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Department and their functions
Orgnisation:
³An orgnisation is a voluntary association under which members contribute their money for the sake of earning profit´
Orgnisation can achieve results which individual cannot achieve by themselves, like overcome people¶s individual limitation, save time, accumulates knowledge. In easy words we can say that orgnisation enable people to be more productive.

Private & Public Orgnisation:
Private Orgnisation:
³Private Orgnisation is owned by a single person as a family business and not owned by government agencies´ E.g. private banks like askari bank, faisal bank, mobile companies etc.

Public Orgnisation:
³Public orgnisation is owned by the government or local government or government agencies´ E.g. Sitara textile mills, chenOne etc

y Department in Nokia mobile company
There are 8 types of department exited in Nokia mobile company that is under as; 

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

Research and development consist of employees who are involved in some type of specialized research activity and development of a product used by orgnisation
Research means to obtain new scientific or technical knowledge. Research and development department nowadays is great important in business activities, because of competition, production processes and method are used. Research and development department in Nokia creates new technology in his sets, and adopt new software in µN¶ series, because of market demand and compete the others mobile¶s companies. 

operate

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

To purchase the material the orgnisation needs to
Purchasing manager, buyers, agents buy a farm product, goods, and services for companies. They done a best deal for the company the highest goods at lower rate. Purchasing department includes material resources and services that are used by the orgnisation. UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY

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The purchasing department in Nokia is to purchase material, new technologies and modern application from Japan, China and other development countries. This job is done by the manager, agents to keep in mind that the companies growth. 

PRODUCTION DEPARMENT
Introduction:

A department that is directly involved in manufacturing product. Example is the machining, finishing and assembling department
Production manager plan, direct and coordinate the production activities required to produce a vast goods. In Nokia this department controls the production quality and service delivery. This department wants to produce better and flexible sets so it is use modern technology and also see the demand of the people. 

SERVISES DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

Service is intangible and enhances the relationship between customers and orgnisation
Services business like health care, restaurant, education etc« The services department of Nokia provided the facilities, services to attract more customers in shape of giving lower packages rate and easy load facilities. 

MARKETING DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

A department which typically include tasks such as market operation research, advertising, product design, pricing and sales
The market department should have a better understanding of the market and customer needs. The marketing department must act as a guide to other company¶s department. The marketing department in Nokia mobile company is checks out the market operation, see that which quality of sets needs by the customer, advertising our sets and information about sales provided to the production department. 

FINANCE DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

Finance department keep the record of finance which are issued to other department
In many companies, the finance department function is one of the most important expert roles in the orgnisation. The finance department in Nokia mobile company is to provide finance to other department for there use and fulfill there needs. The Nokia financial manager examines the data prepared by accountants and make recommendations to top management.

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y Department in Pakistan Railway
There are 8 types of department exited in Pakistan Railways (public company) that is under as; 

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

Research means to obtain new scientific or technical knowledge, and development is use of existing scientific and technical knowledge to produce new product or system
Now these days Pakistan railway research and development department activities is researched on high speed trains both steel wheel and steel rail system. one main development aim of Pakistan railways is to provide reliability and durability. 

quality

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT
Introduction:

Purchase provide major contribution to cost and
Purchasing is a major department in any orgnisation weather it is public orgnisation or private orgnisation. Purchasing department includes material resources and business services for use by the orgnisation. Pakistan railways purchasing department purchase train boogies and better quality engine from development countries like china. Not only passenger trains but also purchase a numbers of cargo and oil boogies. The purchasing department can delegate to departments the authority to buy certain boogies, engines, and cargo and oils boogies. 

PRODUCTION DEPATMENT
Introduction:

Production means to convert raw material into finished goods
The main role of production is to turn inputs (raw materials) into outputs (finished goods). Outputs refer to a finished product or service and inputs are the materials that are needed to manufacture certain goods. When a business completes this process they are able to achieve customer satisfaction by producing products that are ready to be used and fit for purpose. Production department of railway produce better tracks and maximum speed in passengers train for the purpose of saving time of busy people. Pakistan railways also produce there own train boogies because of increasing demand of people about traveling. 

MARKETING DEPARTMENT Introduction:

The marketing department studies the market and the target customers, decides the best way to reach these customers, and
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works with the rest of the company to help determine the new product needs of the market
The role of marketing department in the creation of quality, marketing is for advertising, sales to retailers. The railway marketing unit plays a key role, along with top management, in developing the other department of the railway. The railway marketing department dealing with customers, suppliers, distributor and other important groups. 

FINANCE DEPARTMENT Introduction:

Finance department handling the cash, invoices and other financial documents and recording the affairs of business in the books of accounts
The railway finance department is provide the cash for improve our services for customers. Record the other activities done in other railway department. 

SERVICE DEPARTMENT Introduction:

Any benefit that one party offer to another and does not result in the ownership of anything
Pakistan railway provides the services for labours, management and Pakistani students in shape of lower ticket cost. And some time the railway department of services provides that facility free from cost. 

STRUCTURE EXAMPLE

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