Consumer Behaviour Lecture 1: Consumer Behaviour and the Self


behave in a random manner and their behaviour cannot be adequately described by stochastic models •Consumer behaviour stems from innate and acquired needs and involves a complex combination of conscious and unconscious processes as well as rational and emotional factors . customers and business •New directions •PERSONALITY •Freudian Psychoanalysis •The neo-Freudians •Trait theory •Temperament sorter •SELF CONCEPT •self image/product image •products as extended self •empirical research on self and brand choice •Postmodern self •body.self and culture Homo Economicus? •Consumers do not strictly obey the principles of economic rationality as commonly defined •Consumers do not.brandchannel.asp?fa_id=283 •CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR •Disciplinary contributions to the study of consumers •(re) defining consumer behaviour •The bigger picture •consumers.Outline however.

metaphor leisure activities http://mtq. collections. and the arts. purchase. and environmental. cognition. services. of primary contributions from various disciplines to the study of consumer behaviour (from Holbrook 1995) Value in Acquisition Aggregate spending Product purchase Brand choice Usage Disposition macroeconomics microeconomics psychology sociology anthropology philosophy humanities Reasoned action. garbology Shopping experience Rituals. nostalgia Entertainment Aesthetics.sagepub. collecting. events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives (AMA in Peter and Olsen 1994) . stories. misbehaviour Role playing Leisure activities Gift giving. ceremonies. intrinsic value Durability. behaviour. imagery.mp3 Defining consumer behaviour •the study of the processes involved when individuals and groups select. ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires (Solomon et al 2009) •consumer behaviour is the dynamic interaction of affect. symbolism. semiotics Appreciative reactions emotions. cons. consumption. use or dispose of products.

The domain of consumer behaviour Arnould et al 2004 The food provisioning process acquisition preparation cooking disposal eating .

values and identity. there is a stronger focus on career and work in both Germany and Romania. In Spain and Turkey there is a realisation that the party is over. Netherlands and the UK are questioning the value of everything they buy.Buying Units •individuals •families/households •committees Pragmatic coping: People in France. Poland is the only country in Europe where people are likely to increase spending in the next 12 months and see the recession as an opportunity to invest or implement life changes. All three markets are exhibiting a 'We can make it together' attitude. They are attempting to simplify their lives by focusing on family (Italy) and community (Portugal).asp?CType=A&AID=88852&Tab=A The bigger picture: economy and the recession http://www. Czech and Romanian people are more likely to stick to trustworthy brands whereas Germans are more open to trying new brands. Disorientation: People in Italy and Portugal feel powerless against the recession and believe that it is having a profound impact on their social system. here the crisis is an opportunity to cut down on unnecessary spending. Spain and Turkey are positive about the future but in different ways. Germany and Romania are pessimistic but trying to avoid making major changes to their consumption habits or living The Dutch also feel they are in a game of Russian roulette. Mindful of the uncertain future.warc.asp?CType=A&AID=89910&Tab=A .com/ArticleCenter/Default. Future focused: Consumers in Poland. French consumers see the recession as part of a never-ending crisis. They still want to treat themselves now and again but may buy smaller quantities of quality items or more products and promotions. following on from post-Euro inflation which had already undermined individual spending power. •Reduced political support for regulation •Incidentalist pricing with multiple price points •Saving will not seem particularly worthwhile •Those groups financially untroubled by recession will continue to demand premium experiences •Desire for luxury and indulgence will not abate but may switch categories •Renting and trading in secondary goods may rise •Poor pensions will undermine the appeal of retirement Source: warc http://www.warc. Stand-by mode: Consumers in the Czech Republic. There is more anxiety and apprehension in these countries and a backlash against a materialistic and consumerist society.

Some behaviors have already surfaced but their sustainability and future directions are not clear. the time saving is an important appeal that the consumer will appreciate. Cybermarketscape can turn the sovereign consumer into a desire machine. and with free abandon. there is no dress code. The consumer can wander from store to store without expending physical energy. Since time is the essence of contemporary life. Since cybermarketscape is limitless and boundless. •http://www. •An average on-line spend was £1333 (2010). footwear and accessories are the top 3 sectors http://news. what takes place is virtual shopping. no regulation regarding food ingestion while shopping. . Of course.Internet household penetration is 73% and clothing. •.imrg.stm?news=1&nbram=1&nbwm=1&bbram=1&bbwm=1&nol_storyid=6179897 •UK internet retail sales estimated to reach £81bn •Facebook has become the second most visited web site in the UK after Google. Consumers can test products in what the consumers can do is not the same as what they will actually centre/main/dashboard7323. Much will depend on what marketers will make them do.html http://www. At this time we can only speculate on what the possibilities are.On-line Consumers can be lured by spectacular promises via computerized images. there are no behavioral norms that one normally encounters in a regular store.stm Cyberspace and consumer freedom Consumer freedoms are plenty in cyberspace. according to a report from Hitwise There are also other issues’ Venkatesh 1998 672. The most effective way to appeal to consumers is interactive imaging. for cyberspace ensures the personalization of the shopping environment. it is also an appropriate candidate for tapping into the unbounded desires of the and given phantasmagoric forms. In a cyber store.51% of all UK internet visits. It is too early to tell what the consumers will do in/with In this free-est of spaces. The social networking site now attracts 7. Objects can be fetishized. In the privacy of one’s living room. There are now over 51 million UK internet users and 37 million UK on-line shoppers. Consumer fantasies can be exploited much more effectively in cyberspace.

com/_assets/files/Engaging_the_new_consumer_Esoma07. control and manipulate them.tnsglobal. 2008.Unmanageable Consumers http://www. JCC http://joc.sagepub.pdf •OLD CONSUMERS •seek convenience •synchronized •less often involved •conformist •less well informed •NEW CONSUMERS •seek authenticity •individual •involved •independent •well informed Consumers have proven that in spite of the best efforts to constrain. 334) -Environmental challenges ( Lewis and Bridger. inconsistent and contrary. 2008. soil. clean air. they can act in ways that are unpredictable. (Gabriel and Lang. water. 9-19 bn by 2050 -Social and cultural forces – materialism and happiness Gabriel and lang. land. minerals) -Demographic challenges – world population >6bn 21ST century. 2000 Different perspectives on consumer behaviour research Source: Solomon et al 2006 .

not universal rigid concepts •Recognise observations are part of a process and product of interpretation •Offer rich and valuable insights and contribute to the debate regarding contemporary consumerism From Goulding. and cultural meanings’ p868 –Consumer’s personal and collective identities (self) –Lived worlds and marketplace culture (mass consumption) –Consumer experiences. processes and ideologies (systems of meaning) –Sociological categories (class. symbols and gestures in relation to life experience •understand that time and space are have different meanings and are fluid and negotiable.Individual interpretative methods •Acknowledge the consumer in relation to their own culturally constructed world •Recognise the importance of language. over consumption. inequality etc) Temporality of consumption (nostalgia and retrobranding) Globalization of consumer cultures and implications for less developed countries . ethnicity) and structures that drive consumption More work on Historical and institutional forces shaping consumption Moral dilemas and consumption (commercialisation of everyday life. the marketplace. family. 870 Stalking the Amphisbaena New directions : CCT •Consumer culture theory as a ‘family of theoretical perspectives that address the dynamic relationships between consumer actions. 1999.

Consumer’s!!!! http://www.html Ted Talks: Post Crisis Consumer John Gerzema http://www.effie. both intuitively appealing and very familiar to most observers” (Foxall and Goldsmith) •unique characteristics that account for individual differences •consistency of an individuals disposition •elements of behavioural tendency •multidimensionality .stm Personality (reflects) •“the relatively stable organization of a persons motivational dispositions arising from the interaction between biological drives and the social and physical environment” (Eysenck 1975) •“the basic notion that individuals differ from one another in systematic and stable patterns of behaviour and attitude .bbc.Personality (and music)

the ego. the rational decision-maker has to try to keep the peace between these two forces and to take into account the demands of external reality’(Freud) –id (unconscious drives) –ego (conscious rational thinking) –superego (unconscious.Freudian Psychoanalysis •‘Id. approval) –detached (seeking independence. demands release. the harsh unbending moralist. affection. ability to manipulate) •Cohen –CAD traits and consumption •Carl Jung –extroversion-introversion . self-reliance) –aggressive (seeking power. demands total inhibition of these urges. the superego. the psychic powerhouse. a lawless mob of instinctual urges. morals) Neo-Freudian psychoanalysis •Karen Horney (neo-Freudian) –compliant (seeking love.

com 4 DIMENSIONS Extrovert – Introvert iNntuition – Sensing Thinking – Feeling Judgement .Trait Theory •EDWARDS PERSONAL PREERENCE SCHEDULE –achievement –deference –exhibitionism –autonomy –affiliation –intraception –dominance –abasement –change –aggression –heterosexuality THURSTONE TEMPERMENT SCHEDULE active vigorous impulsive dominant stable sociable reflective used in Westfall 1962 Keirsey Temperament Sorter •Carl Jung –extroversion.keirsey.introversion •personality as –character (configuration of habits) –temperament (configuration of inclinations) • Guardian (SJ) • Artisans (SP) • Idealists (NF) • Rationalists (NT) •to carry out your own personality test see http://www.Perception .

com/handler.aspx?s=keirsey&f=fourtemps&tab=1&c=overview Consumer Choice.The 4 Temperaments http://keirsey. Marketing & Personality •‘EQUIVOCAL’ •need to –study patterns of behaviour rather than single decision –focus on consumption rather than general needs –develop personality related topics • physiological differences • self concept .

the tendency of an individual to behave consistently with her view .Self Concept •the individual as perceived by him or herself in a socially determined frame of reference •inner private/outer public •based on –self attribution (one’s behaviour) –reflected appraisal (views of others) –social comparison (to significant others) –psychological centrality (hierarchical) (Rosenberg 1979) Sirgy’s Concept’s of Self •actual self image •ideal self image •social self image •ideal social self image •self concept motives –self esteem .the tendency to seek experiences that enhance self concept –self consistency .

-) •negative self incongruity (.+) Esteem approach approach avoidance avoidance Consistency approach avoidance approach avoidance Self Concept •is of value to the individual and. display and use of goods communicates symbolic meaning to the individual and to others •the consuming behaviour of an individual will be directed towards enhancing self-concept through the consumption of goods as symbols . and behavior will be directed towards the protection and enhancement of self-concept •the purchase.Sirgy’s self image/product image (product:self) •positive self-congruity (++) •positive self incongruity (+ -) •negative self congruity (.

‘I’ (a) our bodies. they virtually surround us. (b) our values and character. and (2) We use things to bring out our inner ‘I’ for display so others may see us for who we are (Eckhardt and Houston. (d) our social roles. Mittal JCR 2006 The extended self Mittal JCR 2006 . Dolfsma. (e) our traits (f) our possessions The things we own define us for two reasons: (1) We spend our life with them. and not as part of things that surround someone else. (c) our success and competence. 2004). 1998. so we begin to see ourselves as part of those things that surround us.

. ).Products as the Extended Self •self image congruence models –greater the brand/self image congruence the more the brand is preferred (visibility. group Product Constellations and the Self •Diderot unity .asp?ref=9780745644035 . communicate and enact social roles" (Assael 1987:191. personalised) –owners ratings of themselves consistent with product ratings –aspirational products •multiple selves –symbolic interactionism –looking glass self •the extended self (Belk) –incorporation of products (Falk) –treasured possessions •levels of extended self –individual. specific brands and /consumption activities used by consumers to define. community. – "clusters of complementary products. http://www. variability in use.collective stereotype of owner and group of products/brands a 'diderot unity’ that define and describe cultural categories (Diderot (1713-1784) the French philosopher being the first documenter of such groupings).polity.McCracken (1988) •Consumption constellations (Solomon and Buchanan 1991).

‘dilema of the self’ –fragmentation. exercise.Body Image and Self •Changing gender roles •body image –ideals of beauty –changing bodies (diet. powerlessness. mutilation) • to separate group members • place individual in social organisation • gender categorization • sex role identification • desired social conduct • high status or rank • sense of security Postmodern Self •Giddens . compromising and synthesizing solutions (Ahuvia) . uncertainty commodification leading to personal meaningless •Existence of multiple selves created via advertising and consumption (idea of ritual as meaning transfer after McCracken) •consumption as a way to access the desired self (Belk) •brands as resources for the symbolic construction of self via mediated meaning derived from marketing communication negotiated through lived experiences of purchase and usage •Postmodernism and the empty self –Person – object – person –Degrees of selfness –Identity conflict and demarcating. • •http://www.llbean.aspx?s=keirsey&f=fourtemps&tab=1&c=overview EXERCISE: take the test •http://www.stm http://www.warc.keirsey.html#VALUES • •http://joc. register and take the personality •http://www. You can view the mini statement to get your personality • Log onto the http://keirsey. .html • http://news.asp?CType=A&AID=89910&Tab=A •http://www.effie.Weblinks •http://wps.keirsey.