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HYPERTENSION

Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. It is known as the "silent killer" since it has no
initial symptoms but can lead to long-term disease and complications.. • • Many people have high blood pressure and don't know it. Important complications of uncontrolled or poorly treated high blood pressure include heart attack, congestive heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, peripheral artery disease, and aortic aneurysms (weakening of the wall of the aorta, leading to widening or ballooning of the aorta). Public awareness of these dangers has increased. High blood pressure has become the second most common reason for medical office visits in the United States. The American Heart Association has recommended guidelines to define normal and high blood pressure. • • • • • • Normal blood pressure less than 120/80 Pre-hypertension 120-139/ 80-89 High blood pressure (stage 1) 140-159/90-99 High blood pressure (stage 2) higher than 160/100 As many as 60 million Americans have high blood pressure. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may be responsible for many cases of death and disability resulting from heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. According to research studies, the risk of dying of a heart attack is directly linked to high blood pressure, particularly systolic hypertension. The higher your blood pressure, the higher the risk. Maintaining lifelong control of hypertension decreases the future risk of complications such as heart attack and stroke. High Blood Pressure Causes In 90% of people with hypertension, the cause of high blood pressure is not known and is referred to as primary or essential hypertension. While the specific cause is unknown, there are risk factors that can contribute to developing high blood pressure. Factors that cannot be changed:

– Age – Race

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Socioeconomic status Family history(heredity)

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Gender

Factors that can be changed:

Other vital signs include pulse rate. Hypertension can progress through the years. respiratory rate (breathing rate). and weight. the health care practitioner and patient work together as a team to find the treatment plan that will work for that specific individual. weight loss. diastolic more than 100 mm Hg High Blood Pressure Treatment Blood pressure control is a lifelong challenge. Blood pressure control may involve a stepwise approach beginning with diet. .Stage 1: Systolic 140-159. Normal Blood Pressure ➢ Systolic less than 120 mm Hg. As with many diseases.Stage 2: Systolic more than 160. and lifestyle changes and eventually adding medications as required. and treatments that worked earlier in life may need to be adjusted over time. In some situations.– Obesity – Sodium sensitivity - Alcohol use Birth Control Pills - Lack of Exercise Medications High Blood Pressure Symptoms ➢ ➢ Headache ➢ Dizziness ➢ Blurred vision ➢ Nausea and vomiting ➢ Chest pain and shortness of breath High Blood Pressure Diagnosis Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer). It is a routine part of the physical examination and one of the vital signs often recorded for a patient visit. This may be done using a stethoscope and a cuff and gauge or by an automatic machine. diastolic less than 80 mm Hg Prehypertension ➢ Systolic 120-139 or diastolic 80-89 mm Hg High Blood Pressure . medications may be recommended immediately. temperature. diastolic 90-99 mm Hg .