World is contracting with the growth of mobile phone technology.

As the number of users is increasing day by day, facilities are also increasing. Starting with simple regular handsets which were used just for making phone calls, mobiles have changed our lives and have become part of it. Now they are not used just for making calls but they have innumerable uses and can be used as a Camera , Music player, Tablet PC, T.V. , Web browser etc . And with the new technologies, new software and operating systems are required.

Introduction
Operating Systems have developed a lot in last 15 years. Starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers, mobile OS has come far away. Especially for smart phones, Mobile OS has greatly evolved from Palm OS in 1996 to Windows pocket PC in 2000 then to Blackberry OS and Android. One of the most widely used mobile OS these days is ANDROID. Android is a software bunch comprising not only operating system but also middleware and key applications. Android Inc was founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin, Rich miner, Nick sears and Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by Google in 2005. After original release there have been number of updates in the original version of Android.

Android (operating system)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Android

[1] Java (UI).Home screen displayed by Samsung Galaxy Nexus.3 (Ice Cream Sandwich) / 16 December 2011.0. running Android 4. Open Handset Alliance Programmed in C (core).0 "Ice Cream Sandwich" Company /developer Google Inc. C++ Working state Current Source model Open Source[2][3] Initial release 20 September 2008 Latest stable release 4. 19 days ago[4] Package manager Android Market / APK .

Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone platform worldwide in Q4 2010 by Canalys[21][22] with over 200 million Android devices in use by November 2011. Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java.2 Acquisition by Google ○ 1. and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[17] Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices.000 Android devices activated every day.000 apps available for Android.[24] Contents [hide] • 1 History ○ ○ 1.Supported platforms ARM.com Android is a Linux based operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.[19][20] Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or through online stores such as Android Market..3 Post-acquisition .[23] As of December 2011 there are over 700. Android Inc.[5] x86 [6][7] Kernel type Monolithic (Linux kernel) Default user interface Graphical License Apache License 2. and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion.[12][13][14][15] Google releases the Android code as open-source. the app store run by Google.1 Foundation 1. under theApache License. a consortium of 84 hardware.[18] As of October 2011 there were more than 300. software.[11] The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance.[9][10] Google purchased the initial developer of the software. in 2005. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google.[16] The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.0 Linux kernel patches under GNU GPL v2[8] Official website www.android. MIPS.

1 Linux 2.5 Android Open Source Project ○ • 2 Design 1.1 Android Market 4.3 Retail Stores 6 Intellectual property ○ ○ ○ • • • 6.6 Version history ○ ○ • • 3 Uses 2.2 Application security ○ • 4.2 Usage share 5.3 Patents 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit]History [edit]Foundation .4 Open Handset Alliance ○ 1.1 Market share 5.development ○ 1.2 Licensing 6.3 Privacy 5 Marketing ○ ○ ○ • 5.1 Trademarks 6.2 Features 4 Applications ○ ○ 4.

in Rubin's words ". a wholly owned subsidiary of Google Inc.[35][36] [edit]Open Handset Alliance Main article: Open Handset Alliance On November 5. 2007. Inc.[29] That same year. 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger).[26] Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile). HTC. it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators.000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company. upgradable system. but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move. a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2. Rubin ran out of money.[31][32][33] Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications.[30] [edit]Acquisition by Google Google acquired Android Inc. Intel. a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation. United States in October. InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. including Andy Rubin. Motorola. Qualcomm.). 2005. Marvell Technology Group. Android. revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible.. In September 2007. on August 17. the Open Handset Alliance.[11] Not much was known about Android Inc.. LG.[27] and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV)[28] to develop. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset.[14] On the same day. Samsung Electronics. T-Mobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself.[11] [edit]Post-acquisition development At Google. operated secretly.[29] Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees.6. at the time of the acquisition.smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences". the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. making Android Inc. the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their first product. California. Key employees of Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto. Inc. Rich Miner and Chris White. Sprint Nextel. stayed at the company after the acquisition. Steve Perlman.Nvidia.[34] Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Google.[14] .. a close friend of Rubin. Android Inc. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.Android. brought him $10.[25] Rich Miner(co-founder of Wildfire Communications.

14 new members joined.[40]The compatibility program is also optional and free of charge. and is tasked with the maintenance and development of Android. Atheros Communications. went on sale in February 2011.[48][49] The first device featuring this version.On December 9. PacketVideo.1 Honeycomb. added support for extra input devices. added SIPsupport (VoIP calls). Asustek Computer Inc."[40] AOSP also maintains the Android Compatibility Program. 2008 Main article: Android version history Android has seen a number of updates since its original release. and added support for Near Field Communication. defining an "Android compatible" device "as one that can run any application written by third-party developers using the Android SDK and NDK". the Motorola Xoom tablet. Garmin Ltd. with the Compatibility Test Suite also free and open-source. improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste features. to prevent incompatible Android implementations. each fixing bugs and adding new features. and Vodafone Group Plc. after a dessert.[37] [38] [edit]Android Open Source Project The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is led by Google. and the Google Movies and Books apps. including ARM Holdings. Softbank.[42] Recent releases  2.3 Gingerbread refined the user interface. 2008. in alphabetical order. improved gaming performance.0 Honeycomb was a tablet-oriented[44][45][46] release which supports larger screen devices and introduces many new user interface features.[50] [51]  3.[39] According to the project "The goal of the Android Open Source Project is to create a successful real-world product that improves the mobile experience for end users. hardware acceleration for graphics[47] and full system encryption. Each version is named.[41] [edit]Version history Puppy toy by Eero Aarnio at the Googleplex. [52] . support for multi-core processors. Toshiba Corp. USB host mode for transferring information directly from cameras and other devices.[43]  3.Sony Ericsson. released in May 2011. Huawei Technologies.

photography enhancements.[59][60][61]Even though Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community.[62] Greg Kroah-Hartman. released in July 2011.0. announced on October 19. 2011. were rejected by mainline kernel developers.[57] Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.[58] Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel. app folders. notably a power management feature called wakelocks. 3. and information sharing using NFC. added optimization for a broader range of screen sizes. Android 4. new "zoomto-fill" screen compatibility mode.2 Honeycomb.0. and an extended screen support API. and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android. partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code. libraries and APIs written in C and application software running on anapplication framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony.[56] [edit]Linux Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel and has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle.[60] Some Google Android developers .0 Ice Cream Sandwich. unified social networking contacts. offline email searching. the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch. loading media files directly from SD card.3 Ice Cream Sandwich is the latest Android version that is available to phones.1 was released on November 14. The source code of Android 4. with middleware. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik dex-code (Dalvik Executable). 2011.[55] [edit]Design Architecture diagram Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel.[53] Huawei MediaPad is the first 7 inch tablet to use this version [54]  4. which is usually translated from Java bytecode. network data usage monitoring and control. brought Honeycomb features to smartphones and added new features including facial recognition unlock. said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.

starting in Linux 3.0 specifications. 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2. VGA. because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android.hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process". a lightweight relational database. but it will probably not be for four to five years.[64][65] In 2011 Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel.5) Current features and specifications:[68][69][70] Handset layouts The platform is adaptable to larger.3. patches and features back into the Linux kernel. He said that Android device drivers that use wakelocks can now be easily merged into mainline Linux. is used for data storage purposes.".[66] In December 2011 Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project. . but that Android's opportunistic suspend features should not be included in the mainline kernel. in September 2010 Linux kernel developer Rafael J.[67] [edit]Features The Android Emulator default home screen (v1. and traditional smartphone layouts. Wysocki added a patch that improved the mainline Linux wakeup events framework.[63] However. which aims to put some Android drivers. 2D graphics library. Storage SQLite.

scaling.[43] Web browser The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit layout engine. dedicated gaming controls. GIF. touchscreens. accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation. Media support Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM. EVDO. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics. AAC.thermometers.0. GPS.263. CDMA. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on Dalvik. barometers. The browser scores 100/100 on the Acid3 test on Android 4. H.Connectivity Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE. there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed.[71] Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Android. Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported by theFlash plugin. Multi-touch . WAV. J2ME support can be provided via third-party applications. [47] Additional hardware support Android can use video/still cameras. including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service. Bluetooth. AMR-WB (in 3GP container). proximity and pressure sensors. magnetometers. MIDI. HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container). PNG. AMR. JPEG. however it does have some rendering issues. Ogg Vorbis. MPEG-4 SP. HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). BMP. a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. accelerometers. FLAC.[72] and by the operating system in Android 3.[citation needed] Java support While most Android applications are written in Java. Wi-Fi. NFC and WiMAX.[70] Streaming media support RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS. H.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container).0 (Honeycomb). gyroscopes. UMTS. Multiple language support Android supports multiple languages. LTE. Messaging SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging. ISMA). IDEN. coupled with Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine. MP3.

The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touchscreen technology at the time). This allows for enhanced VoIP dialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers.[74] Bluetooth Supports A2DP. Before Android 2.1 offers video calling in Android 2.[79] Screen capture Android natively supports the ability to capture a screenshot by method of pressing both the power and volumedown buttons at the same time on an Android device. navigation. Keyboard.[78] Tethering Android supports tethering. accessing the phone book (PBAP).Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. sending files (OPP). either via the UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP. AVRCP.[75] Video calling Android does not support native video calling. texting. voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. Furthermore. Skype 2.4 and later. are supported on Android 2. [edit]Uses Main article: List of Android devices . and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.[76] Voice based features Google search through voice has been available since initial release.1+.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich) update. including front camera support.[73] Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively.3. Android did not feature native support for screen capturing which would have likely been due to security concerns.2 onwards.3. which is first seen on the Galaxy Nexus smartphone. which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot. etc. mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3. Multitasking Multitasking of applications is available. Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2. This native support was first included within the Android 4. prior manufacturer and third-party customizations as well as using a PC connection (DDMS developer's tool) were the only known methods of capturing a screenshot on Android.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations. but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it. [77] Voice actions for calling.[80] Previously.

running a custom version of Android[81] [82] . the latest "Google phone" I'm Watch.Galaxy Nexus. a wristwatch with phone functionality.

[89][90][91][92] Portabl e media players[93] and other devices. the open and customizable nature of the Android operating system allows it to be used on most electronics.[87] Car CD and DVD players.[88] digital cameras. smartbooks. wristwatches.While Google has their own line of Android smartphones. There is support for x86 from theAndroid x86 project.[83][84] tablet computers. The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream.[96] In early 2010 Google collaborated with HTC to launch its flagship[97] Android . n etbooks. laptops.[86] head phones. including but not limited to: smartphones.E-book readers.[94] The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. released on 22 October 2008.[95] and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android.[85] TVs (Google TV). the Google Nexus series.

including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C+ .device. iOS and Android 2. but other development tools are available. This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsungmade Nexus S and in 2011 with theGalaxy Nexus. was the world's first Android 4. [98][99] The Novo 7. manufactured by the Chinese company Ainol Electronics. theNexus One.3 'Gingerbread' may be set up to dual boot on a jailbroken iPhone or iPod Touch with the help of OpeniBoot and iDroid.3.0 Ice Cream Sandwich tablet.[100] [edit]Applications See also: Android software development and List of open source Android applications Applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit.

a visual environment for novice programmers and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks . An application program ("app") called "Market" is preinstalled on most . [edit]Android Market The Android Market on a phone Main article: Android Market Android Market is the online software store developed by Google for Android devices.+. Google App Inventor.

[102] The Market filters the list of applications presented by the Market app to those that are compatible with the user's device.Android devices and allows users to browse and download apps published by third-party developers. As of October 2011 there were more than 300. and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion.000 apps available for Android.[101] Only devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall Google's closed-source Android Market app and access the Market. hosted on Android Market. and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. [103] .[19][20] The operating system itself is installed on 130 million total devices.

Gesture Search (for using finger-written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone). a jogging application. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks. Google Goggles that searches by image. write messages.Google has participated in the Android Market by offering several applications themselves. and initiate calls by voice. users can install apps directly onto the device if they have the application's APK file or from third party app stores such as theAmazon Appstore. Places Directory (for their Local Search). Google launched "Voice Actions for Android". Maps Editor (for their MyMaps service).[105] .[104] which allows users to search. Finance (for their finance service). . Google Translate. including Google Voice (for the Google Voice service). Alternatively. Sky Map (for watching stars). Google Shopper. In August 2010.

[edit]Application security An example of app permissions in Android Market. an isolated area of the operating system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources. Before installing an application. Android Market displays all required permissions. unless access permissions are granted by the user when the application is installed. Android applications run in a sandbox. A game may need to enable .

In August 2010. an SMS trojan which had already infected a number of devices.a. for example. named TrojanSMS. Kaspersky Lab reported detection of the first malicious program for Android.vibration. the user can decide whether to install the application.[106] Some Android malware incident s have been reported involving rogue applications on Android Market.[107] In some cases applications which contained Trojans were hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps.FakePlay er.[108] [109] Google has responded by removing malicious apps from the Android Market. but should not need to read messages or access the phonebook.AndroidOS. After reviewing these permissions. and remotely disabling them on infected devices.[110] Security firms such as AVG .

[edit]Privacy Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points. permission checks do not often indicate to the user how critical services and data will be used or misused. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones. location and hardware ID numbers).[111] One design issue is that average users cannot monitor how applications access and use private and sensitive data (e. allowing them to run apps like Foursquare. Avast! and Symantec have released antivirus software for Android devices. Even during installation.Technologies. encountered as phone users move around. Places. and to deliver location-based ads. Third party monitoring software such as . to build vast databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. Latitude.g.

[115] The custom typeface of Android is called Norad (cf.[112] an academic research-funded project.[113] [edit]Marketing The Android logo was designed along with the Droid font family made by Ascender Corporation. becoming the . The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB colorvalue in hexadecimal is #A4C639.8% share of worldwide smartphone shi pments. as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines. can identify personal information sent from applications to remote servers. It is only used in the text logo.[114] Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.TaintDroid.[117] By Q4 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market.[116] [edit]Market Research share company Canalys estimate d in Q2 2009 that Android had a 2.NORAD).

2% in November 2009.S. Android's first quarter U. sales surpassed that of the rival iPhone platform. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5.[118] In February 2010 ComScore said the Android platform had 9.S. Android achieved 25% smartphone sales in the US market. indicating that . Apple's iOS was up by 11%. In the second quarter. [120] In May 2010.top-selling smartphone platform. According to a report by the NPD group.5%) of the smartphone market belongs to Android. as measured by current mobile subscribers.4%. market share had grown to 21. This estimate includes the Tapas and OMS variants of Android.0% of the U. up 8% from the December quarter. smartphone market. [21] By Q3 2011 Gartner estimates more than half (52.S.[119] By the end of Q3 2010 Android's U.

550.[122] In Q4 2010 Android had 59% of the total installed user base of Apple's iOS in the U.S.000 per day a month earlier — and more than 100 million devices had been activated. 2011.000 new Android devices were being activated every day[125]— up from 400. Google said that 550. multi-carrier OS.000 activations per day back in December 2010. and 46% of the total installed user base of iOS in Europe. By July 14.Android is taking market share mainly from RIM. [121] Furthermore.[126] Android hit 300.[123][124] As of June 2011. and still has to compete with heavy consumer demand for new competitor offerings. with . which allowed it to duplicate the quick success of Microsoft's Windows Mobile.000 Android devices were being activated by Google each day. analysts pointed to advantages that Android has as a multichannel.

9% of Android devices being tablets. Google announced that there were 190 million Android devices in the market.4. 2011. approximately 3.8 million Android Honeycomb Tablets have been sold. 200 million Android devices had been activated. 2011. [129] As of November 16. [127] On the 1st of August 2011.[128] On October 13. with 1. Canalys estimated that Android had about 48% of the smartphone market share. [130] Based on this number. Andy Rubin announced that Google was activating 700.[24] [edit]Usage share . during the Google Music announcement "These Go to Eleven".000 new Android devices daily. 2011.4% growth per week. [131] On December 20.

[132] Version Distrib ution API l evel % 4.x.2 Froyo 8 30.0 Ice Cream Sandwich 14-15 0.Usage share of the different versions.3 % 2. 2012.x Hone ycomb 11-13 3.5 % 2.1 Eclair 7 8.x Ging erbread 9-10 55.6 Donut 4 1.1 . by January 3.6 % 3.3.5 % 1.4 % 2.

6 % .5 Cupca ke 3 0.Distrib ution API l evel % % 1.