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Ma. Alexis Kleanthe D. Suñer Alyka Joy D.

Bernaldo

Date Performed: January 24, 2012 Date Submitted: February 7, 2012

Experiment 5 COMPLEX-FORMATION TITRATION Determination of the Total Hardness of Commercial Mineral Water I. Theoretical Framework

Water is a very important factor that helps every human being in order to survive life. It is also a good solvent and easily picks up impurities. It is a part of nature and can be seen anywhere. But in its movement on and through the earth's crust, water reacts with minerals in the soil and rocks. The principal dissolved constituents of surface and groundwater are sulfates, chlorides, and bicarbonates of sodium and potassium and the oxides of calcium and magnesium. Surface waters may also contain domestic sewage and industrial wastes. Groundwaters from shallow wells may contain large quantities of nitrogen compounds and chlorides derived from human and animal wastes. Waters from deep wells generally contain only minerals in solution. Suspended and dissolved impurities present in naturally occurring water make it unsuitable for many purposes. Hardness of natural waters is caused largely by calcium and magnesium salts and to a small extent by iron, aluminum, and other metals. The measurement of water hardness is important in water quality monitoring and is usually performed by means of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complexation titration. In this experiment, the total hardness of a commercial mineral water would be determined. EDTA would be used as the chelating reagent. A blue dye called Eriochrome Black T (ErioT) is used as the indicator. This blue dye also forms a complex with the calcium and magnesium ions, changing colour from blue to pink in the process. The dye metal ion complex is less stable than the EDTA metal ion complex. For the titration, the sample solution containing the calcium and magnesium ions is reacted with an excess of EDTA. The indicator is added and remains blue as all the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present are complexed with the EDTA. II. Data and Results

Standardization of EDTA Solution Primary Standard used: CaCO3 Formula mass of 1O standard: 100.087 g/mol % Purity of 1O standard: 99.0% Trials Mass of CaCO3 (g) 0.2032 1 0.2032 2 0.2032 3

Final Reading EDTA (ml)

39.20

44.20

43.90

20 0 44.81 58.05 58.026 0.70 6.9165 0.80 6.20 0 43.Initial Reading EDTA (ml) Net Volume of EDTA (ml) 0 39.70 17.10 35.90 Sample Analysis Brand of mineral water used: Summit Ca content as CaCO3: 15 mg/L Mg Content as CaCO3: 5 mg/L Trials Vol.0091 0. of water sample (ml) 100 I 100 II 100 III Volume of EDTA (mL) Final volume Initial volume Net Volume (ml) (ml) (ml) 23.29 Molarity (M) Titer (mg/mL) 1.95 III. M= M= M=    M M M . III.9103 0.0651 Total Hardness (mg/L) 61.010 0.20 6.9509 0.00 57.50 29.00 Reported Values Trials 1 2 3 Average 0. II.80 29. Calculations Molarity I.0095 6.80 23.0091 0.

EDTA was used because of its strong complexing ability for most metal ions. the indicator (free and uncomplexed to Mg+2 ) will be blue. which should exactly be the case since bottled waters are purified and have undergone several purifying methods to remove impurities such as the metal ions.00mg/L 57. .0% pure.01. On the analysis of mineral water.20mL of EDTA solution to reach the end point. The average total hardness obtained was 58. II. 0. the greater the amount of dissolved minerals in the water. This color change marks the endpoint.0091 and 0. When the EDTA has chelated all the Mg+2 present in solution. The values were very near the expected value which is 0. III. Three trials were conducted. EDTA is used in the food industry as a sequestering agent. Total hardness    mg/mL mg/mL mg/mL I. respectively. There were no outliers so the Q-test was not used. thus the indicator was readily free and uncomplexed to Mg+2 and it easily turned blue.90.0095. III. It is useful for the titration of cations that form more stable complexes than the magnesium complex.95mg/L .20 and 43. the second and third trials required 44. The first trial required 39. very small amount of magnesium were present in them. Since It is purified.Titer I. This means that the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions present in the purified mineral water is low. On the other hand. Magnesium ions in the complex are displaced by a chemically equivalent quantity of analyte cations. II. the primary standard used was CaCO3 which is 99.    61. the harder it is. Small amount of EDTA was needed to chelate all the Mg+2 present in the solutions.05mg/L Discussion and Interpretation of Results In the standardization of EDTA Solution.0103. three trials were also performed. respectively.81mg/L 58. A sequestering agent is a compound that isolates a metal ion away from possible disturbances like other compounds or elements present. The molarities were obtained were 0. Each sample was titrated with the standardized EDTA solution. This value falls under the category soft which ranges from 75-150mg/L. IV. The remaining uncomplexed analyte and the liberated magnesium ions are then titrated with Eriochrome Black T as the indicator.

There are still some arguments on which is better. West . boilers. and household items such as tea pots. Selenium. Finally.wikipedia.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/titratn. 2010. Thus. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Hard water can cause problems. calcium carbonate can precipitate out onto the walls of pipes. The experimental results are not the same as the concentration of the metal ions claimed by the manufacturer which only reported 15mg/L for calcium and 5mg/L for magnesium. 8th edition. Conclusions and Recommendations The experimenters were able to determine the concentrations of Ca2+(aq) and Mg2+(aq) ions in a commercial sample of bottled mineral water. hard or soft water. This can shorten the life-time of some of these items.pdf . meaning that there is a small amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions in the sample.science. Holler and Crouch.pdf Gannon Unversity SIM Determination of Water Hardness by EDTA Titration.html Encarta Encyclopedia pH-water-hardness. VI.uwaterloo. Singapore http://en.V. it is recommended that great precision should be practiced in conducting the methods used in the experiment especially in the preparation of the solutions and the titration to lessen the errors committed throughout the experiment. for example.95 . The average concentration is 58. The formation of solid calcium carbonate is an endothermic process. may help prevent cancer. there is some evidence that hard water has beneficial health effects. Soft water drinking supplies have been associated with an increased heart attack risk. However. still the values make the sample soft. This value falls into the category soft . References Skoog .org/wiki/waterhardness http://www. when water containing both carbonate and calcium ions are heated.