Infinite Series

TUTORIAL OBJECTIVES

Know that the partial sums of a series define the limit of a series. Use convegence tests to decided whether an infinite series converges or diverges. Understand the difference between conditional convergence and absolute convergence

Limit of an Infinite Series
1
Previously, we have worked with infinite sequences and looked at how to define the limit of an infinite sequence and methods to decide and prove that a sequence converges or diverges. One sequence we looked at, was the sequence: 1 $an = n . n H 1 we can be written as: 1 1 1 1 1 1 $1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , ....

This sequence on a number line would look like ... and on a graph looks like ...

2
0
n=1

1

. 0 0 1 1 1 Bit Adder 1 1 And similarly for adding the bits 0 and 0: 0 0 Bit Adder . The output from the Bit Adder would be . A line in digital circuitry can obviously only have the values 1 or 0. .. 0 0 0 1 0 Bit Adder 0 0 But now we run into a problem..2 As described below. but how can we output two bits on a single line? We can’t. 3 As described below.. To solve this problem we simply introduce a second line used for the case when we try to add together the bits 1 and 1. What do we do when we try to add the bits 1 and 1 together? 1 1 1 1 Bit Adder ? 10? Obviously the answer is 10.

Lets consider adding together: 1010 and 0100. the Bit Adder looks like this: Bit A Bit B Bit Adder Column 1 Column 0 And there are four possible inputs and outputs to this circuit: 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Bit Adder 0 0 Bit Adder 0 1 Bit Adder 0 1 Bit Adder 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 So now that we have a circuit that can add two bits together. 4 So finally.1 1 1 1 Bit Adder New Output 1 1 0 0 So now the output is 10. 1010 0100 1010 0100 1010 0100 1010 0100 Bit Adder Bit Adder Bit Adder Bit Adder 0 0 10 00 110 000 1110 0000 What we are doing here is adding up the bits from left to right. how do we go about adding together the entire binary number. Notice that the left-hand bit from the Bit Adder is used as a ‘carry’ in our addition (hence why we put it below). This new output acts as a second column for the binary representation of our output. .

..Similarly. 1000 0 0110 Bit Adder .. if we wanted to add together 1000 and 0110 we would start by doing 1000 0110 Bit Adder .0 . 7 Which now gives us: 0 and 1 1000 0110 Bit Adder 10 00 ..... and .... 6 Which would look like: 0 and 0 1000 0110 Bit Adder 0 Next we move onto the next column..0 We input 0 and 1 into the bit adder.. We input 0 and 1 into the bit adder.. and ..... the output from the bit adder will give us the two bits . the output from the bit adder will give us the two bits .

. But if we consider adding 010 and 010.And if we continue add together the bits from the remaining two columns: 1000 0110 1000 0110 Bit Adder Bit Adder .. we run into a problem... Bit Adder 0 010 0 010 The Bit Adder output is 1 and 0.. 10 . This is ok. 00 then we will get the completed diagrams of . Bit Adder 00 10 010 010 Bit Adder We didn’t add the carry! This is not ok! 000 010 ... ..the left hand bit of the Bit Adder’s output was always 0.. . 00 8 1000 0110 1000 0110 Bit Adder Bit Adder 110 000 1110 0000 All the examples so far have had carry bits of 0 . 010 010 This is ok..10 .... . The left bit of the output (the carry) is 1..

. The problem is that we don’t have a circuit that can handle adding on the carry... 010 010 New Circuit 100 0 10 9 Bit A Bit B Bit A Bit B Carry Bit Adder Column 1 Bit A 0 0 1 1 Bit B 0 1 0 1 Bit/Carry Adder Column 1 Bit A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Bit B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Column 0 Carry 0 0 0 1 Sum 0 1 1 1 Column 0 Carry 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Carry 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Sum 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 . 010 010 New Circuit .. 10 The new circuit will output the sum of the bits and the carry but also a different carry from this sum. the output will be 0+0+1 and the carry from this will be 0. This new circuit should be used to add together two bits and also the carry. In this example.00 . So now we are going to create a second circuit that will be used with our Bit Adder circuit.Obviously 010 + 010 is not 000.