalescence of eigenvalue” or “wavenumbers”, the homogenous balance method, the variable separation method,[11−20] and the mapping method,[21−25] etc. From the above study of (2+1)- and (3+1)-dimensional models, one can see that there exist more abundant localized structures than those in lower dimensions. This fact hints that there may exist new localized coherent structures that are unrevealed in some (2+1)-dimensional integrable models. In this paper, by the extended mapping approach, we found the new exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional GKdV system −1 ut − uxxy − auuy − bux ∂x uy = 0 , (1) where a and b are arbitrary constants. Many researchers have investigated some interesting properties of Eq. (1). For instance, the GKdV system has been proved to be integrable by Calogero,[26] and the Painlev´ property test e for the equation has been proved to be completely integrable by Clarkson et al.[27] only when a = 2b. Some variable separation solutions for the special model for a = b

have also been obtained by Lou and coworkers.[28] Zheng and Chen found some semifolded localized coherent structures by the multilinear variable separation method.[29] However, to the best of our knowledge, the mapping excitations for the (2+1)-dimensional GKdV model were not reported in previous literature. In the following discussion, we will investigate the mapping solutions to the case a = b for Eq. (1). For −1 simplicity, we introduce a transformation v = ∂x uy and change the GKdV system into a set of two coupled nonlinear partial diﬀerential equations: ut − uxxy − buvx − bvux = 0 , uy − vx = 0 . (2)

**2 New Exact Solutions to the GKdV System
**

As is well known, to search for the solitary wave solutions to a nonlinear physical model, we can apply different approaches. One of the most eﬃcient methods to ﬁnd soliton excitations of a physical model is the so-called extended mapping approach. The basic ideal of the algorithm is as follows. For a given nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation (NPDE) with the independent variables x = (x0 = t, x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ), and the dependent variable u, in the form P (u, ut , uxi , uxi xj , . . .) = 0 , (3) where P is in general a polynomial function of its arguments, and the subscripts denote the partial derivatives, the solution can be assumed to be in the form

n

u = A(x) +

i=1

{Bi (x)φi [q(x)] + Ci (x)φ−i [q(x)]}

(4)

with φ = σ + φ2 , (5)

where A(x), Bi (x), Ci (x), and q(x) are functions of the indicated argument to be determined, σ is an arbitrary constant, and the prime denotes φ diﬀerentiation with respect to q. To determine u explicitly, one may substitute (4) and (5) into the given NPDE and collect coeﬃcients of polynomials of φ, then eliminate each coeﬃcient to derive a set of partial diﬀerential equations of A(x), Bi (x), Ci (x), and q(x), and solve the system of partial diﬀerential

∗ The project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province under Grant No. Y604106 and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Lishui University under Grant No. KZ05010 † Corresponding author, E-mail: msh6209@yahoo.com.cn

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MA Song-Hua, LI Jiang-Bo, and FANG Jian-Ping

Vol. 48

equations to obtain A(x), Bi (x), Ci (x), and q(x). Finally, equation (5) possesses the general solutions √ √ −√−σ tanh(√ −σq) , σ < 0 , − −σ coth( −σq) , σ < 0 , √ √ σ tan( σq) , σ > 0, (6) φ= √ − σ cot(√σq) , σ > 0, −1/q , σ = 0. Substituting A(x), Bi (x), Ci (x), q(x) and Eq. (6) into Eq. (4), one can obtain the exact solutions to the given NPDE. f=

Now we apply the extended mapping approach to Eq. (2). By the balancing procedure, the ansatz (4) becomes R Q u = f + gφ + hφ2 + + 2 , φ φ A B v = F + Gφ + Hφ2 + + 2 , (7) φ φ where f , g, h, Q, R, F , G, H, A, B, and q are functions of (x, y, t) to be determined. Substituting Eqs. (7) and (5) into Eq. (2) and collecting coeﬃcients of polynomials of φ, then setting each coeﬃcient to zero, we have (−qx qxy + qxx qy )dx + qx qt ,

3 2 −qxxx qy + 3qxy qxx − 3qx qxxy − 8qx qy σ + 12qx σ bqy qx

qxx q2 qxx σ q2 σ2 12σ (qx qxy − qxx qy )dx , , h = −6 x , Q = 6 , R = −6 x , F = b b b b b qxy qx qy qxy σ qx qy σ 2 G = −6 , H = −6 , A=6 , B = −6 (8) b b b b with the function q in a special variable separation form q = χ(x) + ϕ(y − ct) , (9) where c is an arbitrary constant. Based on the solutions of Eq. (5), one thus obtains an explicit solution of equation (2). Case 1 For σ = −1, we can derive the following solitary wave solutions of Eq. (2): χxx tanh(χ + ϕ) − χ2 χxxx + 4χ3 + χx c − 6χxx tanh(χ + ϕ)χx + 6χ3 tanh(χ + ϕ)2 x x x u1 = 6 − , (10) b tanh(χ + ϕ)2 bχx ϕy χx sech(χ + ϕ)4 v1 = −6 , (11) b tanh(χ + ϕ)2 χxx coth(χ + ϕ) − χ2 χxxx + 4χ3 + χx c − 6χxx coth(χ + ϕ)χx + 6χ3 coth(χ + ϕ)2 x x x u2 = 6 − , (12) b coth(χ + ϕ)2 bχx ϕy χx csch(χ + ϕ)4 (13) v2 = −6 b coth(χ + ϕ)2 with two arbitrary functions being χ(x) and ϕ(y − ct). Case 2 For σ = 1, we can obtain the following periodic wave solutions of Eq. (2): χxx tan(χ + ϕ) − χ2 χxxx − 4χ3 + χx c + 6χxx tan(χ + ϕ)χx + 6χ3 tan(χ + ϕ)2 x x x u3 = 6 − , (14) b tan(χ + ϕ)2 bχx ϕy χx sec(χ + ϕ)4 v3 = −6 , (15) b tan(χ + ϕ)2 χxx cot(χ + ϕ) + χ2 χxxx − 4χ3 + χx c − 6χxx cot(χ + ϕ)χx + 6χ3 cot(χ + ϕ)2 x x x u4 = −6 − , (16) b cot(χ + ϕ)2 bχx ϕy χx csc(χ + ϕ)4 v4 = −6 (17) b cot(χ + ϕ)2 g = −6 with two arbitrary functions being χ(x) and ϕ(y − ct). Case 3 For σ = 0, we can derive the following variable separation solution of Eq. (2): χxxx + χx c χxx χ2 x u5 = − +6 −6 , (18) bχx b(χ + ϕ) b(χ + ϕ)2 ϕy χx v5 = −6 (19) b(χ + ϕ)2 with two arbitrary functions being χ(x) and ϕ(y − ct). when χ = ax and ϕ = y − ct, all the solutions of the above cases become simple travelling wave excitations. Moreover, based on the derived solutions, we may obtain rich localized structures such as peakons and fractal dromions. In the following discussion, we merely analyze some special localized excitations of solution v2 in Eq. (13) in Case 1, namely ϕy χx csch(χ + ϕ)4 V = v2 = −6 . (20) b coth(χ + ϕ)2 3.1 Peakon Excitations According to the solution (20), we ﬁrst discuss its peakon excitations. For instance, if we choose χ and ϕ as

**3 Some New Localized Coherent Structures in the GKdV System
**

Due to the arbitrariness of the functions χ(x) and ϕ(y − ct) included in the above cases, the physical quantities u and v may possess rich structures. For example,

No. 6

Peakon Excitations and Fractal Dromions for General (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg de Vries System

1065

χ = 1 + exp(−|x + 1|) , ϕ = 1 + tanh(y − ct) , (21) χ = 1 + exp(−|x + 1|) , ϕ = 1 + sech(y − ct) , (22) we can obtain a type of peakon excitation for the physical quantity V of Eq. (20) presented in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) with ﬁxed parameters b = −0.1, c = 1, and t = 0. If we choose χ and ϕ as χ = 1 + tanh(−|x + 1|) , ϕ = 1 + 0.1 tanh(y − ct) , (23) χ = 1 + tanh(−|x + 1|) , ϕ = 1 + 0.1 sech(y − ct) , (24) we can obtain a type of peakon excitation for the phys-

ical quantity V of Eq. (20) presented in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) with ﬁxed parameters b = −0.2, c = 1, and t = 0. Furthermore, if we choose χ and ϕ as χ = 1 + 2 exp(−|x + 3|) , ϕ = 1 + exp(−|y − ct|) , (25) χ = 1 + 2 exp(−|x + 3|) + 0.8 exp(−|x − 3|) , ϕ = 1 + exp(−|y − ct|) , (26) we can obtain another type of peakon excitation for the physical quantity V of Eq. (20) presented in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) with ﬁxed parameters b = −6, c = −3, and t = 1.

Fig. 1 A plot of a special type of peakon structure for the physical quantity V given by the solution (20) with the choices (21) and (22) and b = −0.1, c = 1, t = 0.

Fig. 2 A plot of a special type of peakon structure for the physical quantity V given by the solution (20) with the choices (23) and (24) and b = −0.2, c = 1, t = 0.

Fig. 3 A plot of a special type of peakon structure for the physical quantity V given by the solution (20) with the choices (25) and (26) and b = −6, c = −3, t = 1.

3.2 Fractal Dromion In (2+1) dimensions, one of the most important nonlinear solutions is the dromion excitation, which is localized in all directions exponentially. Recently, it is found that many lower-dimensional piecewise smooth functions with fractal properties can be used to construct exact localized solutions of higher-dimensional soliton systems which also possess fractal structures.[30] This situation also occurs in the (2+1)-dimensional GKdV system. If we appropriately select the arbitrary functions χ and ϕ, we ﬁnd that some special types of fractal dromions for the ﬁeld V will be revealed. For example, if we take χ = 1 + exp [−x(x + 2sin(ln x2 ))] , ϕ = 1 + exp [−(y − ct)((y − ct) + 2sin(ln(y − ct)2 ))] , (27)

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MA Song-Hua, LI Jiang-Bo, and FANG Jian-Ping

Vol. 48

we can derive a fractal dromion. Figure 4(a) shows a plot of this special types of fractal dromion structure for the V given by Eq. (20) with the choice (27) at b = −1, c = 1, t = 0. Figure 4(b) shows the density of the fractal structure of the dromion at the region (x ∈ [−0.002, 0.002], y ∈ [−0.002, 0.002]). To observe the self-similar structure of the fractal dromion more clearly, one may enlarge a small region near the center of Fig. 4(b). For instance, if we reduce the region of Fig. 4(b) to (x ∈ [−0.0002, 0.0002], y ∈ [−0.0002, 0.0002]), (x ∈ [−0.000 02, 0.000 02], y ∈ [−0.000 02, 0.000 02]) and so on, we ﬁnd totally similar structure to that presented in Fig. 4(b).

Fig. 4 (a) A fractal dromion structure for the V given by Eq. (20) with the choice (27) and b = −1, c = 1, t = 0. (b) Density plot of the fractal structure at the region (x ∈ [−0.002, 0.002], y ∈ [−0.002, 0.002]).

**4 Summary and Discussion
**

In summary, via an extended mapping approach and a special variable separation form q = χ(x) + ϕ(y − ct), we ﬁnd some new exact solutions of the general (2+1)dimensional Korteweg de Vries system. Based on the derived solitary wave solution (13), we obtain some special peakon excitations. Then, we use the sine function and exponent function to ﬁnd the fractal dromion of the (2+1)-dimensional GKdV system. Additionally, using the piecewise function, Zheng recently obtained some peakon

excitations in the new (2+1)-dimensional long dispersive wave system.[19] Along with the above line, we use the piecewise function to get the new peakon excitations of GKdV system, which are diﬀerent from the ones of the previous work.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Prof. Chun-Long Zheng for his fruitful and helpful suggestions.

References

[1] Y.S. Kivshar and B.A. Melomend, Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 (1989) 765; G.I. Stegemant and M. Segev, Science 286 (1999) 1518; J.P. Gollb and M.C. Cross, Nature (London) 404 (2000) 710. [2] I. Loutsenko and D. Roubtsov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 3011; M. Tajiri and H. Maesono, Phys. Rev. E 55 (1997) 3351; M. Gedalin, T.C. Scott, and Y.B. Band, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 448. [3] M. Boiti, et al., Phys. Lett. A 132 (1988) 116. [4] B.B. Kadomtsov and V.I. Petviashvili, Sov. Phys. Tokl. 15 (1970) 539. [5] A. Davey and K. Stewartson, Proc. R. Soc. London A 338 (1974) 17. [6] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Math. Phys. 35 (1994) 4746. [7] L.P. Nizhnik, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 25 (1980) 706. [8] B.G. Konopelchenko, et al., Phys. Lett. A 158 (1991) 391. [9] S.Y. Lou, J. Phys. A 29 (1996) 5989. [10] H.Y. Ruan and S.Y. Lou, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 3123. [11] S.Y. Lou and X.Y. Tang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 19 (2002) 770. [12] S.Y. Lou and X.B. Hu, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 6401. [13] X.Y. Tang and S.Y. Lou, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 046601. [14] S. Wang, X.Y. Tang, and S.Y. Lou, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 19 (2004) 769. [15] S. Wang, Y.S. Xu, and S.Y. Lou, Chin. Phys. 14 (2003) 1049.

[16] J.F. Zhang and C.L. Zheng, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 38 (2002) 37. [17] J.F. Zhang, et al., Chin. Phys. Lett. 4 (2003) 448. [18] C.L. Zheng, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 40 (2003) 25. [19] C.L. Zheng and J.M. Zhu, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 39 (2003) 261. [20] C.L. Zheng and J.F. Zhang, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 40 (2003) 385. [21] J.P. Fang, C.L. Zheng, and Q. Liu, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 43 (2005) 246. [22] J.P. Fang and C.L. Zheng, Z. Naturforsch. 60a (2005) 245. [23] J.P. Fang and C.L. Zheng, Chin. Phys. 14 (2005) 669. [24] S.H. Ma and J.P. Fang, Acta. Phys. Sin. 55 (2006) 5611 (in Chinese). [25] S.H. Ma, et al., Z. Naturforsch. 61a (2006) 249. [26] F. Calogero, Lett. Nouvo. Cimento. 14 (1975) 443. [27] P.A. Clorkson and E.L. Mansﬁeld, Acta Appl. Math. Phys. 39 (1995) 245. [28] S.Y. Lou and H.Y. Ruan, J. Phys. A 34 (2001) 305. [29] C.L. Zheng and L.Q. Chen, Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73 (2004) 293. [30] X.Y. Tang, C.L. Chen, and S.Y. Lou, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 43 (2002) 4078.

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