What is Single Malt ? Single malt is so-called because the malt comes from a single distillery.

It is a whisky refined by a single distillery, using malted barley as the only grain i ngredient. Each distillery has its own distinct taste, flavour and style and sin gle malts bear that. Some world-renowned single malts are Glenfiddich, Glenmoran gie, Glenlivet, Glenkinchie and if you move into the rare varieties, Port Ellen. Enjoying a single malt is a connoissseur' s job and you have to learn to be one . A single grain, as distinct from a single malt, is a grain whisky made at one distillery, while the single malt is made with barley. What is Blended Whisky? Blended whisky is a mixture of single malt whiskys and ethanol derived from grai ns. Developed for those who could not stommach the strong taste of whisky, it is a combination of malt and grain whiskys. First distilled and bottled by Andrew Usher in Edinburgh in the early 1860s, it turned out to be softer, lighter and m ore palatable. The character of the whisky is determined not only by the proport ions of malt and grain whisky, but also by the ages of the individual whiskies a nd the manner in which they are combined to bring out the finest qualities in ea ch other. Most whisky drunk across the world is blended whisky. Famous Grouse, B ells, Teacher's, Whyte & Mackay and Johnnie Walker are a few that are well-known . What is the difference between Whisky and Whiskey? Alcohol, malted or not, made from grain which is produced in Scotland is called WHISKY, while it is called WHISKEY if it is produced in USA or Ireland.. America n whiskey is called Bourbon and is made from grain. Bourbon is at least 51 per c ent corn or maize. Scotch whisky is generally double distilled, while Irish whis key is generally distilled three times. Wheat whisky is the rarest whisky. Rye w hiskies are mostly popular within the US. Scotch whisky is whisky that has been distilled and matured in Scotland for at least three hours in oak casks. What is Alcohol? Alcohol is obtained after breaking down natural sugar of grain into C02, ethanol or ethyl alcohol and residual content. Yeast from grains and vegetables changes the sugar into alcohol. From the cheapest beer to the most expensive wine or af ter dinner liqueur, all alcohol is made with the same fermentation process. The different colours, tastes, potencies and flavours come from the different fruits or vegetables used as well as the additives, by-products and diluting substance s employed during the fermentation process. Why should you never drink on an empty stomach? Experts say eating food before drinking retains alcohol in the ~ where it is abs orbed slowly into the blood stream. This gives the liver more time to break the alcohol down. Otherwise, it is directly absorbed without being broken down into simpler compounds into the blood stream. This can be harmful for the liver and g eneral health. The kick comes when the alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream directly and slows down the central nervous system.. The absorbed alcohol blocks some of the commands the brain sends to the body; hence the reflexes and reacti ons are slower. Does drinking water before or between drinks help you hold your drink better? Dehydration causes your blood volume to go down and alcohol will cause it to go down further. So make it a habit to drink enough water before you go out for a h ard drink. Experts say in case of alcohol consumption, the bigger you are the be tter it is. Big people have a larger quantity of blood, so alcohol they take in is more diluted as it mixes with the blood. Women are generally smaller than men . They also have proportionately more fat and less water in their bodies and so the entration of alcohol in their blood is higher for the same amount drunk.

pro ducing a Cognac that through the years will not only retain its own personality. The well-known brands of Scotch Whisky are blen ds of a number of Pot Still and Patent Still whiskies. In Canad a. What is the difference between Scotch. was about two hundred years later as re ported in the Vyatka Chronicle of 1174. the spirit becomes mellow and ages harmoniously. Rye and Bourbon Whiskies? Scotch Whisky is whisky. he subtly blends eaux-de-vie of different ages and crus. Rye Whiskey is produced both in the United States and Canada but the name has no geographical significance. The first d ocumented production of vodka in Russia was at the end of the 9th century. which has been distilled and matured in Scotland. Irish. What is the Origin of VODKA? Vodka is a drink. they we re transformed into eau-de-vie. In the 16th century. Irish Whiskey distillers tend to favour three distillations rather than two. but t he first known distillery at. The relevant Canadian Regulation states: 'Ca nadian Whisky (Canadian Rye Whisky. which was to become the capital of a world famous trade. with its influence on evaporation. the name stemming from the Russian word 'voda' meaning water or as the Poles would say 'woda'.Water or Soda? Whisky is preferred with water more than soda as soda is carbonated water and it kills the taste of whisky. then matured in oak casks to become Cognac. In the United States. What is Cognac? The wines of Poitou.' Canadian Whisky is in fact often referred to simply as Rye Whisky or Rye.What goes better with Whisky . (ii) that the word 'Bourbon' shall not be used to describe any whiskey or whiske y-based distilled spirits not produced in the United States. Whisky is distilled in Scotland from malted barley in Pot Stills and from malted and unmalted barley or other cereals in Patent Stills. Cognac is a living thing. the United States Regulations provide: (i) that Bourbon Whiskey must be produced from a mash of not less than 51% corn grain. Poland lays claim to having distilled vo dka even earlier in the 8th century. but will also keep a place in the heart of the consumer. Irish Whiskey means whiskey distilled and matured in Ireland. La Rochelle and Angoumois. which originated in Eastern Europe. as is general in Scotland in the case of Pot Still whiskies and the range of cereals used is wider. produced from high quality viney ards. As regards Bourbon Whiskey. This allows it to extract the substances from the wood that give both its colour and its final bouquet. but as this was a distillation of wine it m ight be more appropriate to consider it a crude brandy. The natural humidity of t he cellars.. With the balance betwee n humidity and dryness. Rye Whiskey by definition must be produced from a grain mash of which not less than 51% is rye grain. Tha t was the start of the adventure for a town. experi ence and intuition. Ageing is indispensable if an eau-de-vie is to become Cognac. But real connnoisseurs of whisky like to have it nea t or with water on side or with two cubes of ice. Du tch and Scandinavians as early as the 13th century. It takes place in casks or barrels that hold between 270 and 450 litres. were shipped to Northern Europe where they were enjoyed by the English. Rye Whisky) shall be whisky distilled in Can ada and shall possess the aroma. During its time in the oak casks it is in permanent co ntact with the air. Khylnovsk. taste and character generally attributed to Can adian Whisky. there is no similar restriction. is one of the determining factors in the maturing process. Making Cognac is the work of the Master Blender. The first identifiable P . Applying strict control. in which the casks are stored.

that the name vodka was officially and formally recognized. mass-produced 'vodkas' imported and home -produced. dilute it with milk and distil it again. Since early production methods were cr ude. as was precipitiation using it in glass ('karluk') from the air bladders of stu rgeons. seasoning.. mastic. Poland and Prussia. Medicine and Gunpowder During the Middle Ages. . mint.050 between the years 1860 and 1890 having failed. This was both for fiscal reasons and to control the epidemic of drunkenne ss which the availability of the cheap. It did not seek to compete commercially with the major p roducers in Lithuania. The mid . In the 14th cent ury a British Ambassador to Moscow first described vodka as the Russian national drink and in the mid-16th century it was established as the national drink in P oland and Finland. Felt and river sand had already been used for some time in Russia for filtratio n. acorn. From acorns to melon In 1716. a numbe r of Russian vodka-makers emigrated. anisette. Distillation became the first step in producing vodka. peppermint. horserad ish. raspbe rry. Types produced included: absinthe. oak. It is only at the end of the 19th century. As a result. sorrel. the Bolsheviks confiscated all private distilleries in Moscow. After the Russian Revolution. In the following 50 or so years there was a proliferation of types of aromatised vodka. 'good wine' (im proved) and 'boyar wine' (high quality). who wer e granted further special rights in 1751. calendula. mountain ash. It was not a cheap product and it still had not attained really large-scale production. We learn from the Novgorod Chronicles of 1533 that in Russia also. Polish 'woda' exports start ed a century later. with the product being improved by precipitation using isinglass. vodka often contained impurities. so to mask these the distillers flavoured their spirits with fruit. with all state distilleries adopting a standard production technique and hence a guarantee of quality. lower grade products were produced based largely on distilled potato mash. adding water to brin g it to the required strength and then flavouring it. In these ancient times Russia produced several kinds of 'vodka' or 'hot wine' as it was then called. E arlier attempts to control production by reducing the number of distilleries fro m 5. pepper.15th century saw the first appearance of pot distillation in Russia. but no attempt was made to sta ndardise the basic product. taking their skills and recipes with them. calamus root. vodka was used frequently as a medicine (zhiznennia voda meaning 'water of life').olish vodkas appeared in the 11th century when they were called 'gorzalka'. ageing and freezing were all used to remove impurities.000 to 2. birch. dill. orig inally used as medicines. milk or egg white. had brought about. In the 18th century a professor in St . juniper. lemon. as well as being an ingredient in the production of gunpowder. from major production centres in Posnan and Krakow. chicory. herbs or spices. ginger hazelnut. distilled liquor was used mainly for medicinal purposes. Around this time (1450) vodka started to be produced in large quantities and the first recor ded exports of Russian vodka were to Sweden in 1505. P rior to that. cherry. Petersburg discovered a method of purifying alcohol using charcoal filtration. dis tilled two ('double wine') or more times. wort and water melon! A typical production process was to dis til alcohol twice. In addition stronger types existed. Vodka marches across Europe The spread of awareness of vodka continued throughout the 19th century. Increasing popularity led to escalating demand and to meet this dema nd. prior to a fourth and fina l distillation. owning distilleries became the exclusive right of the nobility. helped b y the presence in many parts of Europe of Russian soldiers involved in the Napol eonic Wars. a law was enacte d in 1894 to make the production and distribution of vodka in Russia a state mon opoly. sage. There was 'plain wine' (standard).

Gin had been known as 'Mother's Milk' from the 1820s but later in the century it became known as 'Mother's Ruin'. To make it more palatable.Smirnoff. which exists today. only two distillers took out licenses. a description perhaps originating from the ear lier 'Blue Ruin' of the prohibition era in the previous century. When King William III . Sir Robert Walpole and Dr. which was over 20 times the 1690 figure an d has been estimated to be the equivalent of 14 gallons for each adult male. although claims have been made that it was produced prior to this in It aly. Thence. Anyone could now distil by simply posting a notice in pu blic and just waiting ten days. which it has since remained. often becoming pat rons for major enterprises. A license to retail gin cost £50 and duty was raised fivefold to £1 per gallon with the smallest quantity you could buy retail being two gallons. he made a series of statutes actively encouraging the distillati on of English spirits. This was subsequently sold to a US drinks company. About this time.. Respectability. having met a Russian émigré from the USA. was introduced: reasonably high price s. 11 million gal lons of gin were distilled in London. High quality and Patronage The Gin Act. Many companies established themselves as well-to-do manufacturers. These changes led to more respectable firms embarking on the business of distilling and retailing gin and it became the drink of high quality. the Dutch s tarted to flavor it with juniper. From Dutch courage to William of Orange British troops fighting in the Low Countries during the Thirty Years' War were g iven 'Dutch Courage' during the long campaigns in the damp weather through the w arming properties of gin. which distillers helped to draft. What is the origin of GIN? The first confirmed date for the production of gin is the early 17th century in Holland. but it now began on a greater scale. They were right. was repealed in 1742 and a new policy. finally recognized as unenforceable.better known as William of Orange . they set up the first vodka distillery there in 1934.One such exile revived his brand in Paris. using the French version of his famil y name . where already it was often sold in chemists' shops. The Prime Minister. reasonable excise duties and licensed retailers under the supervision of magi strates. though the quality was often very dubious. the new drink became a firm favour ite with the poor.came to the English throne in 1689. Sometimes gin was distributed to workers as part of their wages and soon the volume sold daily exceeded that of beer and ale. over the same period of time. In essence this is the situation. In Holland it was produced as a medicine and sold in chemist shops to treat stomach complaints. The formation by King Charles I of the Worshipful Company of Distillers. gout and gallstones. one such was the sponsorship of the attempt to disco ver the North West Passage 1829-33: the attempt failed. The Gin Riots The problem was tackled by introducing The Gin Act at midnight on 29 September 1 736. where members had the sole right to distil spirits in London and Wes tminster and up to twenty-one miles beyond improved both the quality of gin and its image. Nevertheless. Samuel Johnson were among those who opposed the Act since they considered it could not be enforced against the will of the common people. which had medicinal properties of its own. yet. wh ich was more expensive anyway. vodka began in the 1940s to achieve its wide po pularity in the Western World. production rose by almost fifty per cent. which made gin prohibitively expensive. Riots brok e out and the law was widely and openly broken. From this small start. but the expedition did e stablish the true position of the North Magnetic Pole. Distillation was taking p lace in a small way in England. Eventually they started bringing it back home with the m. But within six years of the Gin Act being introduced. it also helped English agriculture by using surplus corn and barley. ..

an ale with a depth of hue halfway between pale and dark. Brown Ale . aged tequila that has been stored in oak at least one year. Texas. and usually well-hopped and dry. Barley Wine . made with a proportion of highly dried or . the leaves are cut off leaving the heart of the plant or pina which look s like a large pineapple when the jimadors are done. This is where the agave plant grows best. made for sipping. Anejo: 100% agave.originally liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation. rich. Th e nose is generally aromatic. Joven abocado: mixto tequila that has been treated with additives to achieve an effect similar to aging. During h arvest. Burton . Bitter . the tequila is mi xto and may have been distilled from as little as 60% agave juice with other sug ars. which was made by the same process but flavoured with hops. Ale . Today ale is used for all beers other than stout.means "old". Grades of Tequila: Blanco: 100% agave tequila that is un-aged and untreated with additives. Mexico. rich. It takes 8-12 years for the agave to reach maturity. If the bottle does not say 100% blue agave. The specific plant that is used to make tequila is the Weber blue agave. wi th a minimum alcoholic content of about 6 percent. A top fermented ale. The harvested pina may weig h 200 pounds or more and is chopped into smaller pieces for cooking at the disti llery. w ith a very firm. How many types of Beer are available to Drink? Here are the different styles you may come across at our stores or your favourit e local brew pub. Alt . dark in colour and they may be quite sweet.What is Tequila? First the history: Tequila was first distilled in the 1500-1600's in the state o f Jalisco. The 100% blue agave tequilas are distilled entirely from the fermented juice of the agave. All 100% agave tequilas have to be distilled and bottled in Mexico. "rested" tequila that has been stored in oak between two m onths and one year.dark. Tequila was first imported into the United States in 1873 when the first load was transported to El Paso. as oppose d to beer. Mixto reposado: mixto tequila that has been stored in oak between two months and one year. the hue amber and the alcoholic content moderate.malty beers. Amber Beer . tannic palate. not quaffing. There are two basic types of tequila.a strong ale.. Bock . heavy ales with high alcohol cont ent. but belongs to the lily family and has lo ng spiny leaves (pincas). usually bittersweet. 100% blue agave (cien por ciento de agave) tequila and mixto. Mixto anejo: aged mixto tequila that has been stored in oak at least one year. Mixto blanco: mixto tequila that is unaged. dark in colour.the driest and one of the most heavily hopped beers served on draft.a strong dark German lager. Reposado: 100% agave. In 1973 tequila sales in the US topped o ne million cases. copper-coloured and full-bodied. The agave is not a cactus as rumoured. ranging from pale to dark brown in colour. Guadalajara is the capital of Jalisco and the city of Tequila was established in about 1656.

a bit on the bitter side. India Pale Ale (IPA) . with a mild malt flavo ur and some lactic tartness. heavier Munich D ark beers by the term "dunkel". Christmas/Holiday Beer .also known as milk stout because some brewers use lactose (milk su gar) as an ingredient. . Some are flavoured with special spices and /or herbs.a wheat beer. full-flavoured malts. Hefe-Weizen .these special season beers are amber to dark brown. Ice Beer .made of the highest quality malts. ric hly flavoured with a sweetish palate.a malty. wi th an alcoholic content ranging from 8 percent to 13 percent by volume. Kolsch . the beer ends up with a higher alcohol-to-water ratio. very pale (brassy gold) in hue."double bock.. giving the brew a characteristic chocolaty. Porter .a beer in which wheat malt is substituted for barley malt. Octoberfest/ Maerzen/Vienna .a high-alcohol beer made by cooling the beer during the process to be low the freezing point of water (32 degrees Fahrenheit) but above that of alcoho l (-173 degrees Fahrenheit). slightly burnt flavour and are dark in colour. .a copper-coloured. the driest and most highly hopped beer. often with an addition o f caramel sugar and a slightly higher proportion of hops. decidedly malty. Stout . malty beer brewed at the end of the winter brewing season in March. Usually medium-bodied. bittersweet flavour. Stouts have a richer. Pale Ale . Sold as light ale or pale ale in bottle or on draft as bitter. flavour and alcohol strength.delicately dry and aromatic beers. Muncheners . with a bit of tartness on the palate.West German ale. Sweet Stout . full-bodied. Dopplebock .most malt liquors are lagers that are too alcoholic to be labelled lagers or beers. Wheat Beer . The barley (or barley-malt) is well roasted. Malt Liquor . pale lager distinguished from the darker.a generously hopped pale ale.roasted malts. When the formed ice is removed and discarded. Pilsner .a darker (medium to dark reddish brown) ale style beer." A stronger version of bock beer.beer brewed from roasted. lighter in body.