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**J.-F. Zhanga,b,c , Z.-M. Lua,b , and Y.-L. Liu a
**

a

Shanghai Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, P. R. China b Mailing address: Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11,3TU,UK c Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, P. R. China Reprint requests to Dr, Z.-M. L.; E-mail: z.lu@lboro.ac.uk Z. Naturforsch. 58a, 280 – 284 (2003); received March 16, 2003 By means of the B¨ cklund transformation, a quite general variable separation solution of the (2+1)a dimensional long dispersive wave equation: λ qt + qxx − 2q (qr)x dy = 0, λ rt − rxx + 2r (qr)x dy = 0, is derived. In addition to some types of the usual localized structures such as dromion, lumps, ring soliton and oscillated dromion, breathers soliton, fractal-dromion, peakon, compacton, fractal and chaotic soliton structures can be constructed by selecting the arbitrary single valued functions appropriately, a new class of localized coherent structures, that is the folded solitary waves and foldons, in this system are found by selecting appropriate multi-valuded functions. These structures exhibit interesting novel features not found in one-dimensions. – PACS: 03.40.Kf., 02.30.Jr, 03.65.Ge. Key words: Variable Separation Solution; the (2+1)-dimensional Long Dispersive Wave System; Folded Solitary Wave; Foldon.

1. Introduction In the study of (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear physical systems, much effort has been focused on single valued localized excitations, such as solitons, dromions, rings, lumps, breathers, instantons, peakons, compactons, localized chaotic and fractal patterns, etc. [1]. However, in nature, there exist very complicated folded phenomena such as the folded protein [2], the folded brain and skin surface, and many many other kinds of folded biological systems [3]. The bubbles on (or under) a ﬂuid surface may be thought to be the simplest folded waves. Further, various kinds of ocean waves are folded waves also. Loop solitons, which are thought as a class of simplest folded waves in the (1+1)-dimensional case, have been founded in many (1+1)-dimensional integrable systems [4] and have been applied in physical ﬁelds like the string interaction with an external ﬁeld [5], quantum ﬁeld theory [6] and particle physics [7]. Recently, Tang and Lou [8] ﬁrst considered these special folded localized excitations and found folded solitary waves in some (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear models, such as the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation, the

(2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation, etc. They deﬁne a new type of soliton, called the foldon if the interaction between the folded solitary waves is completely elastic. In this paper, we further consider the (2+1)-dimensional long dispersive wave equation (LDWE)

λ qt + qxx − 2q (pq)x dy = 0, λ pt − pxx + 2p (pq)x dy = 0,

(1) (2)

where ∂x = ∂ξ , ∂y = ∂ξ − λ ∂η , and λ is a constant. This system apparently differs from the usual or traditional long dispersive wave system [9], which has been introduced by Chakravarty, Kent, and Newman [10] by symmetrical reduction from the self-dual Yang-Mills ﬁeld equation. It is interesting to note that (1) and (2) can be reduced to a single nonlocal equation introduced by Fokas [11], iλ qt + qxx − 2q |q|2 dy = 0, x (3)

when p = q∗ and t → it. Equation (3) arises in plasma physics under appropriate circumstances [12], and it admits exponentially localized solutions and satisﬁes

0932–0784 / 03 / 0500–0280 $ 06.00 c 2003 Verlag der Zeitschrift f¨ r Naturforschung, T¨ bingen · http://znaturforsch.com u u

J.-F. Zhang et al. · Folded solitary waves and foldons in the (2+1)-Dimensional Long Dispersive Wave Equation

281

the Painlev´ property [13]. Radha and Lakshmanan e investigated the Painlev´ integrability properties and e bilinear forms [14] of (1) and (2). Velan and Lakshmanan proved that (1) and (2) admit an inﬁnitedimensional symmetry and presented some physically interesting solutions via invariance analysis [15]. Starting from a special B¨ cklund transformation, we cona verted the LDWE into simple variable separation equations and obtained a quite general variable separation solution [16]. Since some types of the usual localized excitations of (1) and (2), such as multi-soliton, multidromion, multi-lump, multi-ring soliton and oscillating dromion solutions, fractal dromion, fractal lump, and chaotic dromion have been obtained by selecting some types of lower-dimensional appropriate functions, here we try to ﬁnd some kinds of folded solitary waves and foldons for (1) and (2). 2. Variable Separation Solution for the (2+1)-dimensional LDWE For the concreteness and completeness of the investigation we review ﬁrst the variables separation procedure for (1) and (2). Making use of the transformation pq = wy , (4)

(D2 − λ Pt )P · f + p0 D2 f · f x x

2

(10) (11)

2

**+ f (p0xx − λ q0t ) − 2 f w0x (P + f p0 ) = 0, Dx Dy f · f + 2(PQ + f Pq0 + f Qp0 + f p0 q0 − f w0y ) = 0,
**

2

**where Dx , Dy , Dt are deﬁned as Dm Dn Dtk f · f = x y ·
**

x =x,y =y,t =t

lim

∂ ∂ − ∂x ∂x

m

(12)

∂ ∂ n ∂ ∂ k − − f (x, y,t) · f (x , y, t ), ∂y ∂y ∂t ∂t which are the usual bilinear operators introduced ﬁrst by Hirota [17]. To discuss further, we take the seed solution (q 0 , p0 , w0 ) to be q0 = 0, p0 = 0, w0 = F0 (x,t). Then (9) – (11) can be simpliﬁed to

(D2 + λ Dt )Q · f − 2 f QF0x = 0, x (D2 − λ Dt )P · f − 2 f PF0x = 0, x Dx Dy f · f + 2PQ = 0. (13) (14) (15)

In order to ﬁnd some interesting solutions of (13) – (15), we use the variable separation ansatz f = a1 F + a2G + a3FG, Q = F1 G1 exp[λ (r + s)], P = F1 G1 /exp[λ (r + s)], (16) where a1 , a2 , a3 are arbitrary constants and F ≡ F(x,t), G ≡ G(y,t), F1 ≡ F1 (x,t), G1 ≡ G1 (y,t), r ≡ r(x,t), s ≡ s(y,t) are all arbitrary functions of the indicated variables. Substituting the ansatz (16) into (15) yields

2 F1 G2 − a1a2 Fx Gy = 0. 1

where w is some arbitrary potential, (1) and (2) can be converted into the partial differential equations

**λ qt + qxx − 2qwx = 0, λ pt − pxx + 2pwx = 0,
**

pq = wy ,

(5) (6) (7)

where the integration constants in (5) and (6) have been set to be zero. By taking the B¨ cklund transformation a q= Q + q0 , f p= P + p0 , f w = −(ln f )x + w0 , (8)

(17)

Because the functions F and F1 are only functions of {x,t} and the functions G and G 1 are only functions of {y,t}, (17) can be solved by the following variable separated equations F1 = δ1 a1 a2 c−1 Fx , G1 = δ2 0

2 2 c0 Gy , (δ1 = δ2 = 1).

which can be derived from the standard Painlev´ trune cated expansion, where f , P, Q are arbitrary differential functions of the arguments {x, y,t}, and (q 0 , p0 , w0 ) is an arbitrary seed solution, (5) – (7) become the following bilinear form (D2 + λ Dt )Q · f + q0 D2 f · f x x (9)

(18) Similar to the above procedure, substituting (16) with (17) into (13) and (14) yields the following variable separated equations −a1 a2 Ft = 2a1 a2 rx Fx + c1 F 2 + c2 a2 F + c3 a2 , (19) 2

+ f 2 (q0xx + λ q0t ) − 2 f w0x (Q + f q0) = 0,

282

J.-F. Zhang et al. · Folded solitary waves and foldons in the (2+1)-Dimensional Long Dispersive Wave Equation

a2 Gt = (c1 − c2 a3 + c3 a2 )G2 1 3 + a1 (−c2 + 2c3a3 )G + a2c3 , 1 s = g(y) + b(t),

(20)

(21)

One can verify directly that (25) is a general solution of (29). Finally, substituting (16) with (18) – (22) into (9), we derive a quite general solution of the (2+1)-dimensional system (5) – (7): q=

2 2 8Fx2 F0x = 2Fx Fxxx + 4λ 2Fx2 (rx + rt + bt ) − Fxx, (22)

δ1 δ2

a1 a2 Fx Gy exp[λ (r + g(y) + b(t))] , a1 F + a2G + a3FG

(30)

where g(y), b(t) are arbitrary functions of the indicated variables. Although it is still difﬁcult to obtain general solutions of (19) – (22) for any ﬁxed F0 , we can treat the problem in an alternative way. Because F0 is an arbitrary seed solution, we can view F as an arbitrary function of {x,t}. The function r can be expressed by F simply by integration from (19). Then the seed solution F0 can be ﬁxed by (21). The result reads rx = −1 (c1 F 2 + c2a2 F + c3 a2 + a1a2 Ft ), (23) 2 2a1 a2 Fx 1 2 2 [2Fx Fxxx + 4λ 2Fx2 (rx + rt + bt ) − Fxx ]. (24) 8Fx2

p=

**δ1 δ2 a1 a2 Fx Gy , (a1 F + a2G + a3FG) exp[λ (r + g(y) + b(t))] (31)
**

w = F0 − a1 Fx + a3Fx G , a1 F + a2G + a3FG

(32)

F0x =

with the four arbitrary functions F(x,t), G(y,t), g(y), and b(t), while F0 and r are determined by (23) and (24). In the following discussion we study the structure of the potential qp. From the solutions (30) and (31) we have qp = a1 a2 Fx Gy . (a1 F + a2 G + a3FG)2 (33)

As to the Riccati equation (20), its general solution has the form G(y,t) = A1 (t) + A3(t), A2 (t) + U(y) (25)

3. Folded Solitary Waves and Foldons of the (2+1)-dimensional LDWE It is of interest to mention that the solution (33) is valid for many (2+1)-dimensional models, and that many types of solutions can be obtained due to the arbitrariness of the functions F and G included in (33). Now we study the folded solitary waves and foldons. Starting from the the expression (33), these special solutions should be described by multi-valued functions. We write a localized function ℘(x,t) in the form

where U(y) is an arbitrary function of y while A 1 , A2 , and A3 are arbitrary functions of t, which are linked with c1 , c2 , and c3 by c1 = −1 (2a1 a3 A3 A2t + a1 a3 A1t + a2A2t 1 A1 − a2A1 A3t + a2A2 A2t + a2 A3 A1t ), 3 3 3 3 c2 = −1 (2a1 A3 A2t + a1A1t A1 − c3 = 2a3 A1 A3t + 2a3A2 A2t 3 + 2a3A3 A1t ), (28) −1 (A3 A1t + A2 A2t − A1A3t ). 3 A1 −1 A2t G2 − (A1t + 2A3A2t )G A1 + A2 A2t + A3A1t − A1 A3t . 3 (27) (26)

℘(x,t) =

j=1

∑ f j (ξ + v j t), x = ξ + ∑ g j (ξ + v jt),

i=1

M

M

(34)

Using the relations (26) – (28), (20) becomes Gt = (29)

where v1 < v2 < . . . vM are all arbitrary constants and ( f j , g j ) and ∀ j are all localized functions with f j (±∞) and gi (±∞) = G± being constants. From the second i equation of (34) we know that ξ may be a multi-valued function in some possible regions of x by selecting the function g j suitably. So the function ℘(x,t) may be a multi-valued function of x in these regions, though it is a single valued function of ξ . It is also clear that ℘(x,t)

**J.-F. Zhang et al. · Folded solitary waves and foldons in the (2+1)-Dimensional Long Dispersive Wave Equation (a) (a)
**

0.004

283

0.03 pq 0.02 0.01 0 1 0.5 x 2 0 –0.5 –1 4 0 –2 y

–1

–4

pq0.002 0 –0.5 0 –1 –1.5 –2 –2.5 x 0.5 –3 –3.5 –4 1

–0.5 y

(b)

(b)

0.003 –1 –0.5 0 1.5 1 x 0.5 0.5 0 –0.5 1 y pq0.002 0.001 0 2

0.1 pq 0.05 0 0.8 0 0.4 x 0.4 0 –0.4 –0.8 0.8

–0.8 –0.4 y

(c)

0.004 –1 pq0.002 0 4 3.5 3 2.5 x 2 1.5 1 1 0 0.5 –0.5 y

(c)–0.04

–0.03 pq –0.02 –0.01 0 –2 –1 x 0 1 2 2 1 0 y –1 –2

(d)

0.008 0.006 pq0.004 0.002 0 6 4 2 x 4 0 –2 –4 6

Fig. 2. Time evolution of two foldons for the ﬁeld pq deﬁned by (33) with Fx = 0.8sech2 ξ + 0.5sech2 (ξ − 0.25t), Gy = sech2 θ , x = ξ − 1.5 tanh ξ − 1.5tanh(ξ − 0.25t), y = θ − 2 tanh θ , F = ξ Fx xξ dξ + 20, G = θ Gy yθ dθ and a1 = 1, a2 = −2, a3 = 0. (a) t = −18, (b) t = 7.2, (c) t = 18.

–4 –2 0 2 y

Fig. 1. Four typical folded solitary wave structures for the ﬁeld pq expressed by (33) and t = 0 in (34), (35). The related concrete choices are: (a) Fx = sech2 (ξ − v1 t), Gy = sech2 θ , x = ξ −1.2 tanh(ξ −v1 t), y = θ +k0 tanh θ , F = ξ Fx xξ dξ + l0 , G = θ Gy yθ dθ + h0 and a1 = 1, a2 = −2, a3 = 0, k0 = 1, l0 = 8, h0 = 0; (b) same as (a) but with k0 = −1.1; (c) Fx , F , G and a1 , a2 , a3 are the same as (a), however Gy = sech2 θ + sech6 θ , x = ξ + 2 tanh(ξ − v1 t) + tanh2 (ξ − v1 t) − k0 tanh3 (ξ − v1t), y = θ + 2 tanh θ + tanh2 (θ ) − k0 tanh3 (θ ) and l0 = 50, h0 = 50, k0 = 5.5; (d) same as (c) but with h0 = 250, k0 = 10.

is an interaction solution of M localized solutions because of the property ξ | x→∞ → ∞. Now, if we specify different functions appearing in the formula (33), then we can get various types of folded solitary waves and / or foldons. In Fig. 1, four typical special folded solitary waves are plotted for the ﬁeld quantity pq shown by (3) with Fx = ℘(x,t), F = ξ Fx xξ d ξ +l0 and the functions G(y,t) being given in a similar way: Gy =

j=1

∑ Q j (θ ), y = θ + R(θ ), G =

M

θ

Gy yθ dθ + h0 , (35)

where l0 and h0 are arbitrary integration constants. In (35),Q j (θ ), ∀ j, and R(θ ) are localized functions of θ . The more detailed choices of functions in the ﬁgures are directly given in the ﬁgure legends.

284

J.-F. Zhang et al. · Folded solitary waves and foldons in the (2+1)-Dimensional Long Dispersive Wave Equation

Figures 2a – c show the possible existence of foldons which are given by (33), and the concrete choice of the functions is given in the ﬁgure legends. From Fig. 2a and 2c we can see that the interaction of two foldons is completely elastic. Because one of the velocities of foldons has been chosen as zero, it can also be seen that there are phase shifts for the two foldons. Especially, before the interaction, the static foldon (the large one) is located at x = −1.5, and after the interaction the large foldon is shifted to x = 1.5. 4. Summary and Discussion In summary, with the help of the B¨ cklund transa formation, a rather general variable separation solution for the(2+1)-dimensional LDWE is found. Starting from the formula for the quantity pq expressed by (33) of the (2+1)-dimensional LDWE, folded solitary waves and foldons have been obtained by choosing arbitrary functions appropriately. We can see that the foldons may be folded quite arbitrarily and complicat[1] X. Y. Tang, S. Y. Lou, and Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. E66, 046601 (2002); S. Y. Lou, C. L. Chen, and X. Y. Tang, J. Math. Phys. 43, 4078 (2002). [2] S. C. Trewick, T. F. Henshaw , R. P. Hansinger, T. Lindahl, and B. Sedgwick, Nature London 419, 174 (2002); S. W. Lockless, and R. Ranganathan, Science 268, 295 (1999); P. A. Lindagard and H. Bohr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 779 (1996). [3] M. B. Goodman, G. G. Ernstrom, D. S. Chelur, R. O. Hagan, C. A. Yao, and M. Chalﬁe, Nature London 415, 1039 (2002); B. L. Maclnnis, and R. B. Campenot, Science 295, 1536 (2002). [4] V. O. Vakhnenko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25, 4181 (1992); V. O. Vakhnenko and E. J. Parks, Nonlinearity 11, 1457 (1998); A. J. Morrison, E. J. Parks, and V. O. Vakhnenko, ibid 12, 1427(1999). [5] H. Kakuhata and K. J. Konno, Phys. Soc. Japan 68, 757 (1999). [6] S. Matsutani, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10, 717 (1985); J. Geom. Phys. 43, 146 (2002). [7] M. Schleif and R. Wunsch, Eur. J. Phys. A 1, 171 (1998); M. Schleif, R. Wunsch, and T. Meissner, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E, 7, 121 (1998).

edly, and that they possess quite rich structures and interaction behaviors. Explicit phase shifts for the localized structures deﬁned by (33) have been given. In the natural world there exist many complicated folded and / or multi-valued phenomena. Seeking folded solitary waves and foldons and solutions of their interaction in other high dimensional nonlinear models seems useful and should be studied further. Acknowledgement One of the authors (Zhang Jiefang) is in debt to thank for the useful discussions with Professor Lou Senyue. We also thank Professor Roger Grimshaw and Doctor Rod Halburd in Loughborough University for their help. One of the referee’s careful correction of the manuscript is also appreciated. This work is supported by the Pao Yu-Kong and Pao Zhao-long Scholarship for Chinese Students Studying Abroad, the Foundation of “151 Talent Engineering” of Zhejiang Province and the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10272072).

[8] X. Y. Tang and S. Y. Lou, 2002 arXiv. nlin. SI/0210009. 4, 1. [9] M. Boiti, J. J. P. Leop, and F. Pempinelli, Inverse Probl. 3, 371 (1987). [10] S. Chakravarty, S. L. Kent, and E. I. Newman, J. Math. Phys. 36, 763 (1995). [11] A. S. Fokas, Inverse Probl. 10 L, 19 (1994). [12] S. Novikov, S. V. Manakov, L. P. Pitaevskii, and V. E. Zakharov, Theory of Solitons: The Inverse Scatering Method, Consultants Bureau, New York 1984. [13] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 8, 17 (1997). [14] R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Math. Phys. A38, 292 (1997). [15] M. S. Velan and M. Lakshmanan, Nonlinear Math. Phys. 4, 251 (1997). [16] J. F. Zhang, C. L. Zheng, J. P. Meng, and J. P. Fang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 331 (2003); C. L. Zheng, J. M. Zhu, J. F. Zhang, and L. Q. Chen, Commun. Theor. Phys. 39, 261 (2003). [17] R. Hirota, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1192 (1971).

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