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Introduction to Piezoelectric Sensors

Dave Change

General Topics
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Why do we use piezoelectric sensors? Common uses for piezoelectric sensors Factory supplied documentation Dynamic measurement vs. static measurement Introduction to piezoelectricity and piezoelectric transducers Typical IEPE designs IEPE transducer characteristics Charge mode transducer characteristics Transducer selection criteria Mounting considerations Impulse hammers General handling TEDS S MEMS
Dytran Instruments, Inc. 2

Why do we use piezo sensors?
• Small size • Light weight • 2-wire operation (IEPE) • Wide dynamic range • Wide temperature range • Broad frequency q y range • Ultra low noise • Si Simple signal l i l conditioning • Cost effective test implementation

Dytran Instruments, Inc.

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Inc. 4 .Common Uses for Piezoelectric Sensors Sensors • Modal Analysis y • Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) • H l h and Usage Health d U Monitoring Systems ( (HUMS) ) • Predictive / preventative maintenance • Pyrotechnic events • Aircraft ground vibration test • Aircraft flight test Dytran Instruments.

What factory supplied documentation comes with your accelerometer? • • • • Operating guide Outline installation drawing Specification sheet Calibration certificate Dytran Instruments. 5 . Inc.

Inc.Outline installation drawing Dytran Instruments. 6 .

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9 .Other Piezoelectric Devices • Today’s discussion will focus primarily on piezoelectric type accelerometers but we use the same principles to measure dynamic force and pressure Dytran Instruments. Inc.

e. force. Inc. acceleration.Dynamic vs. pressure) is rapidly changing over time Examples of dynamic events Static Measurement • The physical quantity being measured does not change as a function of time (or changes very slowly) Examples of static measurements ‒ Force measurement in a bathroom scale ‒ Constant acceleration due to gravity • • ‒ Vib ti Vibration of rotating machinery f t ti hi ‒ Pressure in a reciprocating engine ‒ Force input to a structure via a p shake table Dytran Instruments. Static Measurement y Dynamic Measurement • The physical quantity (i. 10 .

This may take the form of a separation of electric charge across the crystal lattice If the material is not short lattice. The word is derived from the Greek word piezien.Definition of Piezoelectricity Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electrical potential in response to applied mechanical stress. shortcircuited. i i hi h to Dytran Instruments. which means t squeeze or press. 11 . the applied charge induces a voltage across the material. Inc.

GAPO4 and many others Dytran Instruments. tourmaline. 12 . Inc. ceramic (PZT).What is a Piezoelectric Transducer? • A transducer converts one form of energy into another ‒ In the case of a piezoelectric transducer the transduction is from mechanical energy to electrical energy • The prefix “piezo” is a Greek word meaning “to squeeze” p p g q • Materials that produce an electric charge when a force is applied to them exhibit what is known as the piezoelectric effect i l i ff • Many piezoelectric materials are known to exist ‒ Quartz.

I t t Isotron) ) ‒ Charge mode ‒ Each of these designs have their advantages and disadvantages Dytran Instruments.Piezoelectric Transducer • The active element in all piezoelectric devices is a piece of piezoelectric material. There are many material different sensor designs based on various crystal cuts and materials. • The common types (modes) of piezoelectric sensors in use today are: ‒ V lt Voltage mode (IEPE LIVM ICP. ICP Piezotron. Inc. LIVM. Pi d (IEPE. 13 .

Inc.Piezoelectric Sensing Element Designs g g Compression Dytran Instruments. Shear 14 .

Voltage Mode Transducer • • • • • Can utilize either quartz or ceramic Have built i or i t H b ilt in integral electronics l l t i Low cost signal conditioning Stable over broad temperature range Limited upper temperature range due to built in electronics • M Many modern analyzers and d t acquisition d l d data i iti systems have IEPE power built in • Most voltage mode (IEPE) sensors available with TEDS option • Ease of use Dytran Instruments. 15 . Inc.

Input / Output Characteristics of Voltage Mode (IEPE) Sensor • Input : 18 – 24 Volts DC. 16 . Inc. 2-20mA constant current 2 20mA ‒ Inputs other than the specified value can be harmful to the sensor • Output : voltage proportional to acceleration or vibration Note: The IEPE or voltage mode sensor is strictly a two wire device (sig / power and ground) Dytran Instruments.

Inc.Voltage Mode Setup Dytran Instruments. 17 .

Alternate Voltage Mode Setup Dytran Instruments. 18 . Inc.

19 . Inc.Typical IEPE System Design Dytran Instruments.

Inc. 20 .Bias Voltage Levels in Typical IEPE Systems Dytran Instruments.

Inc.IEPE Sensor Frequency Response • Low frequency response is controlled by the sensor Discharge Time Constant (DTC) ‒ Factory set and cannot be changed ‒ Can be changed at time of manufacture • Hi h frequency response is generally a function of High f i ll f i f sensor resonance (natural) frequency • Filt i Filtering i th sensor or signal conditioning can also in the i l diti i l effect the sensor frequency response • Hi h sensitivity sensors generally h High iti it ll have low l resonance frequency • L Low sensitivity sensors generally h iti it ll have hi h high resonance frequency Dytran Instruments. 21 .

Inc.Frequency Response of Piezoelectric Accelerometers Dytran Instruments. 22 .

K.Panel Meter Examples Trouble Shooting Aide 10 0 NORMAL SHORT BATT. 23 . 20 OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SENSOR BIAS DC VOLTS SENSOR BIAS DC VOLTS SENSOR BIAS DC VOLTS Shorted Normal Open Dytran Instruments. O. 10 20 0 NORMAL BATT.K. O. 10 20 0 NORMAL BATT.K. Inc. O.

16/DTC 16/DTC -5% = -3dB Point x 3 Dytran Instruments. Inc. 24 .Discharge Time Constant (DTC) • Discharge Time Constant – the time required for the output voltage from a sensor to discharge to 37% of its original value in response to a zero rise time step function input ‒ D Determines sensor l i low f frequency response • Low frequency response is approximately equal to: -3dB P i t = 3dB Point .

) t ) Dytran Instruments. 25 . Inc.Charge Mode Transducers • • • • • • Usually ceramic based No b ilt i l t N built-in electronics i Good for high temperature (+500°F) Expensive signal conditioning Low noise cable required for most applications Charge amps are generally more difficult to use (i. etc.e. setting scale f t tti l factors.

Inc. • Magnetic mount to epoxied target ‒ Preferable method for magnetic mounting Dytran Instruments. stud mount sensor ‒ Good frequency response • Magnetic mount ‒ Convenient limited frequency response Convenient.Mounting Options • Stud mounting ‒ Optimum frequency response • Epoxy adapter. 26 .

Frequency Response Effects Dytran Instruments. Inc. 27 .

glue)? • What cable length will be required? • Wh t cable j k t material will b adequate? What bl jacket t i l ill be d t ? Dytran Instruments. footprint)? • What max mass can be used (beware of mass loading)? • What is the vibration level? • What are the frequencies of interest (max and min)? • What is the temperature range required? • Are corrosive chemicals present (industrial)? • Is physical clearance a problem? • Is the environment wet or dry? • How will the sensor be mounted (stud. Inc.e.Transducer Selection Criteria • How much space is available for mounting the sensor (i. wax. 28 .

based data acquisition make sure board is configured properly for your specific measurement Dytran Instruments.Dynamic Range • Select proper full scale amplitude from transducer specifications • Full scale ranges normally listed for ±5 Volts out • Over range capability usually set by current source open circuit output voltage (not always true) • If P. 29 . Inc.C.

Inc. 3Lb. 30 .Impulse Hammers • Provide a known force input (mV/Lb) to a structure • M Many diff different physical sizes are available t h i l i il bl • For industrial use the 1Lb. or 12Lb sledge hammers are most popular • Four different tip materials are provided for pulse tailoring • Transfer function measurements consist of a minimum of two channels Dytran Instruments.

Inc.Typical Multi-Channel Modal Setup Multi- Dytran Instruments. 31 .

General care and handling of your piezoelectric d i i l t i device • Do not ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ Drop your sensor on a concrete floor Connect a bench power supply to your sensor Remove you sensor with a hammer y Use un-calibrated accelerometers Rub your feet across the floor and touch the connector (static electricity) Dytran Instruments. Inc. 32 .

store your sensor in the box it came in Connect a constant current supply Remove your sensor with a solvent and p p tool y proper Re-calibrate your sensor on a yearly basis Discharge yourself before handling the sensor Dytran Instruments. Inc.General care continued • Do ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ If possible. 33 .

Transducer Electronic Data Sheet .TEDSTEDS.

MEMS Accelerometers Variable Capacitance MEMS accelerometers p .