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Sohrab Sheikhani ( 88104208 ) Morteza Toopchi ( 88104724 )

Thursday, January 19, 12

Thursday, January 19, 12

The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the nearultraviolet. 12 . oceans and land masses.000 exajoules (EJ) per year. January 19. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal.Solar power is an alternative technology that will hopefully lead us away from our petroleum dependent energy sources. this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. oceans and land masses is approximately 3.850. Depending on a geographical location the closer to the equator the more "potential" solar energy is available.000 EJ per year in biomass. 3 Thursday. in most cases. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3. and mined uranium combined. In 2002.Energy from the Sun The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. The major problem with solar panel technology is that the efficiencies for solar power systems are still poor and the costs per kilo-watt-hour (KWH) are not competitive. Solar energy can be harnessed in different levels around the world. natural gas. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds. oil. to compete with petroleum energy sources.

SOLAR ENERGY How We Obtain it ? 4 Thursday. January 19. 12 .

CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.Solar power Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. January 19. Solar Farm 5 Thursday. either directly using photovoltaics (PV). PV converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. 12 CSP . or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).

developed a photo cell using silver selenide in place of copper oxide. Although the prototype selenium cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity. Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin created the silicon solar cell in 1954. or photovoltaic cell (PV). researchers Gerald Pearson. 6 Thursday. These early solar cells cost 286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4. In 1931 a German engineer.PHOTOVOLTAICS A solar cell. January 19. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Frittsin the 1880s.5–6% now its as cheap as 4 USD/watt with a better efficiency. Dr Bruno Lange. * Our project is based on this type of solar energy generators. Following the work of Russell Ohl in the 1940s. is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. both Ernst Werner von Siemens and James Clerk Maxwell recognized the importance of this discovery. 12 .

January 19. 12 . and is then used for power generation or energy storage. the most developed are the parabolic trough. The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. Various techniques are used to track the Sun and focus light. the Stirling dish and the solar power tower.CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. the concentrating linear fresnel reflector. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists. 7 Thursday.

A DEEPER LOOK INTO PHOTOVOLTAICS 8 Thursday. 12 . January 19.

The photons can either be absorbed. the percentage of photons that pass through and reflected must be reduced. reflected. or can even pass right through the semiconductor. January 19. In order to increase the number of photons absorbed ultimately increasing the efficiency of the solar panel. an anti-reflective coating is usually put on the semiconductor.The electrons in the semiconductor material will only jump into the conduction band if they absorb a photon. There is an obvious loss of electric potential when the photons are reflected off the semiconductor material. 9 Thursday. 12 . which will decrease the number of reflected photons increasing the total number of photons that will become absorbed.SOLAR CELLS Today solar panels are made of semi-conductor materials such as silicon. To reduce the percentage of reflected photons.

so the photon just passes right through the semiconductor. January 19.However. The photons that pass through the semiconductor have energy lower than the band gap energy of the semiconductor. 10 Thursday. As a result. these photons do not contain enough energy to create an electron-hole pair. To minimize the amount of photons that pass through the semiconductor. some semiconductors are manufactured with many layers. if the photon has an excess of energy.SOLAR CELLS The photons in sunlight have a wide variety of different wavelengths causing some to pass right through. 12 . than this excess will be emitted as a form heat and the electron will settle down in the conduction band. meaning it gives the electron more energy than the band gap. each having a different band gaps in order to better match the light spectrum.

12 .VOLTAGE-CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS ( V-I ) 11 Thursday. January 19.

January 19. 12 .VOLTAGE-CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS ( V-I ) 12 Thursday.

VOLTAGE-CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS ( V-I ) 13 Thursday. January 19. 12 .

12 . January 19.VOLTAGE-CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS ( V-I ) 14 Thursday.

12 . January 19.WHAT WE USED IN THE CIRCUIT L298 Motor Driver ATMega 32 15 Thursday.

12 .WHAT WE USED IN THE CIRCUIT 5 IR-Sensors Capacitor 16 Bunch of Wires Thursday. January 19.

12 .WHAT WE USED IN THE CIRCUIT + + C++ AVR Programming AVR Programmer 17 Thursday. January 19.

January 19.WHAT WE DESIGNED !? 18 Thursday. 12 .

WHAT OUR DESIGN REALLY LOOKED LIKE ! 19 Thursday. January 19. 12 .

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 20 Thursday. 12 . January 19.