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New deformation relations and exact solutions of

the high-dimensional Φ

6

ﬁeld model

Man Jia

a

, S.Y. Lou

a,b,∗

a

Center of Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China

b

Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China

Received 28 September 2005; received in revised form 16 December 2005; accepted 20 December 2005

Available online 25 January 2006

Communicated by C.R. Doering

Abstract

Exact solutions of the (n +1)-dimensional Φ

6

model are studied with the help of the Φ

4

model, which shows the solutions of the Φ

6

ﬁeld in

(n +1) dimensions can be obtained from those of the Φ

4

model. By solving the Φ

4

ﬁeld equation, some new types of exact solutions such as the

periodic–periodic interaction waves and the periodic–solitary wave interaction solutions are found.

2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Recently it is found that for high-dimensional integrable systems such as the Davey–Stewartson (DS) equation, the Nizhnik–

Novikov–Veselov (NNV) equation, the asymmetric NNV equation, the asymmetric DS equation, the dispersive long wave equation,

the Broer–Kaup–Kupershmidt hierarchy, the long wave–short wave interaction model, the Maccari system, the Burgers equation,

the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon system and the general (N + M)-component AKNS system, there are abundant localized

structures thanks to the intrusion of some arbitrary functions in a quite universal formula of exact solutions [1].

Because of the non-integrability for the usual real physical systems, to develop some methods and to ﬁnd out some kinds of exact

solutions for non-integrable systems may be more important though it is quite difﬁcult. In Refs. [2–5], a mapping and deformation

method among the exact solutions of some high-dimensional non-integrable models has been established. By means of the mapping

and deformation approach, some types of exact solutions of simple models can be mapped and/or deformed to those of complicated

non-linear systems. More recently, the method is further developed to ﬁnd new exact solutions of the (n +1)-dimensional sine-

Gordon and double sine-Gordon equations with some arbitrary functions [6].

In [3], some special types of exact solutions of the (n + 1)-dimensional Φ

4

ﬁeld model have been deformed to those of the

(n + 1)-dimensional Φ

6

ﬁeld equation. Owing to the increasing application of the Φ

6

model in solid state, condense matter,

quantum ﬁeld theory, etc. [7], to ﬁnd more exact solutions of the (n +1)-dimensional Φ

6

model is important and signiﬁcant. On

the other hand, the Φ

4

model has been studied extensively in the literature, many solutions of the model have been found and many

of them can be transformed to those of other models including the Φ

6

model. In this Letter, we mainly concentrate on the exact

solutions by seeking some new deformation relations among the Φ

4

and Φ

6

model.

The ﬁeld equation of the (n +1)-dimensional Φ

6

model reads

(1) Φ +λΦ +µΦ

3

+ξΦ

5

≡

n

i=1

Φ

x

i

x

i

−Φ

t t

+λΦ +µΦ

3

+ξΦ

5

=0,

*

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: sylou@sjtu.edu.cn (S.Y. Lou).

0375-9601/$ – see front matter 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2005.12.114

408 M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415

while the ﬁeld equation for the Φ

4

model is described by

(2) φ +λ

0

φ +µ

0

φ

3

=0

which has been studied widely in the literature and its many kinds of exact solutions have been obtained. Thus it is interesting if we

can deform the solutions of the Φ

4

model to those of the Φ

6

model.

Though a special type of deformation relation between the Φ

4

and Φ

6

models has been given in [3], many kinds of exact

solutions such as the periodic–periodic interaction solutions have not yet been found. Here we write down some new deformation

theorems among the exact solutions of the Φ

6

and Φ

4

models and then the theorems are used to ﬁnd more exact solutions.

Theorem 1. If φ is a solution of the Φ

4

ﬁeld equation (2) and satisﬁes the constraint condition

(3) (

˜

∇φ)

2

+λ

1

φ

2

+µ

1

φ

4

+C

1

≡

n

i=1

φ

2

x

i

−φ

2

t

+λ

1

φ

2

+µ

1

φ

4

+C

1

=0,

then

(4) Φ =±

_

φ +a

1

b

1

φ +c

1

is also a solution of the Φ

6

model, where a

1

, b

1

, c

1

, λ

1

, µ

1

and C

1

are linked to the model parameters λ, µ and ξ by

(5) 2µ

1

a

1

b

2

1

−µ

0

a

1

b

2

1

−2µ

1

b

1

c

1

+µ

0

b

1

c

1

=0,

(6) 4λb

2

1

+4µb

1

+4ξ −3µ

1

a

2

1

b

2

1

+µ

1

c

2

1

+2µ

0

a

2

1

b

2

1

−2µ

0

c

2

1

+2µ

1

a

1

b

1

c

1

=0,

(7) 2λ

1

b

1

c

1

+2µc

1

−λ

0

b

1

c

1

−2λ

1

a

1

b

2

1

+µ

0

a

2

1

b

1

c

1

+6µa

1

b

1

+λ

0

a

1

b

2

1

+4λb

1

c

1

+8ξa

1

−µ

0

a

1

c

2

1

+4λa

1

b

2

1

=0,

(8) 24ξa

2

1

+4λa

2

1

b

2

1

+λ

1

c

2

1

+12µa

1

c

1

+2λ

0

a

2

1

b

2

1

+2λ

1

a

1

b

1

c

1

+12µa

2

1

b

1

+4λc

2

1

−3λ

1

a

2

1

b

2

1

+16λa

1

b

1

c

1

−2λ

0

c

2

1

=0,

(9) 6µa

2

1

c

1

+8ξa

3

1

−2C

1

a

1

b

2

1

+λ

0

a

2

1

b

1

c

1

+2µa

3

1

b

1

+4λa

1

c

2

1

+4λa

2

1

b

1

c

1

−λ

0

a

1

c

2

1

+2b

1

c

1

C

1

=0,

(10) c

2

1

C

1

−3a

2

1

b

2

1

C

1

+4λa

2

1

c

2

1

+4ξa

4

1

+2a

1

b

1

c

1

C

1

+4µa

3

1

c

1

=0.

Proof. Substituting (4) into the Φ

6

model equation (1), we have

(11)

φ −

4(φ +a

1

)[φ

2

(µb

1

+ξ +λb

2

1

) +φ(2ξa

1

+2b

1

λc

1

+µa

1

) +ξa

2

1

+µa

1

c

1

+λc

2

1

]

(a

1

b

1

−c

1

)(b

1

φ +c

1

)

−

3a

1

b

1

+4b

1

φ +c

1

2(φ +a

1

)(b

1

φ +c

1

)

(

˜

∇φ)

2

=0.

Let the function φ be a solution of the Φ

4

model (2) and satisfy (5)–(10), Eq. (11) just becomes Eq. (3). Theorem 1 is then

proved. 2

Eq. (11) with (4) is completely equivalent to the original Φ

6

model equation. So when one solution of Eq. (11) is obtained, then

the related solution of the Φ

6

model immediately follows from Eq. (4).

To get some concrete special solutions of Eq. (11), one may put some constraints on the function φ. Here, we select φ as

a solution of the Φ

4

equation because the Φ

4

model is quite familiar to many physicists and easier to get some exact explicit

solutions. Actually, some theorems to ﬁnd new exact solutions of some special constraint Φ

4

equations and a long list solution table

have been given in [2].

In the deformation relation (4), if the function φ is a bounded function,

|φ| M <∞,

then the non-singular condition is

|c| >|b

1

M|

and the real condition reads

|a| >|M|, ac > 0.

Otherwise the deformation relation (4) may lead to non-physical singular solutions.

In Theorem 1, two free parameters λ

0

and µ

0

have been included. The different selections of the free parameters will lead to

different types of periodic wave solutions. In principle, inﬁnitely many free parameters can be included in the special solutions of

high-dimensional partial differential equations (PDEs).

M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415 409

For some types of exact solutions of the Φ

6

model, inﬁnitely many free parameters can be included in some different ways:

namely, (i) by including an arbitrary function in the constraint equation, for instance, changing the constraint equations (2) and (3)

as

(12) φ =F(φ), F(φ) arbitrary,

(13)

(

˜

∇φ)

2

=

4(φ +a

1

)

2

[φ

2

(µb

1

+ξ +λb

2

1

) +φ(2ξa

1

+2b

1

λc

1

+µa

1

) +ξa

2

1

+µa

1

c

1

+λc

2

1

]

(a

1

b

1

−c

1

)(3a

1

b

1

+4b

1

φ +c

1

)

+

2(φ +a

1

)(b

1

φ +c

1

)

3a

1

b

1

+4b

1

φ +c

1

F(φ);

(ii) by including arbitrary functions via solving the ﬁxed constraint equations (see later).

Though it is difﬁcult to solve Eq. (2) with the constraint equation (3), various exact explicit solutions of the Φ

4

equation had

really been found [2] in the case when the following parameter constraints

(14) λ

1

=λ

0

,

(15) µ

1

=

1

2

µ

0

are further inserted.

It should be mentioned that there are some possible deformations between the Φ

4

and Φ

6

models with different conditions from

(14) and/or (15). To see this point more clearly, we solve out the algebraic relations (5)–(10). The result can be casted into three

non-equivalent subcases.

Case 1.

(16) λ

1

=λ

0

, µ

1

=

1

2

µ

0

, C

1

=−λ

0

a

2

1

−

1

2

µ

0

a

4

1

,

(17) λ =

3µ

0

a

2

1

(c

1

+a

1

b

1

) +λ

0

(c

1

+5a

1

b

1

)

4(c

1

−a

1

b

1

)

,

(18) µ =

a

1

µ

0

(c

2

1

+c

1

a

1

b

1

+a

2

1

b

2

1

) +λ

0

b

1

(c

1

+2a

1

b

1

)

a

1

b

1

−c

1

,

(19) ξ =

3(c

1

+a

1

b

1

)

8(c

1

−a

1

b

1

)

__

c

2

1

+a

2

1

b

2

1

_

µ

0

+2b

2

1

λ

0

_

.

In this case, the non-singular condition, c

1

=a

1

b

1

, of (17)–(19) is just the non-trivial (non-constant) condition of the deformation

relation (4).

Case 2.

(20) µ

1

=

1

2

µ

0

, a

1

=C

1

=0,

(21) λ =

1

2

λ

0

−

1

4

λ

1

, µ =−

1

2

b

1

(λ

0

+λ

1

), ξ =

3

4

b

2

1

λ

1

+

3

8

c

2

1

µ

0

.

Case 3.

(22) λ

1

=(µ

0

−2µ

1

)a

2

1

+λ

0

, b

1

=0, C

1

=−λ

0

a

2

1

−(µ

0

−µ

1

)a

4

1

,

(23) λ =

λ

0

4

+

_

5µ

0

4

−µ

1

_

a

2

1

, µ =

1

2

a

1

c

1

(2µ

1

−3µ

0

), ξ =

1

4

c

2

1

(2µ

0

−µ

1

).

It is clear that for the second and third cases, λ

1

=λ

0

in general. For the third case, µ

1

=µ

0

/2 further.

Though there are many kinds of the exact solutions of the Φ

4

model which had been obtained in [2], here we give a more

concrete special solution with an arbitrary function related to Theorem 1:

(24) Φ =±

_

sn(V, m) +a

b sn(V, m) +c

,

where

(25) V =f

_

n

i=1

k

1i

x

i

+ω

1

t

_

+

n

i=1

k

0i

x

i

+ω

0

t ≡f (η) +η

0

,

410 M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415

f (η) is an arbitrary function of η,

η =

n

i=1

k

1i

x

i

+ω

1

t,

and the free parameters k

0i

, k

1i

(i =0, 1, 2, . . . , n) are linked by

(26)

n

i=1

k

2

1i

−ω

2

1

=0,

n

i=1

k

1i

k

0i

−ω

1

ω

0

=0,

with the parameters a, b and c being given by

(27) a =±1,

(28) c =−

2µ(−4λ −5δ +m

2

δ)

m(m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

)

,

(29) b =

2(4λ +5m

2

δ −δ)µ

(m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

)

,

while

(30) δ ≡

n

i=1

k

2

0i

−ω

2

0

is determined by

(31) ξ =

2(−4λ +δ +6mδ +m

2

δ)(−4λ +δ −6mδ +m

2

δ)(2λ +δ +m

2

δ)µ

2

(m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

)

2

,

or

(32) a =±

1

m

,

(33) c =−

2(−4λ −5m

2

δ +δ)

m(m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

)

,

(34) b =

2µ(4λ +5δ −m

2

δ)

(m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

)

,

(35) ξ =

2(−4λ +δ +6mδ +m

2

δ)(−4λ +δ −6mδ +m

2

δ)(2λ +δ +m

2

δ)µ

2

(m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

)

2

.

The non-singular and real conditions of (24) are

|c| >|b|, ac > 0, m

4

δ

2

+14m

2

δ

2

+δ

2

−16λ

2

=0.

Corresponding to the solution (24), the solution of the Φ

4

equation reads

(36) φ =sn(V, m),

with the parameters

(37) λ

0

=

_

m

2

+1

_

δ, µ

0

=−2m

2

δ.

The special solution (24) denotes some particular types of solutions of two traveling waves in the directions perpendicular to the

planes (or lines for n =2) given by

η =0, η

0

=0.

Because of the existence of the arbitrary function f (η), the structure of the periodic traveling waves shown by Eq. (24) may be

quite rich. For instance, if we take

(38) f (η) =

_

η

2

+1,

then the solution (24) denotes a type of periodic–periodic wave interaction solution for the modulus m=1.

M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415 411

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. (a) A typical periodic solitoff structure of the (2+1)-dimensional equation expressed by Eq. (24) with Eqs. (38) and (39) at t =0. (b) A special two-kink-like

solitoff solution which is a limit case of (a) for the modulus m of the Jacobi elliptic function m→1.

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. (a) The periodic–periodic wave interaction structure of the (2+1)-dimensional equation expressed by Eq. (24) with Eqs. (42) and (39) at t =0. (b) A periodic

line solution structure which is a limit case of (a) for m→1.

Fig. 1(a) is a (2 +1)-dimensional special structure of this type of solution with the upper “+” of Eq. (24) and the parameter

selections are

(39) k

11

=3, k

12

=4, ω

1

=5, k

01

=2, k

02

=1, ω

0

=2, m=0.9,

(40) a =1, b =2, c =5,

(41) λ =−

229

400

, µ =

51

5

, ξ =−

455

16

,

at time t = 0. When m →1, Eq. (24) with Eq. (38) tends to a two-solitoff solution. A solitoff is deﬁned as a half straight-line

solution [8]. Fig. 1(b) shows the structure of a special two-solitoff solution expressed by Eq. (24) with Eq. (38) and the parameter

selections are the same as in Eq. (39) except for m=1.

Fig. 2(a) shows another concrete example of the particular periodic–periodic wave interaction structure by selecting the function

f (η) as

(42) f (η) =sinη,

with the same parameters as in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 2(b) is a plot of the straight-line kink solution with a periodic traveling wave deformation. The parameter and function

selections of Fig. 2(b) are the same as those in Fig. 2(a) except that the modulus m is taking the limiting value m=1.

Theorem 2. If φ is a solution of (2) with the constraint condition

(43) (

˜

∇φ)

2

+λ

2

φ

2

+µ

2

φ

4

+C

2

=0,

then

(44) Φ =±

1

_

b

2

φ

2

+c

2

is a solution of the Φ

6

model, where the parameters b

2

, c

2

, µ

2

, λ

2

and C

2

are determined by

(45) µ

2

=

1

2

µ

0

,

412 M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415

(a) (b)

Fig. 3. (a) The periodic–periodic wave interaction structure of the (2+1)-dimensional equation expressed by Eq. (49) with Eqs. (53) and (54) at t =0. (b) A periodic

line solution structure which is a limit case of (a) for m→1.

(46) λ =−

3

2

c

2

b

2

µ

0

−λ

0

+2λ

2

,

(47) µ =

3c

2

2

µ

0

b

2

+2b

2

C

2

+c

2

(λ

0

−5λ

2

),

(48) ξ =−

3

2

c

3

2

µ

0

b

2

−3c

2

(C

2

b

2

−λ

2

c

2

).

The non-singular and real condition of (44) reads

c

2

>|b

2

|M

2

, for |φ| M <∞.

Here we give a special solution including an arbitrary function similar to Theorem 1 for Theorem 2. If the solution of Φ

4

model

is still taken as φ =sn(V, m) given by (36) with (25), then the corresponding solution of Theorem 2 reads

(49) Φ =±

1

_

b sn

2

(V, m) +c

,

where the free parameter selections are

(50) b =

3µm

2

δ

2(−m

2

δ

2

+m

4

δ

2

+δ

2

−λ

2

)

,

(51) c =−

b(m

2

δ +δ −λ)

3m

2

δ

,

while δ which is deﬁned by (30) should be determined by

(52) ξ =

µ

2

(m

2

δ +δ −λ)(λ −δ +2m

2

δ)(−λ −2δ +m

2

δ)

4(−m

2

δ +m

4

δ

2

+δ

2

−λ

2

)

2

.

Similar to Eq. (4), Eq. (44) also denotes the interaction solutions of traveling periodic and/or solitary waves.

If we take the arbitrary function as

(53) f (η) =

_

sin

2

η +1,

with the parameters

(54) k

11

=2

√

3, k

12

=2, ω

1

=4, k

01

=

√

3, k

02

=3, ω

0

=2, m=0.9,

(55) b =2, c =3,

(56) λ =

1091

25

, µ =−

9518

25

, ξ =

3987

5

,

then a special (2 + 1)-dimensional periodic–periodic wave solution of Eq. (1) can be obtained. Fig. 3(a) shows the special

(2 +1)-dimensional structure of the two periodic interacting waves while the snake-shape solitary wave (a line solitary wave

with a deformation by a periodic wave) shown in Fig. 3(b) is a limit case of Fig. 3(a) for m→1.

M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415 413

Theorem 3. If φ is a solution of the Φ

4

model (2) under the constraint condition

(57) (

˜

∇φ)

2

+λ

3

φ

2

+ µ

3

φ

4

+C

3

=0,

then

(58) Φ =±

φ

_

b

3

φ

2

+c

3

with λ

3

, µ

3

, C

3

, b

3

and c

3

being related by

(59) λ =−

3C

3

b

3

c

3

+λ

0

,

(60) µ =

6C

3

b

2

3

c

3

+c

3

µ

0

−b

3

(λ

0

+3λ

3

),

(61) ξ =−

3b

3

3

C

3

c

3

+3b

3

(b

3

λ

3

−c

3

µ

3

)

is a solution of the Φ

6

model.

The non-singular and real condition of (58) reads

c

3

>|b

3

|M

2

, for |φ| M <∞.

Theorem 4. Φ expressed by

(62) Φ =±

_

φ

2

+a

4

b

4

φ

2

+c

4

with φ being a solution of the Φ

4

ﬁeld equation and the constraint condition

(63) (

˜

∇φ)

2

+λ

4

φ

2

+µ

4

φ

4

+C

4

=0

is a solution of Eq. (1) if and only if the parameters a

4

, b

4

, c

4

and C

4

satisfy

(64) C

4

=a

4

λ

0

+a

2

4

(µ

4

−µ

0

), λ

4

=λ

0

+a

4

(2µ

4

−µ

0

),

(65) λ =a

4

µ

4

+

a

4

µ

0

(a

4

b

4

+2c

4

) −λ

0

(2a

4

b

4

+c

4

)

a

4

b

4

−c

4

,

(66) µ =2a

4

b

4

µ

4

+

µ

0

(a

4

b

4

+c

4

)(2a

4

b

4

+c

4

) +2b

4

λ

0

(a

4

b

4

+2c

4

)

a

4

b

4

−c

4

and

(67) ξ =

3b

2

4

c

4

(µ

0

a

4

−λ

0

)

a

4

b

4

−c

4

−3µ

4

b

4

c

4

.

The non-singular and real condition of (62) reads

|c

4

| >|b

4

|M

2

, |a

4

| > M

2

, a

4

c

4

> 0 for |φ| M <∞.

The proof of Theorems 2–4 is similar to that of Theorem 1, so we omit it here.

It should be emphasized that all the deformation relations given in Theorems 1–4 are ﬁrstly proposed in this Letter. The defor-

mation relation given in [2] is only a special case of Theorem 3 for

λ

3

=λ

0

, µ

3

=

1

2

µ

0

.

Starting from the exact solutions of the Φ

4

model such as (36), we can also obtain many other kinds of concrete multiple periodic

and solitary wave interaction solutions from Theorems 1–4.

To give a classiﬁcation of the solutions of the Φ

6

model given here, we have to know the characteristic structures for the potential

of the Φ

6

model for different model parameter regions. For the scalar Φ

6

ﬁeld equation (1), the corresponding potential V(Φ) reads

(68) V(Φ) =

1

6

ξΦ

6

+

1

4

µΦ

4

+

1

2

λΦ

2

+V

0

,

where the constant V

0

is related to the energy at the Φ =0 which will be taken as zero for simplicity.

414 M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e)

Fig. 4. The characteristic structures for the negative potential −V(Phi) with Phi ≡Φ: (a) µ

2

−4ξλ > 0, or ξ > 0, µ

2

−4ξλ =0, µ < 0, λ > 0; (b) µ

2

−16ξλ/3 > 0,

µ < 0, λ > 0; (c) µ

2

−16ξλ/3 =0, µ < 0, λ > 0; (d) ξ >0, 4ξλ < µ

2

<16ξλ/3, µ < 0, λ > 0; (e) µ > 0, λ > 0 or ξ > 0, µ

2

−4ξλ <0.

It is known that for the potential (68) there are ten characteristic structures:

(i) ξ > 0, µ

2

−4ξλ > 0 or ξ > 0, µ

2

−4ξλ =0, µ < 0, λ > 0;

(ii) ξ > 0, µ

2

−16ξλ/3 > 0, µ <0, λ > 0;

(iii) ξ > 0, µ

2

−16ξλ/3 =0, µ <0, λ > 0;

(iv) ξ > 0, 4ξλ < µ

2

< 16ξλ/3, µ < 0, λ > 0;

(v) ξ > 0, µ >0, λ > 0 or ξ > 0, µ

2

−4ξλ < 0;

(vi) ξ < 0, µ

2

−4ξλ > 0 or ξ < 0, µ

2

−4ξλ =0, µ > 0, λ < 0;

(vii) ξ < 0, µ

2

−16ξλ/3 > 0, µ >0, λ < 0;

(viii) ξ < 0, µ

2

−16ξλ/3 =0, µ >0, λ < 0;

(ix) ξ < 0, 4ξλ < µ

2

< 16ξλ/3, µ > 0, λ < 0;

(x) ξ < 0, µ <0, λ < 0 or ξ < 0, µ

2

−4ξλ <0.

In Fig. 4, the characteristic structures are plotted for the negative potential −V(Φ) for ξ > 0 case. The characteristic structures of

ξ < 0 case are just the reversals of those for ξ > 0 case.

To determine the solutions obtained from Theorems 1–4 are valid to which characteristic structures is still difﬁcult and depends

on which kinds of solutions of the Φ

4

model are used to the deformation relations.

For the ﬁrst deformation relation (4), if we use the periodic waves of the Φ

4

model in the deformation relations, then we can

conclude that this kind of solutions may be used to describe the periodic waves of the characteristic structures (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi),

(vii), (viii) and (ix) related to the asymmetric potential wells.

M. Jia, S.Y. Lou / Physics Letters A 353 (2006) 407–415 415

For the second deformation relation (44), the periodic solutions of the Φ

4

will lead to the periodic waves of the Φ

6

model related

to the characteristic structures (iii), (vii), (viii) and (ix).

For the third deformation relation (58), the periodic waves of the Φ

6

model related to the symmetric potential wells of the

characteristic structures (i), (vii), (viii), (ix) and (x) can be obtained with help of the periodic solutions of the Φ

4

model.

From the fourth deformation relation (62), one may also obtain the periodic solutions of the Φ

6

model for the characteristic

structures (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi), (vii), (viii) and (ix) related to the asymmetric potential wells.

For the Φ

6

model related to the characteristic structure (v) there is no periodic wave solutions and any other physically signiﬁcant

non-singular solutions. For the Φ

6

model with the characteristic structure (x) there is no any kind of solitary wave solutions.

In summary, by means of the exact solutions of the well-known Φ

4

model, some new deformation relations among the solutions

of the Φ

6

and Φ

4

are obtained. Moreover, starting from the special solutions of the Φ

4

model with an arbitrary function, many types

of new exact solutions including the periodic–periodic wave interaction solutions and periodic–solitary wave interaction solutions

are obtained simply from the pure algebraic mapping relations (4), (44), (58) and (62).

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. X.Y. Tang, Dr. F. Huang and Dr. H.C. Hu for their helpful discussions. The work was supported by the

National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 90203001 and 10475055).

References

[1] X.Y. Tang, S.Y. Lou, Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 046601;

S.Y. Lou, Phys. Lett. A 277 (2000) 94;

S.Y. Lou, H.Y. Ruan, J. Phys. A 34 (2001) 305;

X.Y. Tang, C.L. Chen, S.Y. Lou, J. Phys. A 35 (2002) L293;

S.Y. Lou, J. Phys. A 35 (2002) 10619;

S.Y. Lou, C.L. Chen, X.Y. Tang, J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 4078;

X.Y. Tang, S.Y. Lou, J. Math. Phys. 44 (2003) 4000;

X.M. Qian, S.Y. Lou, X.B. Hu, J. Phys. A: Gen. Math. 37 (2004) 2401;

H.C. Hu, X.Y. Tang, S.Y. Lou, Q.P. Liu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 22 (2004) 327.

[2] S.Y. Lou, G.J. Ni, Math. Phys. 30 (1989) 1614.

[3] S.Y. Lou, G.J. Ni, G.X. Huang, Commun. Theor. Phys. 17 (1992) 67;

S.Y. Lou, G.X. Huang, G.J. Ni, Phys. Lett. A 146 (1990) 45.

[4] S.Y. Lou, W.Z. Chen, Phys. Lett. A 156 (1991) 260.

[5] S.Y. Lou, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32 (1999) 4521.

[6] S.Y. Lou, H.C. Hu, Phys. Rev. E 71 (2005) 036604;

H.C. Hu, S.Y. Lou, Phys. Lett. A 341 (2005) 422.

[7] F. Loran, Phys. Rev. D 71 (2005) 126003;

J.W. Darewych, M. Horbatsch, R. Koniuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 (1985) 2188;

R.D. Pisarski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48 (1982) 574;

W.A. Bardeen, M. Moshe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52 (1984) 1188;

S.N. Behera, A. Khare, Pramana 14 (1980) 327;

V.F. Muller, J. Schieman, J. Stat. Phys. 43 (1986) 123;

P.M. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. D 30 (1984) 1712;

P.M. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. D 32 (1985) 1389;

P.M. Stevenson, I. Roditi, Phys. Rev. D 33 (1986) 2305;

T. Barnes, G.J. Daniell, Phys. Lett. 142B (1984) 188.

[8] C.R. Gilson, Phys. Lett. A 161 (1992) 423;

K.W. Chow, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65 (1995) 1971;

H.Y. Ruan, Y.X. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 62 (2000) 5738.

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