CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 41 , NO.

3 JUNE 2003
Abundant Localized Coherent Structures of the (2+1)-dimensional Generalized
Nozhnik-Novikov-Veselov System
Jie-Fang Zhang

Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China and
Shanghai Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics,
Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 ,China
Chun-Long Zheng
Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China and
Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui Normal College, Lishui 323000, China
(Received September 9, 2002)
In a previous paper (Chin. Phys. 11, 651, (2002)), a rather general variable separation solution of
the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov(GNNV) system was obtained by using a special B¨acklund
transformation, which can be derived from the extended homogenous balance method. However we
did not discuss the related localized coherent structures of the model. In this article, the abundance
of the localized coherent structures of the system, particularly some localized excitations with fractal
behaviours, i.e. the fractal dromion and fractal lump excitations, were induced by the appropriate
selection of the separated variables arbitrary functions.
PACS numbers: 03.40.Kf
I. INTRODUCTION
It is well-known that the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov(NNV) equation [1] is
the only known isotropic Lax extension of the well known (1+1)-dimensional KdV equation. Some
types of soliton solutions have been studied by many authors. For Instance, Boiti, Leon, Manna
and Pempinelli [2] solved the NNV equation via the inverse scattering transformation. Tagami [3]
and Hu, and Li [4] obtained soliton-like solutions for the NNV equation by means of the B¨acklund
transformation. Hu [5] also gave a nonlinear superposition formula of the NNV equation. Ohta
[6] obtained the Pfaffian solutions for the NNV equation. Radha and Lakshmanan [7] constructed
only the dromion solutions from its bilinear form after analyzing its integrability aspects. Lou
[8] obtained some special new types of multisoliton solutions for the NNV equation by using the
standard truncated Painlev´e analysis.
In Ref. [9], a rather general variable separation solution of the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-
Veselov(GNNV) system
v
t
+ av
xxx
+ v
yyy
+ cv
x
+ dv
y
= 3a(uv)
x
+ 3b(vw), (1)
v
x
= u
y
, v
y
= w
x
, (2)
where a, b, c and d are some arbitrary constants, was obtained by using a special B¨acklund trans-
formation, which can be derived from the extended homogenous balance method. Specifically:
v =
2(A−a
1
a
2
)p
x
q
y
(1 + a
1
p + a
2
q + Apq)
2
, (3)
u =
2(a
1
+ Aq)
2
p
2
x
(1 + a
1
p + a
2
q + Apq)
2

2(a
1
+ Aq)p
xx
1 + a
1
p + a
2
q + Apq
+
p
t
+ ap
xxx
+ cp
x
3ap
x
, (4)
http://PSROC.phys.ntu.edu.tw/cjp 242 c 2003 THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY
OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 243
w =
2(a
2
+ Ap)
2
q
2
y
(1 + a
1
p + a
2
q + Apq)
2

2(a
1
+ Ap)q
yy
1 + a
1
p + a
2
q + Apq
+
q
t
+ bq
yyy
+ dq
y
3bq
y
, (5)
where a
1
, a
2
and A are some arbitrary constants, p = p(x, t) may be an arbitrary function of {x, t}
, and q = q(y, t) may also be an arbitrary function of {y, t}. However we did not discuss the related
localized coherent structures of the model. In this article, the abundance of the localized coherent
structures of the system, in particular, some localized excitations with fractal behaviors, i.e. the
fractal dromion and fractal lump excitations, were induced by appropriately selecting the separated
variables arbitrary functions.
II. SOME STABLE LOCALIZED COHERENT SOLITON STRUCTURES OF THE (2+1)-
DIMENSIONAL GNNV SYSTEM
It is interesting that expression (3) is valid for many (2+1)-dimensional models such as the
DS equation, the NNV system, the ANNV equation and the ADS model, the dispersive long wave
equation, etc. [13, 26–28]. Because of the arbitrariness of the functions p and q included in (3), the
quantity v possesses quite rich structures. For instance, as mentioned in [13, 26–28], if we select
the functions p and q appropriately, we can obtain many kinds of localized solutions, like the multi-
solitoff solutions, multi-dromion and dromion lattice solutions, multiple ring soliton solutions, and
so on. Although these types of localized solutions have been discussed for other models, we include
some special examples here for completeness.
II-1. Multi-solitoff solutions and multi-dromion solutions driven by straight-line soli-
tons
If we restrict the functions p and q of (3) to be
_
p = 1 +

N
i=1
exp(k
i
x + ω
i
t + x
0i
) ≡ 1 +

N
i=1
exp(ξ
i
) ,
q =

M
i=1
exp(K
iy
+ y
0i
)

J
j=1
exp(Ω
j
t) ,
(6)
where x
0i
, y
0i
, k
i
, ω
i
, K
i
and Ω
i
are arbitrary constants, and M, N and J are arbitrary positive
integers, then we have the multi-solitoff solutions (we call a half straight line soliton solution a
solitoff, which is caused by the resonance condition A = 0) and the first type of special multi-
dromion solutions (A = 0), driven by multiple straight-line solitons. There is no dispersion relation
among k
i
, ω
i
, K
i
and Ω
i
.
Fig. 1 shows the structure of a two-solitoff solution for the quantity v shown by (3) with (6)
and
_
M = 2, N = 1, k
1
= K
1
= 1, K
2
= −2, a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 0,
x
01
= y
01
= 0, y
02
= −9 ,
(7)
at time t = 0.
Fig. 2 shows the structure of a single dromion solution for the quantity v shown by (3 ) with
(6) and
M = 1, N = 1, k
1
= K
1
= 3, a
1
= 10, a
2
= 3, A = 0, x
01
= y
01
= 0 , (8)
at time t = 0.
II-2. Multi-dromion solutions driven by curved-line ghost solitons
Recently, Lou has pointed out that for many (2+1)-dimensional models, a dromion may be
driven not only by straight line solitons [36] but also by curved line solitons [37]. Actually, (3) can
244 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41
Fig.1
–5
0
5
10
15
20
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
v
FIG. 1: A special two-solitoff solution for the quantity v shown by (3) with (6) and (7) at time t = 0.
Fig.2
–4
–2
0
2
4
x
–4
–2
0
2
4
y
0
0.5
1
1.5
v
FIG. 2: A single dromion solution for the quantity v shown by (3) with (6) and (8) at time t = 0.
be rewritten as
v =
Q
y
P
x
(a
1
a
2
)
2[A
1
cosh
1
2
(P + Q + C
1
) + A
2
cosh
1
2
(P −Q + C
2
)]
2
, (9)
where P and Q are related to p and q by p = b
1
exp(P), q = b
2
exp(Q) and
A
1
=
_
A(a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+ Ab
1
b
2
), A
2
=
_
(a
1
+ Ab
2
)(a
2
+ Ab
1
),
C
2
= ln
a
1
+ Ab
2
a
2
+ Ab
2
, C
1
= ln
A
a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+ Ab
1
b
2
,
with arbitrary constants b
1
and b
2
.
Hence the general multi-dromion solutions of the model expressed by (3) (or equivalently
(9)) are driven by two sets of straight-line solitons and some curved-line solitons. The first set of
straight-line solitons appears in the factor Q
y
. One can take
Q
y
=
N

i=1
Q
i
(y −y
i0
) , (10)
VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 245
Fig.3
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
x
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
y
0
0.4 v
FIG. 3: A special four-dromion solution shown by (3) with (9) and (12) at time t = 0.
where Q
i
= Q
i
(y − y
i0
) denotes a straight-line soliton which is finite at the line y = y
i0
and
decays rapidly away from the line. Similarly, the second set of straight-line solitons appears in the
factor P
x
. Finally, the curved-line solitons are determined by the factors A
1
cosh(P + Q + C
1
) and
A
2
cosh(P −Q + C
2
) of (9) and the curves are determined by
P + Q + C
1
= min(P + Q + C
1
), P −Q + C
2
= min(P −Q + C
2
) , (11)
while the number of curved-line solitons is determined by the branches of the equations in (11). The
dromions are located at the cross points and/or the closed points of the straight and curved lines.
Figure 3 is a plot of a multi-dromion solution driven by the curved line solitons via taking
_
P = (x −v
1
t)
3
+
x−v
1
t
15
, Q =
(y−v2t)
5
20
+ (y −v
2
t)
3
+
y−v
2
t
100
,
a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 2, b
1
= 3, b
2
= 40, t = 0.
(12)
II-3. Multi-lump solutions
It is also known that in high dimensions, like the KP and DSII equations, a special type of
localized structure (called lump solutions) may also be formed by rational functions. Actually, the
multi-lump solutions of (2+1)-dimensional integrable models can be found by taking the appropriate
arbitrary functions.
For the GNNV system, if we select the functions p and q of (3) to be rational functions
satisfying the conditions
p > 0, q > 0, ∀x, y, t (13)
and a
1
> 0, a
2
> 0, A > 0, then we can obtain the nonsingular localized lump solutions. In Figure
4, we plot a special lump solution (3) with
p = 1 +
1
1 + (x −v
1
t −30)
2
+
1
1 + (x −v
2
t)
2
+
1
1 + (x −v
3
t + 30)
2
, (14)
q =
1
1 + (y −v
4
t −15)
2
+
1
1 + (y −v
5
t + 15)
2
, a
1
= 10, a
2
= 10, A = 1 , (15)
at time t = 0.
246 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41
Fig.4
–40
–20
0
20
40
x –30
–20
–10
0
10
20
30
y
–0.1
0
0.1
v
FIG. 4: A special lump solution for (3) with the selection (14), (15) at time t = 0.
Fig.5
–20
–10
0
10
20
x
–15
–10
–5
0
5
10
15
y
–1
0
1
v
FIG. 5: A oscillating dromion solution for (3) with the selection (16) at time t = 0.
II-4. Oscillating dromion solutions
If some periodic functions in the space variables are included in the functions p and q , we
may obtain some types of multi-dromion solutions with oscillating tails. The oscillating dromion
solution in Fig. 5 is related to
p = 1 + exp ((x −v
1
t) cos(2(x −v
1
t)) + 5/4), q = exp(y −v
2
t), (16)
a
1
= a
2
= 10, A = 1, t = 0.
II-5. Ring soliton solutions
In high dimensions, in addition to the point-like localized coherent excitations, there may be
some other types of physically significant localized excitation. For instance, in the (2+1)-dimensional
cases, there may be some types of ring soliton solutions which are not identically equal to zero on
some closed curves and decay exponentially away from the closed curves [26–28, 30]. In Figures 6
and 7, we plot the interaction property of a travelling two saddle type of ring soliton solution with
the selection
p = 1 + exp (xcos(2x) + 5/4), q = exp(y), a
1
= a
2
= 10, A = 1. (17)
VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 247
Fig.6a
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.6b
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.6c
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.6d
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.6e
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
FIG. 6: The evolution of two saddle type ring soliton solutions given by (3) with the selection (17) at the
times: (a) t = −1, (b) t = −0.4, (c) t = 0, (d) t = 0.4, (e) t = 1.
In Fig. 6, we plot the evolution of the two ring soliton solution for quantity v expressed by (3)
with (17) at times (a) t = −1, (b) t = −0.4, (c) t = 0, (d) t = 0.4, and (e) t = 1, respectively.
From Figs. 6(a)–6(e), we can see that the interaction of the two ring soliton solutions is elastic. To
see more clearly the completely elastic interaction properties between the two travelling ring soliton
solutions, two counter plots related to Figure 6(a) and Figure 6(e) are plotted in Figure 7.
248 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41
Fig.7a
–10
–5
0
5
10
y
–30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30
x
Fig.7b
–10
–5
0
5
10
y
–30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30
x
FIG. 7: (a) The contour plot related to Fig. 6 (a); (b) The contour plot of Fig. 6 (e). The values of the
contours in these figures from the outside to the inside are: |v| = 0.01, |v| = 0.1 and |v| = 0.4, respectively.
II-6. Multi-breather like soliton solutions
In (1+1)-dimensional cases, the breather solutions are another important type of nonlinear
excitations. Because of the arbitrariness that appeared in the functions p and q of (3), the breather
solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional models may also have quite rich structures. On the one hand,
any (1+1)-dimensional breather solution of the (1+1)-dimensional integrable models (like the sine-
Gordon model and the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation) can be used to construct a breather solution
of the higher dimensional models, say the GNNV system. In Figure 8, the well known breather
solution
p = 4 arctan
_

1 −ω
2
sin(ωt)
ω cosh
_√
1 −ω
2
x
_
_
, (18)
of the sine-Gordon model, p
xx
−p
tt
= sin p, is taken as the function p of (3), while q is taken as
q = exp(y) (19)
with the parameters ω = 1/2, a
1
= a
2
= 10, A = 1. On the other hand, one can put any periodic
functions of t into the localized excitations, as shown in the above examples 1–5, to construct more
interesting new breather-like solutions. Fig. 9 shows the evolution behavior of a breather-like ring
soliton solution given by (5) with
_
p = exp
_

1
10
(x −20 sin(πt))
2
+ 5(1.1 + sin(πt))
_
,
q = exp
_
y
2
10
−5 + sin(πt)
_
, a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 0.
(20)
¿From Figs. 9a–9e, we can see that the breather-like ring soliton solution can “breath” in some
different ways, in particular, it can breath not only in its amplitude but also in its shape (like the
radius of the loop), and the position.
II-7. Multiple instanton solution.
If some types of decaying functions of the time t are included in the solution (3), then we can
find some types of instanton solutions. In Figure 10, the behavior of a special ring type of instanton
solution (3) with
_
_
_
p = exp
_

x
2
sech
2
t
10
+ 5(1.1 + sin(πt))
_
,
q = exp
_
y
2
sech
2
t
10
−5
_
, a
1
= a
2
= 1, a
3
= 0
(21)
VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 249
Fig.8a
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
x
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
y
–0.04
0
0.04
v
Fig.8b
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
x
–8
–6
–4
–2
0
2
4
6
8
y
–0.02
0
0.02
v
FIG. 8: The plots of the point-like breather solution (3) with (18) and (19) and the parameters ω = 1/2, a
1
=
a
2
= 10, a
3
= 1, at the times: (a) t = −
π
4
and (b) t =
π
4
, respectively.
is exhibited. From Fig. 10a and Fig. 10b, we can see that the amplitude of the ring type of instanton
solution (3) with (21) decays rapidly from |v| ∼ 1 to |v| ∼ 10
−9
as the time increases from t = 0 to
t = 10.
III. SOME SPECIAL FRACTAL LOCALIZED COHERENT SOLITON STRUCTURES OF
THE (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL GNNV SYSTEM
III-1. Regular fractal dromions and lumps with self-similar structures.
It is known that in (2+1)-dimensions one of the most important basic excitations are the so
called dromions, which are exponentially localized in all directions. In [28], the authors found that
many lower-dimensional piecewise smooth functions with fractal structure can be used to construct
exact localized solutions of higher-dimensional soliton systems which also possess fractal structures.
This situation also occurs in the (2+1)-dimensional GNNV system. With appropriately selected
arbitrary functions p and q, we were surprised to find that some special types of fractal dromions
for the potential v (3) can be revealed. For example, if we take
p = 1 + exp(−x(x + sin(ln(x
2
)) + cos(ln(x
2
)))), (22)
q = 1 + exp(−y(y + sin(ln(y
2
)) + cos(ln(y
2
)))), (23)
with a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 2, then we can obtain a simple fractal dromion. Figure 11(a) shows a plot
of this special type of fractal dromion structure for the potential v given by (3) with the conditions
(22-23). Figure 11(b) is a density plot of the fractal structure of the dromion in the region {x=[-
0.016, 0.016], y=[-0.016, 0.016]}. To observe the self-similar structure of the fractal dromion more
clearly, one may enlarge a small region near the center of Figure 11(b). For instance, if we reduce
the region in Figure 11(b) to {x=[-0.0032, 0.0032], y=[-0.0032, 0.0032]}, {x=[-0.000138, 0.000138],
y=[-0.000138, 0.000138]}, {x=[-0.000006, 0.000006], y=[-0.000006, 0.000006]} and so on, we find a
structure totally similar to that presented in Figure 11(b).
It is also known that in high dimensions, such as the KP equations, the NNV equations
and the ANNV equations, a special type of localized structure, which is called the lump solution
(algebraically localized in all directions), is formed by rational functions. These localized coherent
soliton structures are another type of significant localized excitation. If the functions p and q of
250 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41
Fig.9a
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.9b
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–0.5
0
0.5
v
Fig.9c
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
0 v
Fig.9d
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.9e
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.9f
–40
–20
0
20
40
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
FIG. 9: The evolution of a special ring shaped breather solution (3) with the selection (20) at the times:
(a) t = −1, (b) t = −0.5, (c) t = −0.2, (d) t = 0, (e) t = 0.2, (f) t = 1, respectively.
the potential v (3) are selected appropriately, we can find some types of lump solutions with fractal
behaviors. Figure 12(a) shows a fractal lump structure for the potential v, where the p and q in
solution (3) are selected as follows:
p = 1 +
|x|
1 + x
4
(sin(ln(x
2
)) + cos(ln(x
2
)))
2
, (24)
q = 1 +
|y|
1 + y
4
(sin(ln(y
2
)) + cos ln(y
2
)))
2
, (25)
VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 251
Fig.10a
–20
–10
0
10
20
x
–20
–10
0
10
20
y
–1
0
1
v
Fig.10b
–150000
–50000
50000
150000
x
–150000
–100000
–50000
0
50000
100000
150000
y
0 v
FIG. 10: (a) The evolution plots of the ring type of instanton solution (3) with (21) at the times (a) t = 0
and (b) t = 10.
Fig.11(a)
–4
–2
0
2
4
x
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
y
–0.1
0
0.1
v
Fig.11(b)
–0.015
–0.01
–0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
y
–0.015 –0.01 –0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015
x
FIG. 11: (a) A plot of the fractal dromion structure for the potential v given by the solution (3) with the
conditions (22-23) and a1 = a2 = 1, A = 2. (b) is a density plot of the fractal structure of the dromion in
the region {x = [−0.016, 0.016], y = [−0.016, 0.016]}.
with a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 2. From Figure 12(a), we can see that the solution is localized in all
directions. Near the center there are infinitely many peaks which are distributed in a fractal manner.
In order to investigate the fractal structure of the lump, we must look at the structure more carefully.
Figure 12(b) presents a density plot of the structure of the fractal lump at the region {x=[-0.016,
0.016], y=[-0.016, 0.016]}. A more detailed study shows us the interesting self-similar structure of
the lump. For example, if we reduce the region of Figure 12(b) to {x=[-0.0032, 0.0032], y=[-0.0032,
0.0032]}, {x=[-0.00066, 0.00066], y=[-0.00066, 0.00066] }, {x=[-0.000028, 0.000028], y=[-0.000028,
0.000028]} and so on, we find structure totally similar to that plotted in Figure 12(b).
III-2. Stochastic fractal dromions and lumps.
In addition to the self-similar regular fractal dromions and lumps, the lower-dimensional
stochastic fractal functions may also be used to construct higher-dimensional stochastic fractal
dromion and lump excitations. For instance, one of the most well-known stochastic fractal functions
252 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41
Fig.12(a)
–4
–2
0
2
4
x
–4
–2
0
2
4
y
0 v
Fig.12(b)
–0.015
–0.01
–0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
y
–0.015 –0.01 –0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015
x
FIG. 12: (a) A fractal lump structure for the potential v with the conditions (24-25) and a
1
= a
2
=
1, A = 2. (b) A density plot of the fractal lump related to (a) for the region {x = [−0.0016, 0.0016], y =
[−0.0016, 0.0016]}.
Fig.13
–60
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
x
–60
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
y
–2
0
2
4
ab
FIG. 13: A plot of a typical stochastic fractal lump solution determined by (3) with the selections (26-27)
and a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 2.
is the Weierstrass function,
w ≡ w(ξ) =
N

k=0
(3/2)
−k/2
sin((3/2)
k
ξ), N →∞, (26)
where the independent variable ξ may be a suitable function of {x + at} and/or {y + bt}, say
ξ = x + at and ξ = y + bt in the functions u and v, respectively, for the following selection (27).
If the Weierstrass function is included in the dromion or lump excitations, then we can derive the
stochastic fractal dromions and lumps. Figure 13 shows a plot of a typical stochastic fractal lump
solution, which is determined by (3) with (26) and
p = w(x + at) + (x + at)
2
+ 10
3
, q = w(y + bt) + (y + bt)
2
+ 10
3
, (27)
and a
1
= a
2
= 1, A = 2 at t = 0. In Figure 13 the vertical axis denotes the quantity v which is
only a re-scaling of the potential v: v = v ×10
−7
.
VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 253
IV. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
In summary, with the help of the B¨acklund transformation and the variable separation ap-
proach, a (2+1)-dimensional GNNV system is solved. The abundant localized coherent soliton
structures of the solution (3), such as multi-dromion, multi-ring, multi-lump solutions, breathers
and instantons etc., can be constructed by selecting the appropriate arbitrary functions.
In addition to these stable localized coherent soliton structures, we find some new localized
excitations–the fractal dromion and lump solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional GNNV system shown
in Figures 11(b) and 12(b). As is known, fractals not only belong to the realms of mathematics and
computer graphics, but also exist nearly everywhere in nature, such as in tree branching, leaves,
coastlines, fluid turbulence, crystal growth patterns, human veins, fern shapes, galaxy clustering,
cloud structures and in numerous other examples. By selecting different types of lower-dimensional
fractal models, one may obtain various beautiful higher dimensional fractal patterns. These beautiful
pictures may be useful in architecture, costume design, and so on. In the future, perhaps the most
famous artists will also be the most famous physicists and/or mathematicians, because paintings will
be produced not by brushes, but by mathematical expressions. Generally, fractals are the opposite
to solitons in nonlinear science, since solitons are trepresentatives of an integrable system, while
fractals represent non-integrable systems. However, in this paper, we found some fractal structures
for dromion and lump solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional GNNV model. Naturally, as pointed out
in [28], the question of what on earth the integrability definition is, weighs on people’ mind, as does
the question of how to find and make use of this novel phenomena in reality.
Even though some issues baffle us, we believe that the “variable separation approach” is useful
and powerful and can be used in other (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear physical models. Additional
applications of this method to other (2+1)-dimensional physical models, and the properties of the
multiple localized coherent excitations, especially excitations with fractal behaviors, are worthy of
further study.
Acknowledgments
This project was supported by the Foundation of “151 Talent Engineering ” of Zhejiang
Province and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province of China under Grant No.101032.
References

Corresponding author. jfzhang@yahoo.com.cn
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