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Introduction to Database Management System

Objectives
Define terms Name limitations of conventional file processing Explain advantages of databases Identify costs and risks of databases List components of database environment Identify categories of database applications Describe database system development life cycle Explain prototyping and agile development approaches Explain roles of individuals Explain the three-schema architecture for databases p three-

Definitions
Database: D b Organized collection of logically related data Data: Stored representations of meaningful objects and events
Structured: Numbers, text, dates Unstructured: Images, video, documents

Information: Data processed to increase knowledge in the person using the data Metadata: Data that describes the properties and context of user data

Data in context

Context helps users understand data

Summarized data Graphical displays turn data into useful information that managers can use for decision making and interpretation .

Descriptions of the properties or characteristics of the data. and data context . field sizes. including data types. allowable values.

Disadvantages of File Processing ProgramProgram-Data Dependence All programs maintain metadata for each file they use Duplication of Data l f Different systems/programs have separate copies of the same data Limited Data Sharing No centralized control of data Lengthy Development Times Programmers must design their own file formats Excessive Program Maintenance g 80% of information systems budget .

inserting. and deleting data Lack of coordination and central control NonNon-standard file formats .Problems with Data D P bl ith D t Dependency d Each application programmer must maintain his/her own data Each application program needs to include code for the metadata of each file Each application program must have its own processing routines for reading. updating.

Duplicate Data .

Problems with Data Redundancy Waste of space to have duplicate data Causes more maintenance h d h C i t headaches The biggest problem: gg p Data changes in one file could cause inconsistencies Compromises in data integrity .

form Requires a Database Management System (DBMS) . convenient .SOLUTION: The Th DATABASE Approach A h Central repository of shared data Data is managed by a controlling agent t Stored in a standardized.

inventory.Database Management System A software system that is used to create. order. maintain. and customer data Payroll System DBMS manages d t resources lik an operating system manages h d data like ti t hardware resources . pricing. and provide controlled access to user databases Order Filing System Invoicing System DBMS Central database Contains employee employee.

Advantages of the Database Ad t f th D t b Approach pp ProgramProgram-data independence Planned data redundancy Improved data consistency Improved data sharing Increased application development productivity Enforcement of standards Improved data quality Improved data accessibility and responsiveness Reduced program maintenance Improved decision support .

specialized personnel Installation and management cost and complexity Conversion costs Need for explicit backup and recovery The change management .Costs and Risks of the Database Approach New.

place. event. or concept Composed of attributes Relationships Between entities Usually one-to-many (1:M) or many-to-many (M:N) one-tomany-to- Relational Databases Database technology involving tables (relations) representing entities and primary/foreign keys representing relationships . matching data structure in database or data warehouse Entities Noun form describing a person. object.Elements of the Database Approach Data models Graphical system capturing nature and relationship of data Enterprise Data Model – high level entities and relationships for the organization Project Data Model – more detailed view.

Comparison of enterprise and project level data models Segment of an enterprise data model Segment of a project-level data model project level .

One customer may place many orders. but each order is placed by a single customer One-to-many relationship p .

One order has many order li d lines. each order line is associated with a single order One-to-many relationship .

each order line refers to a single product One-to-many O t relationship .One product can be in many order lines.

Therefore. Therefore one order involves many products and one product is involved in many orders Many-to-many relationship .

Components of the Database Environment C f .

Components of th C t f the Database Environment CASE Tools–computer-aided software engineering computerRepository–centralized storehouse of metadata Database Management System (DBMS) –software for managing the database Database–storehouse of the data Application Programs–software using the data User Interface–text and graphical displays to users Data/Database Administrators–personnel responsible D t /D t b Ad i i t t l ibl for maintaining the database System Developers–personnel responsible for designing databases and software d i i d t b d ft End Users–people who use the applications and databases .

The Range of Database Applications Personal databases TwoTwo-tier Client/Server databases Multitier Client/Server databases Enterprise applications Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems Data warehousing implementations .

Two-tier database with local area network .

Three-tiered client/server database architecture .

Enterprise Database Applications Enterprise Resource Planning ( p g (ERP) ) Integrate all enterprise functions (manufacturing. human resources) Data Warehouse Integrated decision support system derived from various operational databases . sales. finance. inventory. accounting. marketing.

Evolution of database technologies .

but comprehensive Long development cycle Prototyping Rapid application development ( p pp p (RAD) ) Cursory attempt at conceptual data modeling Define database during development of initial prototype Repeat implementation and maintenance activities with new prototype versions . well-planned development process wellTimeTime-consuming.Two Approaches to D b T A h Database and d IS Development p SDLC System Development Life Cycle Detailed.

Systems Development Life Cycle Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance .

Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.) Planning Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Purpose–preliminary understanding p p y g Deliverable–request for study Database activity– y enterprise modeling and early conceptual data modeling Implementation Maintenance .

) Planning Purpose–thorough requirements analysis and structuring i Deliverable–functional system specifications Analysis Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Database activity–thorough y g and integrated conceptual data modeling Implementation Maintenance .Systems Development Life Cycle (cont.

forms. data integrity and security) Implementation Maintenance .Systems Development Life Cycle (cont. views. displays.) Planning Analysis Logical Design Logical Design Physical Design Purpose–information requirements elicitation and structure Deliverable–detailed design specifications Database activity– y logical database design (transactions.

) Purpose–develop technology and Planning Analysis Logical Design organizational specifications g p Deliverable–program/data structures. organization redesigns PhysicalDesign Physical Design y Database activity– physical database design (define database to DBMS.Systems Development Life Cycle (cont. database processing programs) Implementation Maintenance . physical data organization. technology purchases.

training materials Database activity– database i l d t b implementation. training installation documenting Deliverable–operational programs. training. testing.Systems Development Life Cycle (cont. installation and conversion Implementation Implementation Maintenance .) Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Purpose–programming. t ti including coded programs. documentation. installation. documentation.

enhance Deliverable–periodic audits Logical Design Physical Design Database activity– database maintenance. d t b i t performance analysis and tuning.) Planning Analysis Purpose–monitor. repair.Systems Development Life Cycle (cont. error corrections Implementation Maintenance Maintenance .

Prototyping Database Methodology .

Prototyping Database Methodology (cont.) (cont ) .

Prototyping Database Methodology (cont.) (cont ) .

) .Prototyping Database Methodology (co ) (cont.

Prototyping Database Methodology (cont.) (cont ) .

Managing Projects Project–a planned undertaking of related Project– p j g activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end Involves use of review points for: Validation of satisfactory progress Step back from detail to overall view Renew commitment of stakeholders Incremental commitment–review of systems commitment– development project after each d l t j t ft h development phase with rejustification after each phase p .

Managing P j t P M i Projects: People l Involved Business analysts Systems analysts Database analysts and data modelers Users Programmers Database architects Data administrators Project managers Other technical experts .

Relational Data Model – Terminology Relation Tuple Attribute Keys .

Database Schema External Schema User Views Subsets of Conceptual Schema Can be determined from business-function/data businessentity matrices DBA determines schema for different users Conceptual Schema Internal Schema .

Three-schema architecture Different people have different views of the database…these are the external schema The internal h i l schema is the underlying design and implementation .

Enterprise Data Model First step in database development Specifies scope and g p p general content Overall picture of organizational data at high level of abstraction EntityEntity-relationship diagram Descriptions of entity types p y yp Relationships between entities Business rules .