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208–214 c Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd

Vol. 54, No. 2, August 15, 2010

**Quasi-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Property for Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli Equation∗
**

LUO Lin ( )†

Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China

(Received November 20, 2009)

Abstract In this paper, multi-periodic (quasi-periodic) wave solutions are constructed for the Boiti–Leon–Manna–

Pempinelli (BLMP) equation by using Hirota bilinear method and Riemann theta function. At the same time, we analyze in details asymptotic properties of the multi-periodic wave solutions and give their asymptotic relations between the periodic wave solutions and the soliton solutions. PACS numbers: 02.30.Ik, 05.45.Yv

Key words: BLMP equation, Hirota bilinear method, Riemann theta function, quasi-periodic wave solutions

1 Introduction

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the study of the exact solutions of nonlinear equations, which can be used to simulate many phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. The bilinear method developed by Hirota is a powerful tool and direct approach to construct exact solution of nonlinear equations. By applying the bilinear method, people obtained a series of multi-soliton solutions of many nonlinear equations.[1−8] Nakamura proposed a convenient way to construct a kind of quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear equation in his two serial papers,[9−10] where the periodic wave solutions of the KdV equation and the Boussinesq equation were obtained by means of the Hirota’s bilinear method. Recently, Fan and his collaborators have extended this method to investigate KdV, KP, ANNV, Bogoyavlenskii equations and the discrete Toda lattice.[11−13] This method not only conveniently obtains exact solutions of a nonlinear equation, but also directly gives the explicit relations among frequencies, wave-numbers, phase shifts and amplitudes of the wave. In present paper, we consider the following (2+1)dimensional Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli (BLMP) equation uyt + uxxxy − 3uxx uy − 3ux uxy = 0 , (1) which was derived by Gilson et al. during they researched a (2+1)-dimensional generalization of the AKNS shallowwater wave equation through the bilinear approach.[5] Recently, many papers have been focusing their topics on various exact solutions of Eq. (1), which include soliton solutions, Jacobi elliptic periodic solutions and ghoston solution by means of the multilinear variable separtion approach, Painleve–Backlund transformation and Variational Method.[14−22] In fact, these solutions are actu∗ Supported

ally one-dimensional cnoidal waves as a practical model of water wave in cnoidal theory. However the water surface is two-dimensional, which drive us to research multidimensional generalization of cnoidal waves. Thus in this paper, we are interested in constructing the multi-periodic (quasi-periodic) wave solutions of Eq. (1) and discussing their asymptotic properties. This paper is organized as follows. In Sec. 2, we brieﬂy introduce a useful bilinear form of Eq. (1) and the Riemann theta function. In Secs. 3 and 4, we apply the Hirota’s bilinear method to construct one- and two-periodic wave solutions to Eq. (1), respectively. We further use a limiting procedure to analyze the features and asymptotic behavior of the one- and two-periodic wave solutions in the last section. It is rigorously shown that the periodic solutions tends to the well-known soliton solutions under a “small amplitude” limit.

**2 Bilinear Form and Riemann Theta Function
**

In this section, we brieﬂy introduce a useful bilinear form of Eq. (1) and some main points on the Riemann theta function. By the dependent variable transformation[20] u = −2∂x ln f (x, y, t), Eq. (1) is then transformed into a bilinear form

3 (Dy Dt + Dy Dx )f (x, y, t)f (x, y, t) = 0 ,

(2)

**where the bilinear diﬀerential operators Dx , Dy , and Dt are deﬁned by
**

m n k Dx Dy Dt f (x, y, t)g(x, y, t) = (∂x − ∂x′ )m (∂y − ∂y′ )n

**× (∂t − ∂t′ )k f (x, y, t)g(x′ , y ′ , t′ )|x′ =x,y′ =y,t′ =t . The bilinear operators have a good property when acting on exponential functions, namely,
**

m n k Dx Dy Dt eξ1 eξ2

= (α1 − α2 )m (ρ1 − ρ2 )n (ω1 − ω2 )k eξ1 +ξ2 ,

by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai under Grant No. 09ZR1412800, and the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission under Grant No. 10ZZ131 † E-mail: luolinmath@yahoo.cn

No. 2

Quasi-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Property for Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli Equation

209

where ξj = αj x + ρj y + ωj t + δj , j = 1, 2. More general, we have G(Dx , Dy , Dt )eξ1 eξ2 = G(α1 − α2 , ρ1 − ρ2 , ω1 − ω2 )eξ1 +ξ2 , (3) where G(Dx , Dy , Dt ) is a polynomial about Dx , Dy , and Dt . This property will be used later and play a key role in the construction of the periodic wave solutions. Following the Hirota bilinear theory, Eq. (1) admits one-soliton solution u1 = −2∂x ln(1 + eη ) ,

3

2 3 = (Dy Dt + Dy Dx − 3k0 Dx + c)ϑ(ξ)ϑ(ξ) = 0 ,

(7)

where c = c(y, t) is an integration constant. For the bilinear equation (7) we are interested in its multi-periodic solutions in terms of the Riemann theta function ϑ(ξ) = ϑ(ξ, τ ) =

n∈Z N

e−π

τ n,n +2πi ξ,n

.

(8)

(4)

where phase variable η = µx + νy − µ t + γ, and µ, ν, γ being constants, and two-soliton solution u2 = −2∂x ln(1 + eη1 + eη2 + eη1 +η2 +A12 ) , with eA12 = (ν1 − ν2 )(µ1 − µ2 ) , (ν1 + ν2 )(µ1 + µ2 ) j = 1, 2 , (5)

Here the integer value vector n = (n1 , . . . , nN )T ∈ Z N , and complex phase variables ξ = (ξ1 , . . . , ξN )T ∈ C N ; Moreover, for two vectors f = (f1 , . . . , fN )T and g = (g1 , . . . , gN )T , their inner product is deﬁned by f, g = f1 g1 + f2 g2 + · · · + fN gN . Here τ = (τij ) is a positive deﬁnite and real-valued symmetric N × N matrix, which we call the period matrix of the theta function. The entries τij of the period matrix τ can be considered as free parameters of the theta-function (8).

**3 One-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Properties
**

In this section, we consider one-periodic wave solutions to Eq. (1). We ﬁrst consider the simple case when N = 1, the theta function (8) reduces the following Fourier series in n:

∞

ηj = µj x + νj y − µ3 t + γj , j

where µj , νj , γj , j = 1, 2 are free constants. In order to apply the Hirota bilinear method to construct multi-periodic wave solutions of Eq. (1), we consider a slightly generalized form of the bilinear equation (2). Here we look for its solution of Eq. (1) in the form u = k0 y − 2∂x ln ϑ(ξ) , (6) where k0 is a free constant and k0 y is a seed solution of Eq. (1) and phase variable ξ is taken as the form ξ = (ξ1 , . . . , ξN )T , ξj = αj x + ρj y + ωj t + δj , j = 1, 2, . . . , N . By substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (1) and integrating with respect to x, we then get the following bilinear form G(Dx , Dy , Dt )ϑ(ξ)ϑ(ξ)

∞ ∞

ϑ(ξ, τ ) =

n=−∞

e2πinξ−πn

2

τ

,

(9)

where the phase variable ξ = αx + ρy + ωt + δ, and the parameter τ > 0. 3.1 Construction of One-Periodic Waves As in Ref. [12], to make the theta function (9) be a solution of the bilinear equation (7), we substitute Eq. (9) into the left side of Eq. (7) and by using the property (3) obtain that

2 2

G(Dx , Dy , Dt )ϑ(ξ, τ )ϑ(ξ, τ ) =

n=−∞ m=−∞ ∞ ∞

G(Dx , Dy , Dt )e2πinξ−πn τ e2πimξ−πm

τ

=

n=−∞ m=−∞ m=m′ −n ∞ m′ =−∞

**G[2πi(n − m)α, 2πi(n − m)ρ, 2πi(n − m)ω]e2πi(n+m)ξ−π(n
**

∞

2

+m2 )τ

====

**G[2πi(2n − m′ )α, 2πi(2n − m′ )ρ, 2πi(2n − m′ )ω]e−π[n
**

n=−∞ ∞

′ ¯ G(m′ )e2πim ξ ,

2

+(n−m′ )2 ]τ

× exp (2πim′ ξ) ≡

m′ =−∞

′ ¯ where in the last line we have introduced the notation G(m′ ) for the coeﬃcient of e2πim ξ in the above equation as

∞

¯ G(m′ ) =

n=−∞

G[2πi(2n − m′ )α, 2πi(2n − m′ )ρ, 2πi(2n − m′ )ω]e−π[n

2

+(n−m′ )2 ]τ

.

(10)

**¯ In the following, we compute each series G(m′ ) for m′ ∈ Z. By shifting summation index by n = n′ + 1, we have the following fact
**

∞

¯ G(m′ ) =

n′ =−∞

G{2πi[2n′ − (m′ − 2)]α, 2πi[2n′ − (m′ − 2)]ρ, 2πi[2n′ − (m′ − 2)]ω} × exp(−π{n′2 + [n′ − (m′ − 2)]2 }τ ) exp[−2π(m′ − 1)τ ]

210

LUO Lin

Vol. 54

′2 ¯ G(0)e−πm τ /2 , m′ is even , ′2 ¯ G(1)e−π(m −1)τ /2 , m′ is odd , ¯ ¯ ¯ which implies that G(m′ ), m′ ∈ Z are completely dominated by two function G(0) and G(1). In other word, if the following two equations are satisﬁed ¯ ¯ G(0) = G(1) = 0 , (11) ′ ¯ = G(m′ − 2)e−2π(m −1)τ = · · · =

¯ then it follows that G(m′ ) = 0, m′ ∈ Z, and thus the theta function (9) is an exact solution to Eq. (7) namely G(Dx , Dy , Dt )ϑ(ξ)ϑ(ξ) = 0. From Eqs. (10) and (11), we have

∞

¯ G(0) =

∞

**(−16π 2 n2 ρω + 256π 4 n4 ρα3 + 48k0 π 2 n2 α2 + c)e−2πn
**

n=−∞

2

τ

= 0,

2

¯ G(1) =

**(−4π 2 (2n − 1)2 ρω + 16π 4 (2n − 1)4 ρα3 + 4k0 π 2 (2n − 1)2 α2 + c)e−π(2n
**

n=−∞

−2n+1)τ

= 0.

(12)

**By introducing the notations as
**

∞ ∞ ∞

λ = e−πτ ,

∞

a11 = −

n=−∞

16π 2 n2 ρλ2n ,

2

2

a12 =

n=−∞ ∞

λ2n ,

2

a22 =

n=−∞

λ2n

2

−2n+1

,

a21 = −

n=−∞ ∞

4π 2 (2n − 1)2 ρλ2n

−2n+1

,

b1 = −

**(256π 4 n4 α3 ρ + 4k0 π 2 n2 α2 )λ2n ,
**

n=−∞

2

2

b2 = −

**(16π 4 (2n − 1)4 α3 ρ + 4k0 π 2 (2n − 1)2 α2 )λ2n
**

n=−∞

−2n+1

,

(13)

now we simply write Eq. (12) into a linear system about the frequency ω and the integration constant c, that is a11 a12 ω b1 = , (14) a21 a22 c b2 then we get a one-periodic wave solution of Eq. (1) u = k0 y − 2∂x lnϑ(ξ) ,

T

and the one-soliton solution (5) as follows.

(15)

provided the vector (ω, c) solves Eq. (15) with the theta function ϑ(ξ) given by Eq. (14) and parameters ω, c by Eq. (14). The other parameters α, ρ, τ , δ, and k0 are free. Thus the three parameters α, ρ, and τ completely dominate a one-periodic wave. Figure 1 below shows a one-periodic wave for one choice of the parameters. 3.2 Feature and Asymptotic Property of OnePeriodic Waves In summary, the one-periodic wave (15) has a simple characterization. (i) It is real valued and bounded for all complex variables (x, y, t). (ii) It is actually a kind of one-dimensional cnoidal waves, i.e., there is a single phase variable ξ. Its speed parameter is given by b1 a22 − b2 a12 . ω= a11 a22 − a12 a21 Their surface pattern is one-dimensional and they are often used as one-dimensional models of periodic waves in shallow water. (iii) It has two fundamental periods 1 and iτ in the phase variable ξ. (iv) It has only one wave pattern for all time (see Fig. 1). In the following, we further consider asymptotic properties of the one-periodic wave solution, and we can establish the relations between the one-periodic solution (15)

Fig. 1 This ﬁgure shows one-periodic wave of the (2+1)dimensional BLMP equation with parameters: k0 = δ = 0, α = 0.1, ρ = 0.2, τ = 0.2. (a) Perspective view of the wave. (b) Overhead view of the wave, with contour plot shown. The bright lines are crests and the dark lines are troughs.

Theorem 1 Suppose that the vector (w, c)T is a solution of the system (14) and for the one-periodic wave solution (15), we let µ ν γ + πτ k0 = 0 , α = , ρ= , δ= , (16) 2πi 2πi 2πi

No. 2

Quasi-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Property for Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli Equation

211

where the µ, ν, and γ are given in Eq. (5). Then we have the following asymptotic properties η + πτ , ϑ(ξ, τ ) → 1 + eη , as λ → 0 .(17) c → 0, ξ → 2πi In other words, the one-periodic wave solution (15) tends to the one-soliton solution (4) under a small amplitude limit, that is, u → u1 , as λ → 0. Proof By using Eq. (13) we write functions aij , bj , i, j = 1, 2 as the series about λ. We write the coeﬃcient matrix and the right-side vector of system (14) into power series of λ as a11 a12 = A0 + A1 λ + A2 λ2 + · · · a21 a22 = + b1 b2 0 1 0 0 + 0 −8π 2 ρ 2 0 0 2 λ (18) λ (19)

By using the transformation (17) it follows that ϑ(ξ, τ ) = 1 + eξ + λ2 (e−ξ + e2ξ ) + λ6 (e−2ξ + e3ξ ) + · · · → 1 + eξ , as λ → 0 , where ˆ ξ = 2πiξ − πτ = µx + νy + 2πiωt + γ . Combining Eqs. (21) and (23) deduces that ˆ ξ −→ µx + νy − µ3 t + γ = η , as λ → 0 , or equivalently η + πτ , as λ → 0 . 2πi Again Eqs. (22)–(24) immediately lead to ξ −→ ϑ(ξ, τ ) −→ 1 + eη , as λ → 0 . Therefore we conclude that the one-periodic solution (15) just goes to the one-soliton solution (4) as the amplitude λ → 0. (23) (24)

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

(22)

−32π 2 ρ 0

λ2 + o(λ2 ) , 0 −32π 4 α3 ρ

2

= B0 + B1 λ + B2 λ2 + · · · = + −512π 4 α3 ρ 0

2

**4 Two-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Properties
**

In this section, we consider two-periodic wave solutions to Eq. (1) and their asymptotic property. 4.1 Construction of Two-Periodic Waves In the case when N = 2, the Riemann theta function (8) takes the form ϑ(ξ, τ ) = ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ ) = (20) (21)

n∈Z 2 2

λ + o(λ ) ,

where o(λ2 ) denotes the higher inﬁnitesimal than λ2 . Substituting Eqs. (18) and (19) into system (14) and comparing the same order of , we then obtain ω = 4π 2 α3 + o(λ2 ) → 4π 2 α3 , c = o(λ2 ) → 0 , as λ → 0 , which exactly implies that c → 0 , 2πiω → 8π 3 iα3 = −µ3 , as λ → 0 . It remains to show that the one-periodic wave (15) possesses the same form with the one-soliton solution (4) under the limit λ → 0. For this purpose, we ﬁrst expand the periodic function ϑ(ξ) in the form ϑ(ξ, τ ) = 1 + λ(e2πiξ + e−2πiξ ) + λ4 (e4πiξ + e−4πiξ ) + · · ·

e2πi

ξ,n −π τ n,n

,

(25)

where n = (n1 , n2 )T ∈ Z , ξ = (ξ1 , ξ2 )T ∈ C 2 , ξi = αj x + ρj y + ωj t + δj , j = 1, 2. Here τ is a positive definite and real-valued symmetric 2 × 2 matrix, which can be taken of the form τ11 τ12 2 , τ11 > 0 , τ22 > 0 , τ11 τ22 − τ12 > 0 . τ= τ12 τ22 In order to get some suﬃcient conditions, such that the theta function (25) satisﬁes the bilinear equation (7), we substitute the function (25) into the left of Eq. (7) and obtain that

G(Dx , Dy , Dt )ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ )ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ ) =

m,n∈Z 2

G(2πi n − m, α , 2πi n − m, ρ , 2πi n − m, ω )

× exp (2πi ξ, n + m − π( τ m, m + τ n, n ))

m=m′ −n

====

**G(2πi 2n − m′ , α , 2πi 2n − m′ , ρ , 2πi 2n − m′ , ω )
**

m′ ∈Z 2 n∈Z 2

× exp{−π( τ (n − m′ ), n − m′ + τ n, n )} exp{2πi ξ, m′ } ≡

m′ ∈Z 2

¯ G(m′ , m′ )e2πi 1 2

ξ,m′

.

′ ¯ 1 2 In the last line we have introduced the notation G(m′ , m′ ) for the coeﬃcient of e2πi ξ,m . For each ﬁxed l = 1, 2, by shifting j-th summation index as nj = n′ + δj,l with δj,l representing Kronecker’s delta (see Ref. [12]), we obtain that j

¯ 1 2 G(m′ , m′ ) =

n∈Z 2

G(2πi 2n − m′ , α , 2πi 2n − m′ , ρ , 2πi 2n − m′ , ω ) exp (−π( τ (n − m′ ), n − m′ + τ n, n )

212

LUO Lin

Vol. 54

2

2

=

n∈Z 2 2

G 2πi

j=1

(2n′ j

−

(m′ j

− 2δjl ))αj , 2πi

j=1 2

(2n′ − (m′ − 2δjl ))ρj , j j (n′ + δjl )τjk (n′ + δkl ) j k

2πi

j=1

**(2n′ − (m′ − 2δjl ))ωj exp − π j j
**

j,k=1 2

−π

j,k=1

[(m′ − 2δjl − n′ ) + δjl ]τjk [(m′ − 2δkl − n′ ) + δkl )] , k k j j

=

′ ′ ¯ G(m′ − 2, m′ )e−2π(τ11 m1 +τ12 m2 )+2πτ11 , l = 1 , 1 2 ′ ′ ¯ 1 2 G(m′ , m′ − 2)e−2π(τ12 m1 +τ22 m2 )+2πτ22 , l = 2 ,

which implies that if the following equations are satisﬁed ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ G(0, 0) = G(0, 1) = G(1, 0) = G(1, 1) = 0 , (26) ¯ ′ , m′ ) = 0 for all m′ , m′ ∈ Z, and thus then we have G(m

1 2 1 2

**the function (25) is an exact solution of Eq. (7). Now we introduce the notations as M = (ajl ) , b = (b1 , b2 , b3 , b4 )T aj1 = −4π 2
**

n1 ,n2 ∈Z 2

**2n − sj , ρ (2n1 − sj )εj (n) , 1 2n − sj , ρ (2n2 − sj )εj (n) , 2
**

n1 ,n2 ∈Z 2

**aj2 = −4π 2 aj3 = 12π 2
**

n1 ,n2 ∈Z 2

2n − sj , α 2n − sj , α εj (n) , εj (n) ,

aj4 =

n1 ,n2 ∈Z 2

phase variables ξ1 and ξ2 . It has two independent spatial periods in two independent horizontal directions. The two-periodic wave may be considered to represent periodic waves in shallow water without the assumption of one-dimensionality. (ii) It has 4 fundamental periods {ej , j = 1, 2} and {iτj , j = 1, 2} in (ξ1 , ξ2 ). Its velocity of propagation is given by dx ω2 α1 − ω1 α2 dy ω 1 ρ2 − ω 2 ρ1 = , = . dt α1 ρ2 − α2 ρ1 dt α1 ρ2 − α2 ρ1 (iii) If parameters satisfy a ratio relation α2 ρ2 = = k , (k is a constant) , α1 ρ1 then ω2 ∼ kω1 , ξ2 ∼ kξ1 , ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 ) ∼ ϑ(ξ1 , kξ1 ) . Therefore the two-periodic wave is actually one-dimensional, and it degenerates to one-periodic wave (see Fig. 2).

bj = −16π 4

n1 ,n2 ∈Z 2

2n − sj , α λ2 2

3

2n − sj , ρ εj (n) , ,

εj (n) = λ1 λ1 = e s =

j

n2 +(n1 −sj )2 1 1

n2 +(n2 −sj )2 n1 n2 +(n1 −sj )(n2 −sj ) 2 2 1 λ3

−πτ11

, λ2 = e

−πτ22

, λ3 = e

−2πτ12

,

(sj , sj ) , 1 2

j = 1, 2, 3, 4 ,

s1 = (0, 0) , s2 = (1, 0) , s3 = (0, 1) , s4 = (1, 1) , Eq. (26) can be written as a linear system M (ω1 , ω2 , k0 , c)T = b . (27) Hence, we get an exact two-periodic wave solution to Eq. (1) u = k0 y − 2∂x ln ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ ) , (28) with ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 ) and ω1 , ω2 , k0 , c given by Eqs. (25) and (27) respectively, while other parameters α1 , α2 , ρ1 , ρ2 , τ11 , τ22 , and τ12 are free. The two-periodic wave is speciﬁed by parameters α1 , α2 , ρ1 , ρ2 , τ11 , τ12 , and τ22 . 4.2 Feature and Asymptotic Property of TwoPeriodic Waves The two-periodic wave (28) has a simple characterization: (i) It is a direct generalization of one-periodic waves, its surface pattern is two-dimensional, i.e. there are two

Fig. 2 A degenerate two-periodic wave to BLMP equation with parameters α2 /α1 = ρ2 /ρ1 and α1 = 0.1, α2 = 3, τ11 = 2, τ12 = 0.2, τ22 = 2, ρ1 = 0.01, and ρ2 = 0.3. This ﬁgure shows that the degenerate twoperiodic wave is almost one-dimensional. (a) Perspective view of the wave. (b) Overhead view of the wave, with contour plot shown. The bright lines are crests and the dark lines are troughs.

No. 2

Quasi-Periodic Waves and Asymptotic Property for Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli Equation

213

(v) If parameters do not satisfy a ratio relation, that α2 ρ2 = , α1 ρ1 then for any time t, phase variables ξ1 = const. and ξ2 = const intersect at a unique point. As the time t changes, this point moves in the (x, y) plane with a constant speed. In this case, the two-periodic solution is genuinely two-dimensional, and it is spatially periodic in two independent directions in the (x, y) plane. Every twoperiodic wave like Fig. 3 is spatially periodic in two directions, but it may not be periodic in either the x- or y-directions. The basic cell of the pattern seems like a hexagon, but needs not regular: six steep wave crests form the edges of each hexagon. The six crests surrounding a trough can be identiﬁed in pairs: opposite crests are parallel and have equal amplitudes as well as lengths along the crests. At last, we consider the asymptotic properties of the two-periodic solution (28). In a similar way to theorem 1, we can establish the relation between the two-periodic solution (28) and the two-soliton solution (5) as follows. is,

Theorem 2 Assume that (ω1 , ω2 , k0 , c)T is a solution of the system (27) and for the two-periodic wave solution (28) we take µj νj γj + πτjj , ρj = , δj = , αj = 2πi 2πi 2πi A12 , j = 1, 2 , (29) τ12 = 2πi with the µj , νj , γj , j = 1, 2 and A12 as those given in Eq. (5). Then we have the following asymptotic relations ηj + πτjj u0 → 0 , c → 0 , ξj → , j = 1, 2 , 2πi ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ ) → 1 + eη1 + eη2 + eη1 +η2 +A12 , as λ1 , λ2 → 0 . (30) So the two-periodic solution (28) just tends to the twosoliton solution (5) under a certain limit, namely u → u2 , as λ1 , λ2 → 0. Proof We expand periodic wave function ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 ) in the following form ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ ) = 1 + (e2πiξ1 + e−2πiξ1 )e−πτ11 + (e2πiξ2 + e−2πiξ2 )e−πτ22 + (e2πi(ξ1 +ξ2 ) + e−2πi(ξ1 +ξ2 ) ) × e−π(τ11 +2τ12 +τ22 ) + · · · Further by using Eq. (29) and making a transformation ωj = 2πiωj , j = 1, 2, we get ˆ ϑ(ξ1 , ξ2 , τ ) = 1 + eξ1 + eξ2 + eξ1 +ξ2 −2πτ12 + λ2 e−ξ1 1 + λ2 e−ξ2 + λ2 λ2 e−ξ1 −ξ2 −2πτ12 + · · · 2 1 2 → 1 + eξ1 + eξ2 + eξ1 +ξ2 +A12 , as λ1 , λ2 → 0 , where ˆ ξj = 2πiξj − πτjj = µj x + νj y + ωj t + γj , ˆ ωj = 2πiωj , j = 1, 2 . ˆ It remains to prove that c → 0, j = 1, 2 , ωj → −µ3 , ˆ j ˆ ξj → ηj , (31) as λ1 , λ2 → 0 .

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

Fig. 3 A two-periodic wave for BLMP equation with parameters: α2 /α1 = ρ2 /ρ1 , and α1 = 0.1, α2 = 0.1, τ11 = 2, τ12 = 0.2, τ22 = 2, ρ1 = 0.1, and ρ2 = −0.1. This ﬁgure shows that every two-periodic wave is spatially periodic in two directions, but it needs not be periodic in either the x- or y-directions. (a) Perspective view of the wave. (b) Overhead view of the wave, with contour plot shown. The bright hexagons are crests and the dark hexagons are troughs.

Now, we expand each function in {aij , bj , j = 1, 2, 3, 4} into a series with λ1 , λ2 . Actually, we only need to make the ﬁrst order expansions of matrix M and vector b with λ1 , λ2 to show the asymptotic relations. Here we consider their second order expansions to see deeper relations among parameters for the two-periodic solution (28) and the two-soliton solution (5). The expansions for the matrix M and the vector b are given by

M = M0 + M1 λ1 + M2 λ2 + M11 λ2 + M22 λ2 + M12 λ1 λ2 + o(λk λj ) 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −8π 2 ρ 0 24π 2 α2 2 0 0 1 1 = + λ1 + 0 0 0 0 0 −8π 2 ρ2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 24π 2 α2 2 0

0 0 λ2 2 0

214

LUO Lin

Vol. 54

∆1 = 8π 2 (ρ1 − ρ2 ) − 8π 2 (ρ1 + ρ2 )λ3 , b11 λ2 1

−32π 2 ρ1 0 96π 2 α2 2 0 −32π 2 ρ2 96π 2 α2 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 + λ1 + λ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 j + λ1 λ2 + o(λk λ2 ) , 1 0 0 0 0 −8π 2 (ρ1 − ρ2 ) ∆1 24π 2 (α2 − α1 )2 2 k +j ≥ 2, b22 λ2 2

(32)

where ∆ = −32π 4 (α1 + α2 )3 (ρ1 + ρ2 )λ3 − 32π 4 (α1 − α2 )3 (ρ1 − ρ2 ) , o(λk λj ) denotes higher inﬁnitesimal than λk λj , 1 2 1 2 k + j ≥ 2. Substituting Eqs. (32)–(33) into (27) and comparing the same order of λ1 , λ2 , we obtain the following relations k0 = o(λ1 , λ2 ) → 0 , c = o(λ1 , λ2 ) → 0 , ω1 = 4π 2 α3 + o(λ1 , λ2 ) → 4π 2 α3 , 1 1 (34) ω2 = 4π 2 α3 + o(λ1 , λ2 ) → 4π 2 α3 , 2 2 as λ1 , λ2 → 0 ,

b = b0 + b1 λ1 + b2 λ2 + + + b12 λ1 λ2 + o(λk λj ) 1 2 0 0 −512π 4α3 ρ1 1 −32π 4 α3 ρ 0 0 2 1 1 = λ1 + λ2 + λ1 −32π 4 α3 ρ2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 −512π 4 α3 ρ2 2 0 2 j + 0 λ2 + λ1 λ2 + o(λk λ2 ) , k + j ≥ 2 , 1 0 0 ∆ 0

(33)

which implies Eq. (31) that is, Eq. (30) are satisﬁed. Therefore we conclude that the two-periodic solution (28) tends to the two-soliton solution (5) as λ1 , λ2 → 0. In this paper, we consider one- and two-periodic wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional BLMP equation, which belongs to the cases N = 1 and N = 2. As for the case N ≥ 3, the results will be considered in our future work though there are still certain diﬃculties in the calculation.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to express her sincere thanks to Prof. En-Gui Fan for his enthusiastic guidance.

References

[1] R. Hirota and J. Satsuma, Prog. Theor. Phys. 57 (1977) 797. [2] R. Hirota, Direct Methods in Soliton Theory, Springerverlag, Berlin (2004). [3] X.B. Hu and P.A. Clarkson, J. Phys. A 28 (1995) 5009. [4] X.B. Hu, C.X. Li, J.J.C. Nimmo, and G.F. Yu, J. Phys. A 38 (2005) 195. [5] C.R. Gilson, J.J.C. Nimmo, and R. Willox, Phys. Lett. A 180 (1993) 337. [6] W.X. Ma, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19 (2008) 1815. [7] D J. Zhang, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71 (2002) 2649. [8] K. Sawada and T. Kotera, Prog. Theor. Phys. 51 (1974) 1355. [9] A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47 (1979) 1701. [10] A. Nakamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48 (1980) 1365. [11] Y.C. Hon and E.G. Fan, Modern Phys. Lett. B 22 (2008) 547.

[12] E.G. Fan, J. Phys A: Math. Theor. 42 (2009) 095206. [13] H.H. Dai, E.G. Fan, and X.G. Geng, Periodic Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Equations by Hirota Bilinear Method, arXiv:nlin/0602015. [14] S.Y. Lou and X.B. Hu, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 6401. [15] P.G. Estevez and S. Leble, Inverse Problems 11 (1995) 925. [16] L. Wang, Z.Z. Dong, and X.Q. Liu, Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 1. [17] H.C. Hu, X.Y. Tang, and S.Y. Lou, Chaos, Solitons & Fractrals, 22 (2004) 327. [18] X.M. Qian, S.Y. Lou, and X.B. Hu, Z. Naturforch. A 10 (2004) 645. [19] C.Z. Qu, Commun. Theor. Phys. 25 (1996) 369. [20] X.Y. Tang, Phys. Lett. A 314 (2003) 286. [21] Z.L. Tao, Z. Naturforch. A 23 (2008) 644. [22] C.J. Bai and H. Zhao, Intern. J. Modern Phys. B 22 (2407) 644.

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