2.2.

REPRESENTATIONS OF COMPACT LIE GROUPS

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Lemma 2.2.3. (Schur) Let D1 : G → L(V1 ) and D2 : G → L(V2 ) be irreducible, unitary representations of a compact Lie group G . Furthermore let A : V1 → V2 be a linear operator with the property A D1 (g) = D2 (g) A for all g ∈ G . Then 1. A = 0 , if D1 and D2 are not equivalent; 2. If D1 = D2 then A = λ 1 , λ ∈ C . I Argument: ad 1.: kernel[A] and image[A] are invariant subspaces of V1 and V2 , respectively . Therefore, because of the irreducibility of D1 , either kernel[A] = {0} or kernel[A] = V1 . In the latter case the proposition 1) is correct: A maps to {0} . In the ﬁrst case kernel[A] = {0} we can have, because of the irreducibility of D2 , either image[A] = {0} or image[A] = V2 . If image[A] = {0} the proposition 1) is then already proven. The remaining case: kernel[A] = {0} and image[A] = V2 , means that A is bijective and therefore the inverse of A exists, but this implies, together with A D1 (g) = D2 (g) A that A D1 (g) A−1 = D2 (g) , which contradicts the assumption that D1 and D2 are not equivalent. ad 2.: In this case we have D1 = D2 =: D , Then also for all g ∈ G A∗ D(g)∗ = D(g)∗ A∗ or , because D is unitary , A∗ D(g −1 ) = D(g −1 ) A∗ or, substituting g −1 → g ,for all g ∈ G A∗ D(g) = D(g) A∗ . Therefore with A = A1 + i A2 with A1 , A2 hermitean, it follows that A1 D(g) = D(g) A1 and A2 D(g) = D(g) A2 meaning that the proposition has to be proven for hermitean A only. We start with the case that the dimension of V is ﬁnite: Let A have eigenvalue λi with an eigenvector x. Then A x = λi x ⇒ A (D(g) x) = D(g) A x = λi (D(g) x) , (V1 = V2 ) , A D(g) = D(g) A , ∀g ∈ G .

which means that also D(g) x is eigenvector to A with the same eigenvalue λi . Therefore the space of all eigenvectors to the eigenvalue λi is an invariant subspace. Since the representation is assumed to be irreducible this invariant subspace must be the space V itself: λi = λ or A = λ 1 . I Obviously this is also true when the dimension of V is not ﬁnite, provided an eigenvector of A with eigenvalue λ exists. However, there are selfadjoint operators A which possess a continuous spectrum of eigenvalues with correspondingly non-normalisable eigenvectors e.g. consider V = L2 (R) and A φ(x)) = x φ(x) . In such a case we shall need the [Spectral Theorem] Let A be selfadjoint in a Hilbert space V . Then there is a unique family of projection operators P (λ) , λ ∈ R with • P (λ) is left-sided continuous;

Dj (g) y1 . If D is a unitary representation. Then A= λdP (λ) = λdλ i ∗ δ(λ − Ei ) Pi = i Ei Pi . x2 . Therefore P (λ) D(g) = D(g) P (λ) meaning that the image of P (λ) is an invariant subspace for all λ . then all ′ other representations in the same equivalence class have the form Dj = A Dj A∗ . Therefore there exists a linear operator B : Vj ′ → Vj . Dj (g) y1 G x2 . dg x1 . If one ﬁxes in each equivalence class a special representation Dj . Let x1 .14 • P (λ1 ) P (λ2 ) = P (λ1 ) = P (λ2 ) P (λ1 ) . P (+∞) = 1 . B y2 . Dj (g g ′ ) y1 G x2 . Dj ′ (g) Dj ′ (g ′ ) y2 = = G x2 . Dj (g) Dj (g ′ ) y1 dg x1 . B Dj ′ (g ′ ) y2 = G dg x1 . x1 y1 . For the representations Dj ﬁxed in this manner the following theorem holds: Theorem 2. if λ1 < λ2 . Dj (g) y1 x2 . • P (−∞) = 0 . such that A(x1 . x2 . y2 . because of D(g) A = A D(g) . y2 ∈ Vj′ be arbitrary vectors in the representation spaces Vj (of Dj ) and Vj ′ (of Dj ′ ) . CHAPTER 2. I I ∗ ∗ λ dD(g) P (λ) D(g) ∗ Representations of compact Lie groups are always equivalent to unitary representations.2. Dj ′ (g) y2 = y1 . where A is unitary. then D can be written as a direct sum of unitary irreducible representations: D = ⊕i Di . c ∈ C if j = j ′ . y1 ∈ Vj . if j = j ′ .4. LIE GROUPS (In the ﬁnite dimensional case we have: P (λ) = i Θ(λ − Ei ) Pi where Pi are the projection operators on the subspace of eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues Ei of A . Now substitute y1 → Dj (g ′ ) y1 and y2 → Dj ′ (g ′ ) y2 . y1 . y2 ) = y1 . Then Dj (g ′ ) y1 . B y2 . The irreducible representations can be decomposed in equivalence classes. respectively. Dj ′ (g) y2 For ﬁxed x1 . y1 . Argument: Consider A(x1 . Dj ′ (g g ′ ) y2 x2 . λ0 ∈ R I or A= λ dΘ(λ − λ0 ) 1 = 1 λ0 . Then: dg x1 . we have A = D(g) A D(g) and D(g) P (λ) D(g) is a projection operator with the same properties as P (λ) . Dj ′ (g) y2 = 0 c x2 . x2 A has the following properties: A is linear in y2 and anti-linear in y1 . Thus D(g) A D(g) = or P (λ) = D(g) P (λ) D(g) for all λ . I • (and!) A = λ dP (λ) ( Lebesgue-integral) . This implies P (λ) = Θ(λ − λ0 ) 1 . y2 ) = G dg x1 .) ∗ Then. x2 .

where V (G) = G dg . square-integrable functions on the group G with the scalar product (f. x2 ) 1 I for j = j ′ . Then. REPRESENTATIONS OF COMPACT LIE GROUPS Thus B = Dj (g ′ )−1 B Dj ′ (g ′ ) or Dj (g ′ ) B = B Dj ′ (g ′ ) for all g ′ ∈ G . Now take y1 = y2 = bα .2. bα bα′ . for j = j ′ . according to the theorem above we have G j j dg Dα α′ (g) Dβ β ′ (g) = ′ 0 c bβ . Dj (g) y1 G 15 0 λ(x1 . where bα are the elements of the orthonormal basis of Vj and sum over all α : cj dim Vj x2 .2. x ∈ C . x2 ) = x2 . for j = j ′ . I We now choose in each representation space Vj an orthonormal basis {bα (= bα j } and put j Dα α′ (g) = bα . Dj (g) bα dg x2 . for j = j ′ . These are given by dg x1 . y2 for j = j ′ . (Peter-Weyl) The functions Dα α′ (g) build a orthogonal basis of F (G) V (G) and the normalisation cj is given by cj = dim Vj . Dj (g)−1 x1 = = α G dg x2 . y2 x2 .5. Dj (g) y2 = cj y1 . D(g) bα′ . Dj (g) bα α G x2 . Dj (g) bα = G dg x2 . x2 ) y1 . Now let F (G) be the space of complex valued. h ∈ F(G)) f. Dj (g) y1 G x2 .2. Dj (g) Dj (g)−1 x1 dg x2 . With the same calculation as above one then shows that C = Dj (g ′ )−1 C Dj (g ′ ) and again uses Schur’s lemma to infer that C = c 1 . 0 λ(x1 . h = G dg f (g) h(g) then the following theorem holds: j Theorem 2. Argument: We ﬁrst compute the normalisations cj . x1 . Dj (g) bα Dj (g) bα . C x1 . x1 bα . x1 = x2 . bβ ′ = c δβ α δα′ β ′ ′ for j = j ′ . or G j j dg Dα α′ (g) Dβ β ′ (g) = c δj j′ δβ α δα′ β ′ . Then according to Schur’s lemma we have B= We thus conclude dg x1 . because λ is linear in x1 and anti-linear in x2 there exists a linear operator C : Vj → Vj such that λ(x1 . x2 . x1 V (G) G = . Dj ′ (g) y2 = Likewise for j = j ′ . x1 = α G dg x1 .

in Vi′ we have that there exists a unitary operator A : Vj → Vi′ with D1 (g) A x = A Dj (g) x for all x ∈ Vj .1): From this it also follows that all irreducible representations of compact Lie groups are ﬁnite dimensional.16 and we conclude cj = CHAPTER 2. These are 1. dim Vj Remark (2. f → D1 (g ′ ) f . On the other hand Dj (g) bα = β bβ bβ . with (D2 (g ′ ) f ) (g) := f (g ′ for which also D2 (g ′ ) f . h ∈ F(G)) D1 (g ′ ) f . h holds.2. In Vi′ the representation D1 is equivalent to some ﬁxed representation Dj in Vj . When {bα } is an orthonormal basis of Vj then {A bα } is an orthonormal basis of Vi′ . Here we shall consider only D1 and decompose F(G) = ⊕i Vi′ . h G = holds. We still have to show that each function f ∈ F(G) can be expanded in the set j of functions Dα α′ i. showing that D1 is unitary. Therefore also each function in Vi′ can be expanded in this manner and thus also each function in F (G) . 2. showing that each element of the orthonormal basis of Vi′ can be expanded in j terms of the functions Dα α′ (g) . for which indeed (f.e. LIE GROUPS V (G) . with (D1 (g ′ ) f ) (g) := f (g g ′ ) . D1 (g ′ ) h = G dg (D1 (g ′ ) f ) (g) (D1 (g ′ ) h) (g) dg f (g g ′ ) h(g g ′ ) = f. dg (D2 (g ′ ) f ) (g) (D2 (g ′ ) h) (g) dg f (g ′ −1 g) h(g ′ G −1 = g) = f. i. showing that also D2 is unitary.e. Dj (g) bα = β j bβ Dβ α (g) and we ﬁnd (A bα ) (g) = β j (A bβ ) (e) Dβ α (g) . . D2 (g ′ ) h = G −1 g) . this set is a basis of F (G) : We ﬁrst observe that in F (G) two canonical unitary representations of G itself exist. f → D2 (g ′ ) f . Now A bα ∈ F(G) and this function takes the values (A bα ) (g) = (A bα ) (e g) = (D1 (g) A bα ) (e) = (A Dj (g) bα ) (e) .