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)

International Journal of Nonlinear Science

Vol.3(2007) No.3,pp.163-169

Solitary Wave Solutions to Approximate Fully Nonlinear Double

sine-Gordon Equation

Shuimeng Yu

1

, Weihua Yang

1

, Jinxian Ruan

1

, Lixin Tian

1,2 ∗

1

Department of Mathematics,Jiangsu University

2

Nonlinear Scientiﬁc Research Center, Jiangsu University

Zhenjiang, Jiangsu,212013,P.R.China

(Received 8 February 2007, accepted 18 March 2007)

Abstract: By using ansatz method to solve the approximate fully nonlinear double sine-Gordon

equation, some exact traveling wave solutions (compacton, peakon) can be derived. Especially

a type of discontinuous solution to approximate fully nonlinear double sine-Gordon equation

(AFNDSG) is obtained. The noncontinuous solitary wave solutions are veriﬁed by applying

conservation law theory.

Key words:double sine-Gordon equation; noncontinuous solitary wave solution; conservation

law

1 Introduction

The study of solitons is an important part in the solitary wave theory. Recently, two kinds of special

solitons, compacton and peakon, were found. In order to study the role of nonlinear dispersive term in the

formation of patterns in liquid drops, Rosenau and Hyman [1] studied the generalized nonlinear dispersive

equation K(m, n) given by

u

t

+ (u

m

)

x

+ (u

n

)

xxx

= 0

They obtained solitary wave solutions with compact support in it which they called compacton. Other

studies have been shown in [2-10]. Camassa and Holm [11] found peakon solutions, which are called

peakon because they have discontinuous ﬁrst-order derivative at the wave peaks. More exact solutions

of double sine-Gordon equation have been obtained by using F-expansion method [12]. The Jacobi-sn

and Jacobi-cn function solutions to double sine-Gordon equation were obtained by Fan and Zhang [13]

who used the Jacobi elliptic function expansion with symbolic computation. In this paper, Many exact

solutions, especially a type of noncontinuous solitary wave solution, are obtained. In order to study the role

of nonlinear term, we introduce the conception of nonlinear intensity to investigate the approximate fully

nonlinear double sine-Gordon equation (AFNDSG)

(u

m

)

tt

−(u

n

)

xx

+ αu

p

−

αu

3p

3!

+ β(2u)

p

−

β(2u)

3p

3!

= 0 (1)

compacton, noncontinuous solitary wave solutions and peakon solutions will be found, which are of great

signiﬁcance to show the role of nonlinear term and the varieties of solutions. Then we prove that verify

these solutions are noncontinuous solitary wave solutions.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, the conservation law of AFNDSG equation

is given and compacton solutions, noncontinuous solitary wave solutions and peakon solutions of AFNDSG

are obtained by using ansatzs method. In Section 3, a conclusion is given.

∗

Corresponding author. E-mail address: tianlx@ujs.edu.cn

Copyright c World Academic Press, World Academic Union

IJNS.2007.06.15/076

164 International Journal of Nonlinear Science,Vol.3(2007),No.3,pp. 163-169

2 New types of solitary wave solutions and conservation law of AFNDSG

equation

Approximate double sine-Gordon equation (ADSG) was studied in [14-15]. Feng [14] gave a qualitative

analysis to an approximate sine-Gordon equation using the qualitative theory of ODE. Exact solutions to the

approximate (n + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon equation were expressed. Wang [15] constructed solitary

wave solutions to the approximate equation (2) by using a homogeneous balance method.

u

tt

−u

xx

+ (α + 2β)u −

αu

3

3!

−

4βu

3

3

= 0 (2)

In order to investigate the role of nonlinear terms, we introduce the approximate fully nonlinear double

sine-Gordon equation (AFNDSG)

(u

m

)

tt

−(u

n

)

xx

+ αu

p

−

αu

3p

3!

+ β(2u)

p

−

β(2u)

3p

3!

= 0

where α, β are arbitrary constants, and m, n, p are nonlinear intensity of Eq.(1). When m = n = p =

1, a = 1, Eq. (1) equals Eq. (2). Set ξ = x −ct, and Eq. (1) becomes

c

2

(u

m

)

ξξ

−(u

n

)

ξξ

+ αu

p

+ β(2u)

p

−

_

αu

3p

3!

+

β(2u)

3p

3!

_

= 0 (3)

2.1 The conservation law of AFNDSG equation

First, we give the conservation law of AFNDSG equation.

Let u

x

= v, u

t

= w, thus v

t

= w

x

= u

xt

. So, AFNDSG equation can be transformed into the following

equation sets

_

_

_

w

t

=

nu

n−1

mu

m−1

v

x

−

m−1

u

w

2

+

n(n−1)u

n−m−1

m

v

2

−

αu

p−m+1

m

+

αu

3p−m+1

3!m

−

β(2u)

p

mu

m−1

+

β(2u)

3p

3mu

m−1

,

v

t

= w

x

,

u

t

= w.

(4)

When m = n, (4) equals to

_

_

u

v

w

_

_

t

=

_

_

w

w

x

v

x

−

n−1

u

w

2

+

(n−1)

u

v

2

−

αu

p−n+1

n

+

αu

3p−n+1

3!n

−

β(2u)

p

nu

n−1

+

β(2u)

3p

3nu

n−1

_

_

.

The relevant conservation law can be rewritten to be

_

_

u

v

w

_

_

t

−

_

_

0

w

v

_

_

x

=

_

_

w

0

−

n−1

u

w

2

+

(n−1)

u

v

2

−

αu

p−n+1

n

+

αu

3p−n+1

3!n

−

β(2u)

p

nu

n−1

+

β(2u)

3p

3nu

n−1

_

_

.

2.2 Noncontinuous solution and compacton solution to AFNDSG equation

Now, we consider the AFNDSG equation (3) and ﬁnd its solitary wave solutions using the ansatzs

method.

Case 1. When m = n = p,

(c

2

−1)(u

m

)

ξξ

+ αu

p

+ β(2u)

p

−

αu

3p

3!

−

β(2u)

3p

3!

= 0. (5)

We set the form of solution as follows

u =

_

Acos

δ

Bξ, |Bξ| ≤

π

2

,

0, |Bξ| >

π

2

.

(6)

IJNS email for contribution: editor@nonlinearscience.org.uk

S. Yu, L. Tian, W. Yang, J. Ruan: Solitary Wave Solutions to Approximate Fully Nonlinear · · · 165

Substitute (6) into Eq.(5), and this gives

(c

2

−1)mδ(mδ −1)A

m

B

2

cos

mδ−2

Bξ −(c

2

−1)m

2

δ

2

A

m

B

2

cos

mδ

Bξ + (α + 2

p

β)A

p

cos

pδ

Bξ

−

_

α+8

p

β

3!

_

A

3p

cos

3pδ

Bδ = 0.

(7)

Collecting the coefﬁcients of each power of trigonometric function and setting them to zero, we obtain

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

mδ −2 = pδ,

mδ = 3pδ,

(c

2

−1)mδ(mδ −1)A

m

B

2

= (α + 2

p

β)A

p

,

(c

2

−1)m

2

δ

2

A

m

B

2

=

(α+β8

p

)

3!

A

3p

.

(8)

Solving (8) with Maple, we have

m = 3p, δ =

1

p

, B

2

=

(α + β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

, A

2p

=

9(α + 2

p

β)

(α + 8

p

β)

(9)

Substituting (9) into (7), we then obtain the compacton solution, for m = n = p

u =

_

¸

_

¸

_

±3

_

α+2

p

β

α+8

p

β

_

cos

__

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

__

1

p

,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ ≤

π

2

,

0,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ >

π

2

.

where ξ = x −ct, as is shown in Fig.(1) with p = 1, α = 2, β = 1, c = 2.

On the other hand, if we set the form of solution as follows

u =

_

Asin

δ

Bξ, |Bξ| ≤ π,

0, |Bξ| > π.

(10)

Substituting (10) into Eq. (7), we can also obtain the compacton solution

u =

_

¸

_

¸

_

±3

_

α+2

p

β

α+8

p

β

_

sin

__

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

__

1

p

,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ ≤ π,

0,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ > π.

Remark We can obtain a new type of noncontinuous solution

u =

_

¸

_

¸

_

±3

_

α+2

p

β

α+8

p

β

_

sgn(ξ) cos

__

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

__

1

p

,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ ≤

π

2

,

0,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ >

π

2

.

(11)

where ξ = x −ct, as is shown in Fig.(2) with p = 1, α = 2, β = 1, c = 2.

Case 2. When m = p = n,

c

2

(u

m

)

ξξ

−(u

n

)

ξξ

+ αu

m

+ β(2u)

m

−

αu

3m

3!

−

β(2u)

3m

3!

= 0 (12)

According to similar analysis to the above, we set n = 3m, and the forms of solutions can be shown as

follows

_

u

m

= Acos Bξ

u

n

= A

3

cos

3

Bξ

(13)

_

u

m

= Asin Bξ

u

n

= A

3

sin

3

Bξ

(14)

Substituting (13) and (14) into Eq.(12) and using the same method, we obtain the compacton solutions

IJNS homepage:http://www.nonlinearscience.org.uk/

166 International Journal of Nonlinear Science,Vol.3(2007),No.3,pp. 163-169

u =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

±

_

9(α+2

m

β)

α+8

m

β

−

c

2

6

_

cos

_

_

(α+β8

m

)

54

ξ

__ 1

m

,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

m

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

π

2

,

0,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

m

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

>

π

2

.

u =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

±

_

9(α+2

m

β)

α+8

m

β

−

c

2

6

_

sin

_

_

(α+β8

m

)

54

ξ

__ 1

m

,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

m

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ π,

0,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

m

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

> π.

Case 3. When m = n = p

c

2

(u

m

)

ξξ

−(u

n

)

ξξ

+ αu

n

+ β(2u)

n

−

αu

3n

3!

−

β(2u)

3n

3!

= 0

Set m = 3n in (12), the forms of solutions are as follows

_

u

n

= Acos Bξ

u

m

= A

3

cos

3

Bξ

_

u

n

= Asin Bξ

u

m

= A

3

sin

3

Bξ

Using the same method, we can also obtain compacton solutions

u =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

±

_

−9(α+2

n

β)

α+8

n

β

−

1

6

_

cos

_

_

(α+β8

n

)

54

ξ

__1

n

,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

n

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

π

2

,

0,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

n

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

>

π

2

.

u =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

±

_

−9(α+2

n

β)

α+8

n

β

−

1

6

_

sin

_

_

(α+β8

n

)

54

ξ

__1

n

,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

n

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ π,

0,

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

n

)

54

ξ

¸

¸

¸

¸

> π.

Figure 1: Compacton solution

2.3 The veriﬁcation of noncontinuous solutions of AFNDSG equation

Theorem The solution(11) of AFNDSG equation

u =

_

¸

_

¸

_

±3

_

α+2

p

β

α+8

p

β

_

sgn(ξ) cos

__

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

__

1

p

,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ ≤

π

2

,

0,

¸

¸

¸

_

(α+β8

p

)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

¸

¸

¸ >

π

2

.

IJNS email for contribution: editor@nonlinearscience.org.uk

S. Yu, L. Tian, W. Yang, J. Ruan: Solitary Wave Solutions to Approximate Fully Nonlinear · · · 167

Figure 2: Noncontinuous solution

is a noncontinuous solution (where ξ = x −ct).

Proof(1) It is easily known that (11) is the classical solution of the AFNDSG equation in the smooth

parts.

(2) It is easily known that the discontinuous line is ξ = 0 when p = 1.

We will prove that the expression [u

∗

]s = [f] holds on discontinuous lines, where u

∗

≡

_

_

u

v

w

_

_

, f =

_

_

0

w

v

_

_

.

(i) [u] = u(0

+

, t) −u(0

−

, t) = 0.

(ii) v = u

x

= u

ξ

=±

¸

α + 2

p

β

α + 8

p

β

_

1

p

sgn(ξ)

1

p

−1

2δ cos

1

p

_¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

ξ

_

+

1

p

sgn(ξ)

1

p

cos

1

p

−1

_¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

ξ

__

−sin

_¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

ξ

__¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

_

∴ [v] = 0.

(iii) w = u

t

= −cu

ξ

= ±3c

_

α+2

p

β

α+8

p

β

_

1

p

sgn(ξ)

1

p

−1

2δ cos

1

p

__

(α+8

p

β)

54(c

2

−1)

ξ

_

+

1

p

sgn(ξ)

1

p

cos

1

p

−1

_¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

ξ

__

−sin

_¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

ξ

__¸

(α + 8

p

β)

54 (c

2

−1)

_

∴ [w] = 0

To summarize, [u

∗

] = 0, [f] = 0, namely, (2) holds. This completes the proof of the theorem.

2.4 Peakon solution and noncontinuous solution to AFNDSG equation

Set u = λe

−b|ξ|

(b > 0), and ξ = x −ct. Substituting it into Eq. (3), this gives

m

2

b

2

c

2

λ

m

e

−mb|ξ|

−λ

n

e

−nb|ξ|

b

2

n

2

+ αλ

p

e

−bp|ξ|

+ 2

p

βe

−bp|ξ|

−

αλ

3p

e

−3pb|ξ|

6

−

2

3p

βλ

3p

e

−3pb|ξ|

6

= 0

Case 1 When m = 3p, p = n, collecting the coefﬁcients of the same terms, we obtain

_

m

2

b

2

c

2

λ

m

−

αλ

3p

6

−

2

3p

βλ

3p

6

= 0

−λ

n

b

2

n

2

+ αλ

p

+ 2

p

β = 0

b

2

=

αλ

n

+ 2

n

β

λ

n

n

2

, c

2

=

(α + 8

n

β)λ

n

54(αλ

n

+ 2

n

β)

Then the peakon solution to Eq.(3) is as follows

IJNS homepage:http://www.nonlinearscience.org.uk/

168 International Journal of Nonlinear Science,Vol.3(2007),No.3,pp. 163-169

u = λe

−

αλ

n

+2

n

β

λ

n

n

2

x−

(α+8

n

β)λ

n

54(αλ

n

+2

n

β)

t

**where λ is arbitrary constant, which is shown in Fig.(3) with λ = 1, α = 2, β = 1, n = 1.
**

Figure 3: Peakon solution

Case 2 When n = 3m, p = m, we can also obtain the peakon solution

u = λe

−

−(αλ

n

+8

m

β)

54m

2

x−

54

(αλ

m

+2

m

β)

(α+8

m

β)λ

m

t

**With the development of solitary solution theory, many new types of solutions have been found. We
**

ﬁnd that there is also noncontinuous solution to the AFNDSG equation. We set the solution in the following

form:

u = λsgn(ξ)e

−b|ξ|

=

_

_

_

−λe

bξ

, ξ < 0,

0, ξ = 0,

λe

−bξ

, ξ > 0.

(15)

where ξ = x −ct, c is the wave speed and λ is the arbitrary constant. Substituting (15) into Eq. (3), we can

obtain the noncontinuous solution by using similar analysis to the above

u = λsgn(ξ)e

−b|ξ|

=

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

−λe

−(αλ

n

+8

m

β)

54m

2

x−

54

(αλ

m

+2

m

β)

(α+8

m

β)λ

m

t

, ξ < 0,

0, ξ = 0,

λe

−

−(αλ

n

+8

m

β)

54m

2

x−

54

(αλ

m

+2

m

β)

(α+8

m

β)λ

m

t

, ξ > 0.

where ξ = x −

_

54

(α+2

m

β)

(α+8

m

β)

t, which is shown in Fig.(4)

Figure 4: Noncontinuous solution

3 Conclusion

By using ansatz method to solve the approximate fully double sine-Gordon equation, some exact trav-

eling wave solutions, especially a type of discontinuous solitary wave solution, are derived. The noncontin-

uous solitary wave solutions are veriﬁed by using conservation law theory.

IJNS email for contribution: editor@nonlinearscience.org.uk

S. Yu, L. Tian, W. Yang, J. Ruan: Solitary Wave Solutions to Approximate Fully Nonlinear · · · 169

Acknowledgements

Research was supported by Outstanding Personnel Program in Six Fields of Jiangsu Province (No: 6-A-

029) and the Teaching and Research Award Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in Higher Education

Institutions of MOE, P. R. C. (No: 2002-383)

References

[1] P.Rosenau , J.M.Hyman: Compactons: Solitons with ﬁnite wavelength. Phys.Rev.Lett.70(5), 564-

568(1993)

[2] P. Rosenau: Nonlinear dispersion and compact structures. Phys. Rev. Lett.73 1737(1994)

[3] Lixia Wang, Jiangbo Zhou, Lihong Ren: The Exact Solitary Wave Solutions for a Family of BBM

Equation.International Journal of Nonlinear Science 1(1) 58-39(2006)

[4] Yuchun Wang, Lixia Wang, Wenbin Zhang: Application of the adomian decomposition method to fully

nonlinear sine-Gordon equation. International Journal of Nonlinear Science. 2(1),29-38(2006)

[5] Dinda PT, Remoissent M: Breather compactons in nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems. Phys. Rev. E 60,

6218(1999)

[6] P.Rosneau, D.Levy: Compactons in a class of nonlinearly quintic equations . Phys. Lett. A. 252, 297-

306(1999)

[7] Xinhua Fan, Lixin Tian, Lihong Ren: New compactons in nonlinear Atomic chain equations with ﬁrst-

and-second-neighbour interactions. International Journal of Nonlinear Science. 2(1), 105-110(2006)

[8] Dianchen Lu, Baojian Hong, Lixin Tian: Backlund trandformation and N-soliton-like solutions to the

combined Kdv-Burgers equation with variable coefﬁcients.International Journal of Nonlinear Science.

2(1) 3-10(2006)

[9] Lixin Tian, Shuimeng Yu: Nonsymmetrical compacton and multi-compacton of nonlinear intensity

Klein-Gordon equation.Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 29, 282 (2006)

[10] Z.Y. Yan: The Riccati equation with variable coefﬁcients expansion algorithm to ﬁnd more exact

solutions of nonlinear differential equations . Computer Physics Communications 152,275-284 (2003)

[11] R.Camassa, D. Holm : completely integrable dispersive shallow water equation with peaked solu-

tions.Phys.Rev.Lett. A. 71,1661(1993)

[12] Mingliang Wang , Xiangzheng Li: Exact solutions to the double sine-Gordon equation . Chaos, Soli-

tons and Fractals. 27 ,477-486(2006)

[13] Fan EG, Zhang J : Applications of the Jacobi elliptic function method to special-type nonlinear equa-

tions. Phys Lett A. 305 , 383-392(2002)

[14] Zhaosheng Feng: Exact solution to an approximate sine-Gordon equation in (n + 1)−dimensional

space . Phys Lett A.302, 64-76(2002)

[15] M. Wang: Application of homogeneous balance method to exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equa-

tion in mathematical physics. Phys Lett A. 216 ,67(1996)

IJNS homepage:http://www.nonlinearscience.org.uk/

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