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Light Emitting Diode, LED

LED
LED
1879

1965
MOSFET/Stable MOS Interface
LED 1970

1976 LED

2007
2007 2009
2011 OSA Fellow

Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser, VCSEL


2008 meastype VSCEL EPFL

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Prof. Arakawa UCSB Prof. Noda KAIST


H. T. Lee Laser Focus WorldCompound
Semiconductor SPIE Newsroom

LED LD
VCSEL 2009
I299929Japanese Patent Application No.: 2006-001364

LED LED
140lm/W

LED

2012 1

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UIUC Nick
Holonyak S. L. ChuangMilton Feng
Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteRPI S. Y. Lin
K. M. Lau

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2012

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Light Emitting Diode, LED

LED

LED

LED

1994
LED LED

LED

LED
p-n

LED

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2012

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1.1

1.2

1.2.1

1.2.2

11

1.2.3

14

1.2.4

17

1.2.5

18

1.3

19

1.4

pn

22

1.4.1

22

1.4.2

26

1.4.3

32

1.4.4

34

1.4.5

35

pn

37

1.5.1

37

1.5.2

39

40

41

1.5

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LE D

43

Light Emitting Diodes

44

2.1.1

44

2.1.2

45

2.1.3

LED

46

2.1.4

LEDs

52

2.1.5

LED

54

56

2.2.1

57

2.2.2

van Roosbroeck-Shockley

59

2.2.3

62

2.2.4

Einstein

65

LED

66

2.3.1

66

2.3.2

I-V

70

2.3.3

73

2.3.4

75

2.3.5

pn

75

2.3.6

p-n

77

2.3.7

77

2.3.8

80

2.3.9

81

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.3.10

82

2.3.11

83

2.4

LED

85

2.4.1

LED

85

2.4.2

LED

86

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2.4.3

90

2.4.4

92

2.4.5

lambertian

92

2.4.6

95

2.4.7

96

98

98

101

3.1

Liquid Phase Epitaxy, LPE

105

3.2

Molecular Beam Epitoxy, MBE

108

3.3

Vapor Phase Epitoxy, VPE

115

3.3.1

Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, HVPE

120

3.2.2

metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,

4.1

MOCVD

123

137

138

4.1.1

138

4.1.2

140

4.1.3

p-n

141

4.1.4

143

4.1.5

145

4.1.6

148

151

4.2.1

152

4.2.2

155

4.2

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LE D
4.2.3

156

4.2.4

LED

159

4.2.5

Textured

164

4.2.6

171

4.2.7

172

4.2.8

174

4.2.9

Thin-film

177

4.2.10 pattern sapphire substrate, PSS

185

4.2.11

187

4.2.12

196

4.2.13 LED

197

4.2.14 GaN LED

201

4.3

207

4.3.1

current-spreading layer

208

4.3.2

213

4.3.3

LED

216

4.3.4

220

4.3.5

Current-blocking layer

222

Efficiency droop

223

4.4.1

224

4.4.2

228

4.4.3

Auger

234

236

236

237

4.4

xii

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5.1

244

244

5.1.2

248

5.1.3

eye sensitivity function

253

5.1.4

luminous efficacyluminous efficiency 256

259

5.2.2

273

275

5.3.1

276

5.3.2

277

5.3.3

279

5.4

282

5.4.1

282

5.4.2

285

5.4.3

285

5.4.4

CIE-LUV

286

5.4.5

CIE-LAB

287

292

292

293

white light-emitting diode; WLED

294

6.1.1

6.2

259

5.2.1

5.3

6.1

243

5.1.1

5.2

294

295

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LE D
6.2.1

295

6.2.2

297

297

297

299

6.4.1

299

6.4.2

Remote phosphor

302

6.3
6.3.1

6.4

LED

305

LED

308

7.1.1

309

7.1.2

313

LED

317

7.2.1

318

7.2.2

LED

326

7.2.3

333

7.2.4

340

347

7.3.1

347

7.3.2

349

7.3.3

350

353

354

7.1

7.2

7.3

355

xiv

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1.2
1.3
1.4pn
1.5pn

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1.1

LE D

LED Light emitting diode

LED
LED LED

LED
1.1 LED

LED
AlGaAs

LED
GaAs
LED
GaAsP

LED
GaP

LED
InGaN

LED
GaN

LED
ZnSe

LED
InGaN

LED
blue with red P

LED
AlN

1.1LED
https:/.../f/How%20Do%20LED%20Lights%20Work.ppt

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1.1
LED 1907
H. J. Round SiC
LEDRound
LED PN 1936 Destriau
ZnS II-VI LED SiC II-VI
1952-1953 Heinrich Welker III-V
III-V III-V
GaAs 870-980 nm LED
Laser
1962 Holonyak Bevacqua GaAsP
LED LEDVPE
GaAs GaAsP PN
GaAsP GaAs GaAsP
GaAs
0.11 lm/WGaAsP/GaAs 1969
Nuese GaAsP

1907 Round SiC LED 10 V


SiC
1923 Losseve SiC p-n
1936 Destriau ZnS
1962 GE N. Holonyak Jr. GaAsP
LED 1970 LED 1971
RCA Pankove MIS 1990
Hewlett-Packard Kuo Toshiba Sugawara

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LE D

AlInGaP LED
N i c k H o l o n y a k J r. 1 9 5 4 U r b a n a
ChampaignEE 26
1957 GE
General Electric Company, GE
1963 Laser
DiodeLD
Nick Holonyak Jr. LED 1963 GE

Holonyak
2004 Lemelson
Holonyak
LED LD LED LD
1.2 Holonyak 1.3 Holonyak

1.2Nick Holonyak Jr.

1.3 Nick Holonyak Jr.

magazine.continental.
com/200811-idea-makers

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GaP 1960 1963 Allen 1964 Grimmeiss


& Scholz GaP PN LED AT&T Bell
Ralph Logan GaP LEDGaP LED
GaAsP LED
GaP
N Zn O
1972 GaAsP/GaAs
M. George Craford N GaAsP/
GaAs LED

LED GaAsP GaP GaAs 3%


AlGaAsRupprecht Woodall
AlGaAs Al
Woodall
AlGaAs/GaAs LED GaAsP/GaAs LED 1980
LED
AlGaAs/AlGaAs LED
LED
1985 AlGaInP
AlGaInP/GaInP AlGaInP
625610590 nm LED
GaAsP LEDAlGaInP LED
GaAsP
1990
LED GaP LED
LED

LED

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LE D

AlInGaP
AlInGaN
LED 1986 Amano MOCVD
AlN GaN
Akasaki X-ray -PL
AlN GaN
110 15 cm -3
10 GaN
1989 CP 2 Mg
p-GaN Akasaki GaN
p-n GaN
LED1992 Nichia Shuji Nakamura
GaN
1995 GaN LED1996 Nakamura
InGaN LED 460 nm~470 nm
LED
1993 InGaN/GaN
LED GaN In
LED
GaN 2007
LED 100 lm/W
LED LED
LED LD
LED LD 1999
2006 1.4
1.5
LED InGaN/GaN In

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1.4

1.5

ickr.com/photos/marias_mystique/236720156/

InGaN/GaN LED lm

lm/W LED LED


Best Device

Lumens/Watt

100

Shaped AlGaInP/GaP
Red-Orange-Yellow
AlGaInP/GaP
Red-Orange-Yellow

10

White

AlGaAs/AlGaAs
Red

AlGaInP/GaAs
Red-Orange-Yellow

Green

Blue

AlGaInP/GaAs
GaAsP:N
Red
Red-Orange-Yellow

InGaN

GaP:N Green
GaAsP
Red

GaP:Zn, 0 s
Red

~10 x
Increase/Decade
SiC

GaAs0AP0.4
Red
0.1
1960

1970

Lumileds Lighting
1980

1990

2000

1.6

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LE D

LED LED
LED
1.6

1.2
LED

1.2.1

1.7 1 s 2 s
10 23
2 s 1023
1.7

1.8(a)
4

valence band, VB
conduction band
energy gap band gap, Eg 1.8(b)

K
Ev Ec Eg= Ec- Ev


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E=0

3 s
2 p
3p

3s
2p

2 s

2s

1s

1s

1.7

+ 4e

E
Ec+

CB 0 K

Ec
= Eg
Ev

VB 0 K

(a)

(b)
1.8(a)
(b)

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LE D

me* 1.9 hv > Eg


E g

hole m h*

e-
h +

hv > E g

E
Ec+
CB

hv>Eg

Ec

Ev

e-

h+

Eg

hv

e-

VB

(a)

(b)

1.9(a) Eg (b) Si-Si


Si Si Si-Si

10

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GaAs InP

n
p np

1.2.2

density of states, DOS g ( E )


/eV-cm 3

DOS 1.10(a) (b) g(E)

DOS g ( E )( E - E c) 1/2
(E- Ec) DOS

f ( E ) E

1-1

kB T K EF Fermi level
1/2
1.10(c) f(E)
E 1- f(E)

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LE D

g(E)(E-Ec)1/2

Ec +

[1-f(E)]

CB

=nE (E) dE= n

Ec

nE(E)

Ec

EF

EF

Ev

Ev

pE(E)
= p

VB

0
g(E)

(a)

(b)

f(E)

nE(E)

(c)

or pE(E)

(d)

1.10(a) (b) (c)


(d)g(E) f(E)
nE(E) E

1-1 E F 1/2
g CB ( E ) f ( E )
n E ( E ) 1.10(d)
nEdE = gCB(E)f(E)dE E E + dE
EcEc + n

1-2

(EC- EF)kBT EF EC kBTf(E) exp[- (EEF)/kBT]


non-degenerate
1-2
12

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1-3

NC = [2 me*kBT/h2]3/2
1-3 ( E c- E F) k BT
Nc
f(Ec) = exp[- (Ec- EF)/kBT] Ec
Nc
1.10(d)

1-4

N v= 2[2 m h * k B T / h 2 ] 3/2 1-3


1-4 EF
n= p 1-3
1-4 EFi Ev

1-5

N c N v E Fi
1-31-4np
mass action law

1-6

Eg= Ec- Ev ni2 NcNvexp[- Eg / kBT]


E g
n i
n= p= n i
ni 2.25106 cm-3

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LE D

1.2.3
impurity

extrinsic semiconductor Si
As Si
n
B p
1.11(a) Si
4 5 4
4 Si

0.05
eV1 KBT 0.025 eV 5

0.05 eV 1.11(b) 5 As+


E d
E c 0.05 eV E d

donor 1.11(b) E d
Ec0.05 eV Nd Ndni,
Nd n = Nd p= ni2/Nd
np= ni2
e h

14

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e-

CB

As+

Ec

-0.05 eV

Ed

As+

As+

As+

As+

Ev
106

(a)

(b)

1.11(a) (b) n- As+


Ec

= ene+ enh

1-7

1-8

p
1.12(a)
4
B-
n 0.05 eV
B -

1.12(b)
acceptorNa
ni p= Na
p n= ni2/Na = eNah

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LE D

106
Ec

h+
B

Ea
Ev

B-

B-

B-

B~0.05 eV

h+

VB

(b)

(a)

1.12(a) (b) p- B-
Ev

CB
Ec
EFn

Ec
EFi

Ec
EFp

Ev

Ev

Ev

VB

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.13(a) (b)n- (c)p- np= ni2


EFiEFnEFp n- p-

1.13(a)(c) n- p-
1-31-4 EF Ec Ev

16

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1.2.4
n p
Nc Nv n > Nc p > Nv
degenerate semiconductor

n-

E C
n-
E C 1.14(a)
band tailbandgap
narrowing effect 1.14(b) p-
Ev n = Nd
p = N a
10 20
cm3 np = ni2
E
CB

CB
EFn

Ec

Ec

g(E)
Ev

Ev
EFp
VB

(a)

(b)

1.14(a) n- CB(b) p-

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LE D

1.2.5
1.15 V n-
E F E Fi E C

A B

emf
EF = eV = 0 EF
EF EF
eV EF EF
EF(A)- EF(B) eV 1.15
EC- EF
EF

Ec
EF
Ec-eV

Ev

EF-eV

Ev-eV

B
n-

1.15n- V
18

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1.3
L

1-9

me kn
n = 1, 2, 3 kn 1.2.2
g(E)
PE

En = (kn)2/2me

1.16 V(x)
x a V ( x ) = V ( x + a ) = V ( x + 2 a ) =

1-10

V(x) a
V(x) = V(x + ma); m = 1, 2, 3,

1-11

1-10 V ( x )
( x ) l-10
Bloch wavefunctions

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LE D
PE(r)
r

PE

N
PE
V(x)
a

a
PEV(x) a
x

x=0

2a

3a

x=L

1.16PE a v = 0
PE = 0

k(x) = Uk(x)exp(jkx)

1-12

U( x ) V ( x ) a V ( x )
exp( j k x ) k
k
k(x) kn Ek 1.17
E - k Ek k = - /a + /a
E - k k(x) E - k
0 K
E - k E - k

E - k E - k
Ev Ec k(x) 1.17 E - k
E - k
k 1.17
20

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absorbing-substrate, AS158

carrier gas123, 129

AC/DC Converter337

carrier-blocking layer82

acceptor15

cathode ray tube, CRT312

ACLED337

CCFL314, 348

active region44, 77

Chemical Beam Epitaxy, CBE

AlInGaN231
AlInN231
Auger recombination234

B
back light312
backlight unit, BLU312

113
Chemical Vapor Deposition, CVD
115
chloride method119
chromaticity coordinates289
CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system
CIE 1931 269

band tail17

CIE standard illuminant289

bandgap discontinuities

CIE standard source289

70
bandgap narrowing effect
17

cladding layer138
cold cathode uorescent lamp, CCFL
313

barrier139

color gamut288

barrier region77

color matching function

beam ux gauge110

271

BEF313

color matching277

Bloch wavefunctions19

color purity or color saturation

brightness258

277

buffer layer70

color rendering index294

buffer or load-lock chamber

color space267

109
built-in potential24
Burrus-type354

color temperature, CT284


color-rendering index, CRI or Ra
292
color-rending index292

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LE D
Commission Internationale delEclairage,
CIE257, 289
conduction band8

75
diffuser sheet313
direct recombination capture coefcient

cone cells248,249
connement layer138
Conformal301, 302

36
Distributed Bragg Reector, DBR
172

contact liquid157

dominate wavelength277

contact transfer length

donor14

219

dopant141

cornea249

double hetero-structureDH138, 235

correlated color temperature, CCT

284
CPBG194

Efciency droop223

crack densities123

electro phoretic deposition, EPD


302

crack122
critical thickness112, 149
cryopump109

electron cyclotron resonance, ECR


109

crystalline lens115, 249


current crowding216

electron hole pairs, EHPs


34

current-blocking layer222

electron-blocking layer82

current-spreading layer208

energy gap8
epitaxial regrowth222

epitaxy103

dangling bond148

equilibrium cooling106

dark-line defect147

escape cones161

deep level145

external quantum efficiency

degenerate semiconductor
17

86, 151
extraction efficiency85,

density of states, DOS11

151

depletion layer23

extrinsic semiconductor14

depletion region66

eye sensitivity function257

dielectrics115
differential pn junction resistance p-n
356

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F
eld sequential319, 320
eld320
rst excited state299
exibility115

hole10
hue258
hydride method119
Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, HVPE
120, 124

flip-chip
187
Fluid Dynamics117
uorescence299, 300
uorescent lamp, FL313
fovea250
free-carrier absorption
154
Fresnel reectionFresnel 160
gamma292

G
GaN based310
Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy,
GSMBE124
Graded-composition electron blocking layer,
GEBL232
gradient index, GRIN
356

I
illuminance254
imprinting303
impulse response267
impurity scattering130
impurity14
injection electroluminescence
44
internal conversion299
internal efciency138
internal quantum efciency
85, 138, 151
intersystem crossing300
Inverter317
ion gauge111
ion plating115
iris249
isoelectronic impurity48

ground state299
growth chamber109
GSMBE109

K
kelvin K284
kinetically favored103

H
Halide-VPE119
high dynamic range, HDR
319

L
lambertian emission pattern
93
Lambertian255

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LE D
Laminar ow117

34

Lancer331

mechanic pump109

Laser DiodeLD4

mesa etched147

laser lift-off122, 179

mesopic vision251

lattice mismatch111

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition,

law of the junction26

MOCVD

Light Emitting Diodes44

105, 122, 136

light guide plate313

metal-organic method119

Light-emitting diodes, LEDs

minimum flicker method

223

258

light-escape160

mist dislocation line148

lightness289

mobility75, 127

Liquid Crystal Display, LCD

Molecular beam epitaxy, MBE

312

122

liquid-phaseepitaxy, LPE
105

Molecular Flow118
molecular-beam epitaxy, MBE

lumen efciency303

105, 108

lumen ux303

Moleculor Beam EpitaxyMBE124

luminance254, 292

MOMBE

luminous efcacy260

109

luminous efciency260

Monte Carlo Method307

luminous ux253

MOVPE105

luminous intensity252

multiple-quantum-wells81

magnetron enhancedradio frequency

non-degenerate12
Normalized spectral sensitivity

109
mask168

251

mass action law13

Mass-Energy Transfer117
Matsushita Electric Works Ltd

ohmic losses158
oilfreemechanical diaphragm pump

205
mean thermal generation time

111

358

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omnidirectional reflector, ODR

pupil249

174

On-Chip AC LED Lighting Technology

quantum dot81

337

quantum-well201

optic nerve249

quantumwells120

Osram Opto Semiconductors

318
overow of carriers81

radio frequency, RF109


radiometric units252
radiometry257

pad196

reect sheet313

PAMBE109

Reective High Energy Electron Diffraction,

pattern sapphire substrate, PSS

RHEED

185
phenomenon of luminescence
299

109
release lm304
Remote301, 302

phosphor converted LEDPC-LED298

repeater353

phosphorescence299, 300

resonant-cavity LED174

photometric units252

Retina248, 249

photonic bandgap198

Reynolds Number117

Photonic Crystal197

RHEED111

Photonics West

rhodopsin250

205
photopic vision250, 252
Physical Vapor Deposition, PVD
115

rod cells248, 249

S
Sapphire105, 131

picofarads35

SCL38

piezoelectric polarization224

scotopic vision250

planckian locus282

screening radius153

polarization-matched227

second excited state299

potential barrier26

Shockley equation29

premature turn-on73

Shockley model33

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LE D
shutter110

thin film transistor, TFT

SIMS141

312

single-quantum-well81

Thin-lm177

singlet299

thin-GaN LED

solder-bump bonding188

179

Solid- state lighting, SSL223

threshold145

space charge layer, SCL23

TMAl123

specic contact resistance217

TMGa123

Spectrum locus268

total internal reflection151,

spontaneous emission44
spontaneous polarization224
sputtering deposition115

203
transmission line model, TLM
220

step-cooling106

transparent-substrate, TS158

sticking coefcient104

trapped light159

stoichiometry115

Triethylindium, TEIn123,

stress-control HVPE

129
Trimethylindium, TMIn123,

123
strong injection37

129

sub-threshold turn-on73

triplet300

supercooling106

tristimulus value264, 286

superlattices120

truncated inverted pyramid, TIP

surface reaction constant


119

162
truncated pyramid shaped

surface recombination146

203

surfactant141

tunnel junction213

susceptor123

turbo pump109, 111


Turbulent Flow117

turn-on73

TEAl123

twilight251

TEGa123

twophase method106

ternary alloys48

thermo-dynamically favored
103

uniform chromaticity scale diagram, UCS

360

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diagram275
uniformcolor space289

V
vacuum evaporation115
valence band, VB8
Vapor Phase Epitoxy, VPE
115
vapor phase mass transfer coefcient
hg119
vapor-phase epitaxy, VPE
105
velocity boundarylayer117
vibrational state299
Viscosity118
viscous ow117
vitreous humor249
voltage292

W
wafer bonding203
weak injection36
wetting layer112
white light-emitting diode; WLED
298
window layer
152, 208

Y
yttrium aluminum garnet; YAG
298

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LED, , .
., 2012.03

ISBN 978-957-11-6535-6 ()
1.2.3.
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100027347

5D91

LED
Principles and Apptications of LED
244.3394.5
244.4







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