## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

3 JUNE 2003

Abundant Localized Coherent Structures of the (2+1)-dimensional Generalized

Nozhnik-Novikov-Veselov System

Jie-Fang Zhang

∗

Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China and

Shanghai Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics,

Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 ,China

Chun-Long Zheng

Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China and

Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui Normal College, Lishui 323000, China

(Received September 9, 2002)

In a previous paper (Chin. Phys. 11, 651, (2002)), a rather general variable separation solution of

the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov(GNNV) system was obtained by using a special B¨acklund

transformation, which can be derived from the extended homogenous balance method. However we

did not discuss the related localized coherent structures of the model. In this article, the abundance

of the localized coherent structures of the system, particularly some localized excitations with fractal

behaviours, i.e. the fractal dromion and fractal lump excitations, were induced by the appropriate

selection of the separated variables arbitrary functions.

PACS numbers: 03.40.Kf

I. INTRODUCTION

It is well-known that the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov(NNV) equation [1] is

the only known isotropic Lax extension of the well known (1+1)-dimensional KdV equation. Some

types of soliton solutions have been studied by many authors. For Instance, Boiti, Leon, Manna

and Pempinelli [2] solved the NNV equation via the inverse scattering transformation. Tagami [3]

and Hu, and Li [4] obtained soliton-like solutions for the NNV equation by means of the B¨acklund

transformation. Hu [5] also gave a nonlinear superposition formula of the NNV equation. Ohta

[6] obtained the Pfaﬃan solutions for the NNV equation. Radha and Lakshmanan [7] constructed

only the dromion solutions from its bilinear form after analyzing its integrability aspects. Lou

[8] obtained some special new types of multisoliton solutions for the NNV equation by using the

standard truncated Painlev´e analysis.

In Ref. [9], a rather general variable separation solution of the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-

Veselov(GNNV) system

v

t

+ av

xxx

+ v

yyy

+ cv

x

+ dv

y

= 3a(uv)

x

+ 3b(vw), (1)

v

x

= u

y

, v

y

= w

x

, (2)

where a, b, c and d are some arbitrary constants, was obtained by using a special B¨acklund trans-

formation, which can be derived from the extended homogenous balance method. Speciﬁcally:

v =

2(A−a

1

a

2

)p

x

q

y

(1 + a

1

p + a

2

q + Apq)

2

, (3)

u =

2(a

1

+ Aq)

2

p

2

x

(1 + a

1

p + a

2

q + Apq)

2

−

2(a

1

+ Aq)p

xx

1 + a

1

p + a

2

q + Apq

+

p

t

+ ap

xxx

+ cp

x

3ap

x

, (4)

http://PSROC.phys.ntu.edu.tw/cjp 242 c 2003 THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY

OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA

VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 243

w =

2(a

2

+ Ap)

2

q

2

y

(1 + a

1

p + a

2

q + Apq)

2

−

2(a

1

+ Ap)q

yy

1 + a

1

p + a

2

q + Apq

+

q

t

+ bq

yyy

+ dq

y

3bq

y

, (5)

where a

1

, a

2

and A are some arbitrary constants, p = p(x, t) may be an arbitrary function of {x, t}

, and q = q(y, t) may also be an arbitrary function of {y, t}. However we did not discuss the related

localized coherent structures of the model. In this article, the abundance of the localized coherent

structures of the system, in particular, some localized excitations with fractal behaviors, i.e. the

fractal dromion and fractal lump excitations, were induced by appropriately selecting the separated

variables arbitrary functions.

II. SOME STABLE LOCALIZED COHERENT SOLITON STRUCTURES OF THE (2+1)-

DIMENSIONAL GNNV SYSTEM

It is interesting that expression (3) is valid for many (2+1)-dimensional models such as the

DS equation, the NNV system, the ANNV equation and the ADS model, the dispersive long wave

equation, etc. [13, 26–28]. Because of the arbitrariness of the functions p and q included in (3), the

quantity v possesses quite rich structures. For instance, as mentioned in [13, 26–28], if we select

the functions p and q appropriately, we can obtain many kinds of localized solutions, like the multi-

solitoﬀ solutions, multi-dromion and dromion lattice solutions, multiple ring soliton solutions, and

so on. Although these types of localized solutions have been discussed for other models, we include

some special examples here for completeness.

II-1. Multi-solitoﬀ solutions and multi-dromion solutions driven by straight-line soli-

tons

If we restrict the functions p and q of (3) to be

_

p = 1 +

N

i=1

exp(k

i

x + ω

i

t + x

0i

) ≡ 1 +

N

i=1

exp(ξ

i

) ,

q =

M

i=1

exp(K

iy

+ y

0i

)

J

j=1

exp(Ω

j

t) ,

(6)

where x

0i

, y

0i

, k

i

, ω

i

, K

i

and Ω

i

are arbitrary constants, and M, N and J are arbitrary positive

integers, then we have the multi-solitoﬀ solutions (we call a half straight line soliton solution a

solitoﬀ, which is caused by the resonance condition A = 0) and the ﬁrst type of special multi-

dromion solutions (A = 0), driven by multiple straight-line solitons. There is no dispersion relation

among k

i

, ω

i

, K

i

and Ω

i

.

Fig. 1 shows the structure of a two-solitoﬀ solution for the quantity v shown by (3) with (6)

and

_

M = 2, N = 1, k

1

= K

1

= 1, K

2

= −2, a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 0,

x

01

= y

01

= 0, y

02

= −9 ,

(7)

at time t = 0.

Fig. 2 shows the structure of a single dromion solution for the quantity v shown by (3 ) with

(6) and

M = 1, N = 1, k

1

= K

1

= 3, a

1

= 10, a

2

= 3, A = 0, x

01

= y

01

= 0 , (8)

at time t = 0.

II-2. Multi-dromion solutions driven by curved-line ghost solitons

Recently, Lou has pointed out that for many (2+1)-dimensional models, a dromion may be

driven not only by straight line solitons [36] but also by curved line solitons [37]. Actually, (3) can

244 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41

Fig.1

–5

0

5

10

15

20

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

v

FIG. 1: A special two-solitoﬀ solution for the quantity v shown by (3) with (6) and (7) at time t = 0.

Fig.2

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

y

0

0.5

1

1.5

v

FIG. 2: A single dromion solution for the quantity v shown by (3) with (6) and (8) at time t = 0.

be rewritten as

v =

Q

y

P

x

(a

1

a

2

)

2[A

1

cosh

1

2

(P + Q + C

1

) + A

2

cosh

1

2

(P −Q + C

2

)]

2

, (9)

where P and Q are related to p and q by p = b

1

exp(P), q = b

2

exp(Q) and

A

1

=

_

A(a

1

b

1

+ a

2

b

2

+ Ab

1

b

2

), A

2

=

_

(a

1

+ Ab

2

)(a

2

+ Ab

1

),

C

2

= ln

a

1

+ Ab

2

a

2

+ Ab

2

, C

1

= ln

A

a

1

b

1

+ a

2

b

2

+ Ab

1

b

2

,

with arbitrary constants b

1

and b

2

.

Hence the general multi-dromion solutions of the model expressed by (3) (or equivalently

(9)) are driven by two sets of straight-line solitons and some curved-line solitons. The ﬁrst set of

straight-line solitons appears in the factor Q

y

. One can take

Q

y

=

N

i=1

Q

i

(y −y

i0

) , (10)

VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 245

Fig.3

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

x

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

y

0

0.4 v

FIG. 3: A special four-dromion solution shown by (3) with (9) and (12) at time t = 0.

where Q

i

= Q

i

(y − y

i0

) denotes a straight-line soliton which is ﬁnite at the line y = y

i0

and

decays rapidly away from the line. Similarly, the second set of straight-line solitons appears in the

factor P

x

. Finally, the curved-line solitons are determined by the factors A

1

cosh(P + Q + C

1

) and

A

2

cosh(P −Q + C

2

) of (9) and the curves are determined by

P + Q + C

1

= min(P + Q + C

1

), P −Q + C

2

= min(P −Q + C

2

) , (11)

while the number of curved-line solitons is determined by the branches of the equations in (11). The

dromions are located at the cross points and/or the closed points of the straight and curved lines.

Figure 3 is a plot of a multi-dromion solution driven by the curved line solitons via taking

_

P = (x −v

1

t)

3

+

x−v

1

t

15

, Q =

(y−v2t)

5

20

+ (y −v

2

t)

3

+

y−v

2

t

100

,

a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 2, b

1

= 3, b

2

= 40, t = 0.

(12)

II-3. Multi-lump solutions

It is also known that in high dimensions, like the KP and DSII equations, a special type of

localized structure (called lump solutions) may also be formed by rational functions. Actually, the

multi-lump solutions of (2+1)-dimensional integrable models can be found by taking the appropriate

arbitrary functions.

For the GNNV system, if we select the functions p and q of (3) to be rational functions

satisfying the conditions

p > 0, q > 0, ∀x, y, t (13)

and a

1

> 0, a

2

> 0, A > 0, then we can obtain the nonsingular localized lump solutions. In Figure

4, we plot a special lump solution (3) with

p = 1 +

1

1 + (x −v

1

t −30)

2

+

1

1 + (x −v

2

t)

2

+

1

1 + (x −v

3

t + 30)

2

, (14)

q =

1

1 + (y −v

4

t −15)

2

+

1

1 + (y −v

5

t + 15)

2

, a

1

= 10, a

2

= 10, A = 1 , (15)

at time t = 0.

246 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41

Fig.4

–40

–20

0

20

40

x –30

–20

–10

0

10

20

30

y

–0.1

0

0.1

v

FIG. 4: A special lump solution for (3) with the selection (14), (15) at time t = 0.

Fig.5

–20

–10

0

10

20

x

–15

–10

–5

0

5

10

15

y

–1

0

1

v

FIG. 5: A oscillating dromion solution for (3) with the selection (16) at time t = 0.

II-4. Oscillating dromion solutions

If some periodic functions in the space variables are included in the functions p and q , we

may obtain some types of multi-dromion solutions with oscillating tails. The oscillating dromion

solution in Fig. 5 is related to

p = 1 + exp ((x −v

1

t) cos(2(x −v

1

t)) + 5/4), q = exp(y −v

2

t), (16)

a

1

= a

2

= 10, A = 1, t = 0.

II-5. Ring soliton solutions

In high dimensions, in addition to the point-like localized coherent excitations, there may be

some other types of physically signiﬁcant localized excitation. For instance, in the (2+1)-dimensional

cases, there may be some types of ring soliton solutions which are not identically equal to zero on

some closed curves and decay exponentially away from the closed curves [26–28, 30]. In Figures 6

and 7, we plot the interaction property of a travelling two saddle type of ring soliton solution with

the selection

p = 1 + exp (xcos(2x) + 5/4), q = exp(y), a

1

= a

2

= 10, A = 1. (17)

VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 247

Fig.6a

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.6b

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.6c

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.6d

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.6e

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

FIG. 6: The evolution of two saddle type ring soliton solutions given by (3) with the selection (17) at the

times: (a) t = −1, (b) t = −0.4, (c) t = 0, (d) t = 0.4, (e) t = 1.

In Fig. 6, we plot the evolution of the two ring soliton solution for quantity v expressed by (3)

with (17) at times (a) t = −1, (b) t = −0.4, (c) t = 0, (d) t = 0.4, and (e) t = 1, respectively.

From Figs. 6(a)–6(e), we can see that the interaction of the two ring soliton solutions is elastic. To

see more clearly the completely elastic interaction properties between the two travelling ring soliton

solutions, two counter plots related to Figure 6(a) and Figure 6(e) are plotted in Figure 7.

248 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41

Fig.7a

–10

–5

0

5

10

y

–30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30

x

Fig.7b

–10

–5

0

5

10

y

–30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30

x

FIG. 7: (a) The contour plot related to Fig. 6 (a); (b) The contour plot of Fig. 6 (e). The values of the

contours in these ﬁgures from the outside to the inside are: |v| = 0.01, |v| = 0.1 and |v| = 0.4, respectively.

II-6. Multi-breather like soliton solutions

In (1+1)-dimensional cases, the breather solutions are another important type of nonlinear

excitations. Because of the arbitrariness that appeared in the functions p and q of (3), the breather

solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional models may also have quite rich structures. On the one hand,

any (1+1)-dimensional breather solution of the (1+1)-dimensional integrable models (like the sine-

Gordon model and the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation) can be used to construct a breather solution

of the higher dimensional models, say the GNNV system. In Figure 8, the well known breather

solution

p = 4 arctan

_

√

1 −ω

2

sin(ωt)

ω cosh

_√

1 −ω

2

x

_

_

, (18)

of the sine-Gordon model, p

xx

−p

tt

= sin p, is taken as the function p of (3), while q is taken as

q = exp(y) (19)

with the parameters ω = 1/2, a

1

= a

2

= 10, A = 1. On the other hand, one can put any periodic

functions of t into the localized excitations, as shown in the above examples 1–5, to construct more

interesting new breather-like solutions. Fig. 9 shows the evolution behavior of a breather-like ring

soliton solution given by (5) with

_

p = exp

_

−

1

10

(x −20 sin(πt))

2

+ 5(1.1 + sin(πt))

_

,

q = exp

_

y

2

10

−5 + sin(πt)

_

, a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 0.

(20)

¿From Figs. 9a–9e, we can see that the breather-like ring soliton solution can “breath” in some

diﬀerent ways, in particular, it can breath not only in its amplitude but also in its shape (like the

radius of the loop), and the position.

II-7. Multiple instanton solution.

If some types of decaying functions of the time t are included in the solution (3), then we can

ﬁnd some types of instanton solutions. In Figure 10, the behavior of a special ring type of instanton

solution (3) with

_

_

_

p = exp

_

−

x

2

sech

2

t

10

+ 5(1.1 + sin(πt))

_

,

q = exp

_

y

2

sech

2

t

10

−5

_

, a

1

= a

2

= 1, a

3

= 0

(21)

VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 249

Fig.8a

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

x

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

y

–0.04

0

0.04

v

Fig.8b

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

x

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

y

–0.02

0

0.02

v

FIG. 8: The plots of the point-like breather solution (3) with (18) and (19) and the parameters ω = 1/2, a

1

=

a

2

= 10, a

3

= 1, at the times: (a) t = −

π

4

and (b) t =

π

4

, respectively.

is exhibited. From Fig. 10a and Fig. 10b, we can see that the amplitude of the ring type of instanton

solution (3) with (21) decays rapidly from |v| ∼ 1 to |v| ∼ 10

−9

as the time increases from t = 0 to

t = 10.

III. SOME SPECIAL FRACTAL LOCALIZED COHERENT SOLITON STRUCTURES OF

THE (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL GNNV SYSTEM

III-1. Regular fractal dromions and lumps with self-similar structures.

It is known that in (2+1)-dimensions one of the most important basic excitations are the so

called dromions, which are exponentially localized in all directions. In [28], the authors found that

many lower-dimensional piecewise smooth functions with fractal structure can be used to construct

exact localized solutions of higher-dimensional soliton systems which also possess fractal structures.

This situation also occurs in the (2+1)-dimensional GNNV system. With appropriately selected

arbitrary functions p and q, we were surprised to ﬁnd that some special types of fractal dromions

for the potential v (3) can be revealed. For example, if we take

p = 1 + exp(−x(x + sin(ln(x

2

)) + cos(ln(x

2

)))), (22)

q = 1 + exp(−y(y + sin(ln(y

2

)) + cos(ln(y

2

)))), (23)

with a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 2, then we can obtain a simple fractal dromion. Figure 11(a) shows a plot

of this special type of fractal dromion structure for the potential v given by (3) with the conditions

(22-23). Figure 11(b) is a density plot of the fractal structure of the dromion in the region {x=[-

0.016, 0.016], y=[-0.016, 0.016]}. To observe the self-similar structure of the fractal dromion more

clearly, one may enlarge a small region near the center of Figure 11(b). For instance, if we reduce

the region in Figure 11(b) to {x=[-0.0032, 0.0032], y=[-0.0032, 0.0032]}, {x=[-0.000138, 0.000138],

y=[-0.000138, 0.000138]}, {x=[-0.000006, 0.000006], y=[-0.000006, 0.000006]} and so on, we ﬁnd a

structure totally similar to that presented in Figure 11(b).

It is also known that in high dimensions, such as the KP equations, the NNV equations

and the ANNV equations, a special type of localized structure, which is called the lump solution

(algebraically localized in all directions), is formed by rational functions. These localized coherent

soliton structures are another type of signiﬁcant localized excitation. If the functions p and q of

250 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41

Fig.9a

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.9b

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–0.5

0

0.5

v

Fig.9c

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

0 v

Fig.9d

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.9e

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.9f

–40

–20

0

20

40

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

FIG. 9: The evolution of a special ring shaped breather solution (3) with the selection (20) at the times:

(a) t = −1, (b) t = −0.5, (c) t = −0.2, (d) t = 0, (e) t = 0.2, (f) t = 1, respectively.

the potential v (3) are selected appropriately, we can ﬁnd some types of lump solutions with fractal

behaviors. Figure 12(a) shows a fractal lump structure for the potential v, where the p and q in

solution (3) are selected as follows:

p = 1 +

|x|

1 + x

4

(sin(ln(x

2

)) + cos(ln(x

2

)))

2

, (24)

q = 1 +

|y|

1 + y

4

(sin(ln(y

2

)) + cos ln(y

2

)))

2

, (25)

VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 251

Fig.10a

–20

–10

0

10

20

x

–20

–10

0

10

20

y

–1

0

1

v

Fig.10b

–150000

–50000

50000

150000

x

–150000

–100000

–50000

0

50000

100000

150000

y

0 v

FIG. 10: (a) The evolution plots of the ring type of instanton solution (3) with (21) at the times (a) t = 0

and (b) t = 10.

Fig.11(a)

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

3

y

–0.1

0

0.1

v

Fig.11(b)

–0.015

–0.01

–0.005

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

y

–0.015 –0.01 –0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015

x

FIG. 11: (a) A plot of the fractal dromion structure for the potential v given by the solution (3) with the

conditions (22-23) and a1 = a2 = 1, A = 2. (b) is a density plot of the fractal structure of the dromion in

the region {x = [−0.016, 0.016], y = [−0.016, 0.016]}.

with a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 2. From Figure 12(a), we can see that the solution is localized in all

directions. Near the center there are inﬁnitely many peaks which are distributed in a fractal manner.

In order to investigate the fractal structure of the lump, we must look at the structure more carefully.

Figure 12(b) presents a density plot of the structure of the fractal lump at the region {x=[-0.016,

0.016], y=[-0.016, 0.016]}. A more detailed study shows us the interesting self-similar structure of

the lump. For example, if we reduce the region of Figure 12(b) to {x=[-0.0032, 0.0032], y=[-0.0032,

0.0032]}, {x=[-0.00066, 0.00066], y=[-0.00066, 0.00066] }, {x=[-0.000028, 0.000028], y=[-0.000028,

0.000028]} and so on, we ﬁnd structure totally similar to that plotted in Figure 12(b).

III-2. Stochastic fractal dromions and lumps.

In addition to the self-similar regular fractal dromions and lumps, the lower-dimensional

stochastic fractal functions may also be used to construct higher-dimensional stochastic fractal

dromion and lump excitations. For instance, one of the most well-known stochastic fractal functions

252 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41

Fig.12(a)

–4

–2

0

2

4

x

–4

–2

0

2

4

y

0 v

Fig.12(b)

–0.015

–0.01

–0.005

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

y

–0.015 –0.01 –0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015

x

FIG. 12: (a) A fractal lump structure for the potential v with the conditions (24-25) and a

1

= a

2

=

1, A = 2. (b) A density plot of the fractal lump related to (a) for the region {x = [−0.0016, 0.0016], y =

[−0.0016, 0.0016]}.

Fig.13

–60

–40

–20

0

20

40

60

x

–60

–40

–20

0

20

40

60

y

–2

0

2

4

ab

FIG. 13: A plot of a typical stochastic fractal lump solution determined by (3) with the selections (26-27)

and a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 2.

is the Weierstrass function,

w ≡ w(ξ) =

N

k=0

(3/2)

−k/2

sin((3/2)

k

ξ), N →∞, (26)

where the independent variable ξ may be a suitable function of {x + at} and/or {y + bt}, say

ξ = x + at and ξ = y + bt in the functions u and v, respectively, for the following selection (27).

If the Weierstrass function is included in the dromion or lump excitations, then we can derive the

stochastic fractal dromions and lumps. Figure 13 shows a plot of a typical stochastic fractal lump

solution, which is determined by (3) with (26) and

p = w(x + at) + (x + at)

2

+ 10

3

, q = w(y + bt) + (y + bt)

2

+ 10

3

, (27)

and a

1

= a

2

= 1, A = 2 at t = 0. In Figure 13 the vertical axis denotes the quantity v which is

only a re-scaling of the potential v: v = v ×10

−7

.

VOL. 41 JIE-FANG ZHANG AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 253

IV. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

In summary, with the help of the B¨acklund transformation and the variable separation ap-

proach, a (2+1)-dimensional GNNV system is solved. The abundant localized coherent soliton

structures of the solution (3), such as multi-dromion, multi-ring, multi-lump solutions, breathers

and instantons etc., can be constructed by selecting the appropriate arbitrary functions.

In addition to these stable localized coherent soliton structures, we ﬁnd some new localized

excitations–the fractal dromion and lump solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional GNNV system shown

in Figures 11(b) and 12(b). As is known, fractals not only belong to the realms of mathematics and

computer graphics, but also exist nearly everywhere in nature, such as in tree branching, leaves,

coastlines, ﬂuid turbulence, crystal growth patterns, human veins, fern shapes, galaxy clustering,

cloud structures and in numerous other examples. By selecting diﬀerent types of lower-dimensional

fractal models, one may obtain various beautiful higher dimensional fractal patterns. These beautiful

pictures may be useful in architecture, costume design, and so on. In the future, perhaps the most

famous artists will also be the most famous physicists and/or mathematicians, because paintings will

be produced not by brushes, but by mathematical expressions. Generally, fractals are the opposite

to solitons in nonlinear science, since solitons are trepresentatives of an integrable system, while

fractals represent non-integrable systems. However, in this paper, we found some fractal structures

for dromion and lump solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional GNNV model. Naturally, as pointed out

in [28], the question of what on earth the integrability deﬁnition is, weighs on people’ mind, as does

the question of how to ﬁnd and make use of this novel phenomena in reality.

Even though some issues baﬄe us, we believe that the “variable separation approach” is useful

and powerful and can be used in other (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear physical models. Additional

applications of this method to other (2+1)-dimensional physical models, and the properties of the

multiple localized coherent excitations, especially excitations with fractal behaviors, are worthy of

further study.

Acknowledgments

This project was supported by the Foundation of “151 Talent Engineering ” of Zhejiang

Province and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province of China under Grant No.101032.

References

∗

Corresponding author. jfzhang@yahoo.com.cn

[1] M. Boiti, J. J. P. Leon, M. Manna and F.Pempinelli, Inv. Problems, 2, 271 (1986).

[2] Y. Tagami, Phys. Lett. A 141, 116 (1989).

[3] X. B. Hu and Y. S. Li, J. Phys. A : Math. Gen., 24, 1979 (1991).

[4] X. B. Hu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., 24, 1331 (1991).

[5] Y. Ohta, J. Phys. Soc. of Japn., 61, 3928 (1992).

[6] S. Y. Lou, Chin. Phys. Lett ., 17, 781 (2000).

[7] R. Radha and Lakshmanan, J. Math. Phys., 35, 4746 (1994).

[8] S. Y. Lou, Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 781 (2000).

[9] J. F. Zhang, Chin. Phys. 11, 651 (2002).

[10] M. J. Ablowitz, D. J. Kaup, A. C. Newell and H. Segur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1262 (1973); 31 125

(1973).

[11] Y. Cheng and Y. S. Li, Phys. Lett. 175A, 22 (1991); B. G. Konopelchenko, J. Sidorenko and W.

Strampp, Phys. Lett. 175A, 17 (1991).

[12] S. Y. Lou and X. B. Hu, J. Math. Phys. 38, 6401 (1997).

254 ABUNDANT LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURE OF THE . . . VOL. 41

[13] A. Davey and K. Stewartson, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 338, 101 (1974).

[14] F. Calogero and A. Degasperis, Nuovo Cimento, 31B2, 201 (1976); 39B1, 54 (1977); O. I. Bogoyovlen-

skii, Usp. Mat. Nauk. 45, 17 (1990); Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat. 53, 234,907 (1989); 54, 1123

(1989); Y. S. Li and Y. J. Zhang, J. Phys. A: Math. Phys. Gen. 26, 7487 (1993); S. Y. Lou, Commun.

Theor. Phys. 28, 41 (1997).

[15] A. Maccari, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., 38, 4151 (1997); A. Uthayakumar, K. Nakkeran and K. Porsezia,

Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 10, 1513 (1999); J. F. Zhang, Commun. Theor. Phys. 35, 267 (2001); D.

W. C. Lai, and K. W. Chow, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 70, 666 (2001).

[16] J. Weiss, M. Tabor and G, Carnevale, J. Math. Phys., 24 , 522 (1983); A. Ramani, B. Grammaticos

and T. Bountis, Phys. Rep. 180, 159 (1989).

[17] M. Jimbo, M. D. Kruskal and T. Miwa, Phys. Lett. 92A, 59 (1982).

[18] A. P. Fordy and A. Pickering, Phys. Lett. A. 160, 347 (1991).

[19] R. Conte, Phys. Lett. 140A, 383 (1989).

[20] S. Y. Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5027 (1998); Z. Naturforsch., 53a, 251 (1998).

[21] S. Y. Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4099 (1993); J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26, 4387 (1993); J. Math. Phys.

35, 1775 (1994).

[22] S. Y. Lou, Science in China (series A), 34, 1317 (1997); S. Y. Lou, J. Lin and J. Yu, Phys. Lett. A.

201, 47 (1995); S. Y. Lou J. Yu and J. Lin, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28 L191 (1995).

[23] S. Y. Lou, and L. L. Chen J. Math. Phys. 40, 6491 (1999).

[24] C. W. Cao, Sci. China A 33, 528 (1990).

[25] S. Y. Lou and J. Z. Lu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 29, 4029 (1996).

[26] S. Y. Lou, Phys. Lett. A 277, 94, (2000).

[27] S. Y. Lou and H. Y. Ruan, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34, 305 (2001).

[28] S. Y. Lou, Physica Scripta, 65 7 (2000); X.Y. Tang and S.Y. Lou, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, (2002)

in press; Commun. Theor. Phys. (2002) in press.

[29] P. J. Olver, Application of Lie Groups to Diﬀerential Equation, 2nd ed. (Springer, New York, 1993)

Graduate Texts Math. 107; G. W. Bluman and S. Kumei, symmetries and Diﬀerential Equation,

(Springer, Berlin 1989) Appl. Math. Sci. 81.

[30] S. Y. Lou, J. Math. Phys. 41, 6509 (2000).

[31] S. Y. Lou and X. B. Hu, J. Phys. A. 27, L207 (1994).

[32] P. A. Clarkson and M. D. Kruskal, J. Math. Phys. 30, 2201 (1989); S. Y. Lou, Phys. Lett. A 151,

133 (1990); P. A. Clarkson J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 22, 2355 (1989); 22, 3821 (1989); Chaos Soliton

and Fractal 5 2261 (1995); E. Pucci J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25, 2631 (1992); 26, 681 (1993) ; G.

Saccomandi, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30, 2211 (1997); S. Y. Lou, X. Y. Tang and J. Lin, J. Math. Phys.

41, 8286 (2000).

[33] G. W. Bluman and J. D. Cole, J. Math. Mech. 18, 1025 (1969).

[34] S. Y. Lou, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen., 23, L649 (1990).

[35] J. Lin, S. Y. Lou and K. L. Wang, Phys. Lett. A 287, 257 (2001); S. Y. Lou, J. Yu and X. Y. Tang, Z.

Naturforsch. 55a, 867 (2000).

[36] M. Boiti, J. J. P. Leon, M. Manna and F. Pempinelli, 1986, Phys. Lett. A 132, 432 (1986); R. Radha

and M. Lakshmanan, J. Math. Phys. 35, 4746 (1994).

[37] S. Y. Lou, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28, 7227 (1995); 29, 5989 (1996).

- Phy 206 Class Fractaluploaded byindrabudhi
- d,euploaded byMarija Angela Gaddi Calpo
- Bit–Error Rate Evaluation for MC-CDMAuploaded byaravindhana1a1
- Lecture 27 29uploaded byayush1696gmailcom
- Formulation Analysis and Validation of Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy Modeling for Robotic Monipulatorsuploaded byGerardo Hernández
- may1-520178thgradeadvuploaded byapi-327299670
- Math Portfolio 2uploaded byAhsan Amjad
- deuploaded byra02
- 4.5 and 4.1 Properties of Exponentialsuploaded byBradley Singh
- Analysis of dynamic characteristics for a rotor systemuploaded bysalkan_rahmanovic810
- The Krylov–Bogoliubov and Galerkin Methods for Non-linear Oscillationsuploaded byandradesos
- ode introuploaded byAfif Lotfi
- Log and Growthuploaded bystrangetest
- 10.1.1.658.8909uploaded bylucas
- calambra A.docxuploaded byAhmed Abdul Aziz
- Differential Equationuploaded byJuan Carlos Condori
- Seminar 2uploaded byHunny Verma
- Colmesh Adaptive Mesh Generation Methodsuploaded byestevezc
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.001.08s taught by Joselle Kehoe (jxk061000)uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Test Successuploaded byAlPrince007
- rules and policies - algebra 2uploaded byapi-233698122
- Wikipedia Growthuploaded byre_fresh
- v19-28uploaded byMohamed Anouar Nciri
- wjmsvol05no01paper09uploaded byJishan Ahmed
- 2016 math 3 syllabusuploaded byapi-345805540
- Complex Variables Module 21uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Beamer Rodiakuploaded byrodiak465006
- labs\DSP Lab 2.pdfuploaded byCholavendhan
- Differential.equations.and.Control.theory.ebook EEnuploaded bymetkmy
- MMAN3200 State Spacesuploaded byAl Chemist Shahed

- James M. Hyman et al- The Fundamental Role of Solitons in Nonlinear Dispersive Partial Differential Equationsuploaded byLymes
- Philip Rosenau and James M. Hyman- Compactons: Solitons with Finite Wavelengthuploaded byLymes
- B. Dey et al- Shape profile of compactlike discrete breathers in nonlinear dispersive lattice systemsuploaded byLymes
- Giuseppe Saccomandi- Elastic rods, Weierstrass’ theory and special travelling waves solutions with compact supportuploaded byLymes
- Bojan Durickovic, Alain Goriely and Giuseppe Saccomandi- Compact waves on planar elastic rodsuploaded byLymes
- Lin Luo- Quasi-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Property for Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli Equationuploaded byLymes
- Peter J. Olver and Philip Rosenau- Tri-Hamiltonian Duality Between Solitons and Compactonsuploaded byLymes
- Xiao-Yan Tang- What will happen when a dromion meets with a ghoston?uploaded byLymes
- Zhen-Ya Yan- New Similarity Reductions and Compacton Solutions for Boussinesq-Like Equations with Fully Nonlinear Dispersionuploaded byLymes
- Partha Guha- Euler-Poincare Formalism of (Two Component) Degasperis-Procesi and Holm-Staley type Systemsuploaded byLymes
- Yin Zheng and Shaoyong Lai- A Study on Three Types of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equationsuploaded byLymes
- Shuimeng Yu et al- Solitary Wave Solutions to Approximate Fully Nonlinear Double sine-Gordon Equationuploaded byLymes
- S. Dusuel, P. Michaux and M. Remoissenet- From kinks to compactonlike kinksuploaded byLymes
- Jie-Fang Zhang and Xian-Jing Lai- New Variable Separated Solutions and Ghoston Structure for the (2+1)-Dimensional Sine-Gordon Systemuploaded byLymes
- Emmanuel Yomba- Construction of new solutions to the fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equations by an indirect F function methoduploaded byLymes
- S. S. Ghosh, A. Sen and G. S. Lakhina- Dromion solutions for nonlinear electron acoustic waves in space plasmasuploaded byLymes
- J.-F. Zhang, Z.-M. Lu and Y.-L. Liu- Folded Solitary Waves and Foldons in the (2+1)-Dimensional Long Dispersive Wave Equationuploaded byLymes
- Yan-ze Peng- Exact Solutions and Localized Structures for Higher-Dimensional Burgers Systemsuploaded byLymes
- Man Jia and S.Y. Lou- New deformation relations and exact solutions of the high-dimensional phi^6 field modeluploaded byLymes
- Anna R. Panchenko et al- The Foldon Universe: A Survey of Structural Similarity and Self-recognition of Independently Folding Unitsuploaded byLymes
- Chun-Long Zheng, Jian-Ping Fang and Li-Qun Chen- Evolution Property of Multisoliton Excitations for a Higher-Dimensional Coupled Burgers Systemuploaded byLymes
- Chun-Long Zheng- Coherent Soliton Structures with Chaotic and Fractal Behaviors in a Generalized (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg de-Vries Systemuploaded byLymes
- Song-Hua Ma, Jiang-Bo Li and Jian-Ping Fang- Peakon Excitations and Fractal Dromions for General (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg de Vries Systemuploaded byLymes
- Xian-min Qian, Sen-yue Lou and Xing-biao Hu- Variable Separation Approach for a Differential-difference Asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equationuploaded byLymes
- Chun-Long Zheng et al- Peakon and Foldon Excitations In a (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Systemuploaded byLymes
- Ji Lin and Feng-min Wu- Fission and fusion of localized coherent structures for a (2 þ 1)-dimensional KdV equationuploaded byLymes
- Man Jia and Sen-Yue Lou- New Types of Exact Solutions for (N+1)-Dimensional phi^4 Modeluploaded byLymes
- Jizong Lu- A New Dromion Solution of the Davey-Stewartson Equationuploaded byLymes
- X. Y. Tang, K. W. Chow and S. Y. Lou- Nonlinear excitations and “peakons” of a (2+1)-dimensional generalized Broer-Kaup systemuploaded byLymes

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading