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1. Definition of Research Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. The word research is derived from the French word ‘rechercher’, to search closely where "chercher" means "to look for or to search". The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. 1.1. a) DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH Scientific Research

Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. b) Artistic Research Artistic research, is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research for knowledge and truth. c) Historical method The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research: 1. Identification of origin date 2. Evidence of localization 3. Recognition of authorship 4. Analysis of data 5. Identification of integrity 6. Attribution of credibility


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Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though order of steps may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied: 1. Observations and Formation of the topic 2. Hypothesis 3. Conceptual definitions 4. Operational definition 5. Gathering of data 6. Analysis of data 7. Test, revising of hypothesis 8. Conclusion, iteration if necessary

1. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge. This process takes three main forms: a) Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems b) Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem c) Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence 2. Research can also fall into two distinct types: a) Primary research (collection of data that does not yet exist) b) Secondary research (summary, collection and/or synthesis of existing research)

3. In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: a) Qualitative research (understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour) b) Quantitative research (systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships)


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The undergraduate/postgraduate research is clearly a less advanced qualification than the Ph.D. in which the student is expected to master a content area and can be completed in two or three year’s full-time study. Following are the main differences between undergraduate and research education: a) Duration of Research: The Graduate research is normally shorter than the Ph.D. thesis. It is often used as a training course in advanced research work, and can be a preliminary stage for the Ph.D. where it is necessary to learn the fundamentals of research and acquire new techniques. A candidate for a graduate research must undertake an investigation but, compared to the Ph.D., the work may be limited in scope and the degree of originality. b) Originality of Work: Considerably more emphasis is put on original work in the Ph.D. and the Ph.D. thesis involves greater depth than a graduate research. Greater synthesis and critical ability and also a more detailed investigation of any practical illustrations are expected from doctoral candidates. The graduate research can be limited to the replication of research already published. c) Under your own management: It is the key to the nature of doctoral education. In doctoral education, one has to take responsibility for managing learning and for getting a Ph.D. Of course, there will be people around to help: – supervisor(s), other academics in department, fellow students and so on. Some of them will tell what, in their opinion, is to be done to obtain the degree, but the responsibility for determining what is required, as well as for carrying it out, and remains firmly with Ph.D. student. But during graduation syllabus, text books and exams are pre planned. d) Specialization: In undergraduate study, students build a foundation of general psychology knowledge. Classes are offered in a variety of disciplines. Students take the classes and use the knowledge from those classes to decide what they would like to specialize in. Ph.D. programs are often offered as a specialized degree and the program is meant to train students to enter that specific field as a researcher or a therapist. e) Class Load: The class load, credits-wise, is lighter at a graduate program. Most programs recommend a student only take three or four classes. All of those classes will be in the psychology department, or a related department like math or biology. Work-wise, the classes are


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probably more work than in undergrad. Ph.D. classes require more reading, more papers, and fewer tests. Classes are generally held as a discussion, rather than a lecture. f) Thesis: To graduate from a Ph.D. degree program, most programs require the student to complete a thesis. A thesis is a personal research project and study performed by the student. It must follow strict guidelines and be approved by the Institute/university's review and ethics board. Some undergraduate programs require a thesis if the student was in an honours program.

Government-funded research councils provide studentships for full-time doctoral students in science, social science and arts students. In the past they have taken a fairly relaxed view in evaluating what happened after the studentship had been awarded, considering this a matter for the academic discretion of the particular department and supervisor involved, but this is no longer so. The historically high drop-out rate of students has led the councils in the past decade to require universities to demonstrate that they have an effective student support system in place. They have issued guidelines on what is good practice in matters such as induction sessions for new students, research environments, supervisory arrangements and appeals and complaints procedures. They have issued league tables of completion rates and universities who do not perform satisfactorily run the risk of not receiving any allocation of research student grants. The universities can apply for reinstatement after a period when they have to demonstrate that their support arrangements have improved. The effect of these policies has been to make academic institutions much more concerned to control the education which takes place during the PhD to ensure that it is of high quality. They have reviewed their supervisory practices, established doctoral programmes, and strengthened the procedures for monitoring the progress of research students, and so on. Academics with overall departmental responsibility for doctoral students have been appointed. The aim of research councils is to get a high proportion of full-time doctoral students to complete within stipulated period, and universities work to bring this about. The criterion of a successful completion for these purposes is defined as: the submission of the thesis for first examination after registration as a full-time student. However this pattern differs in different Institutes/ Universities as per their rules and regulations.


These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research. and government research councils such as the UGC. Elton defines scholarship as the interpretation of what is already known. The scholarship of discovery comes closes to the idea of “research.” The third type of scholarship defined by Boyer and his colleagues is the scholarship of application. disciplined work that seeks to interpret. or other education related expenses. By this they draw attention to the application of knowledge in the wider community.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1. 5 . DBT. Boyer’s (1990) suggest a fourfold definition which. they argue. b) Concept of Scholarship The concept of scholarship has also been used to explain the relationship between teaching and research. travel. its application. and bring new insight to bear on original research.6. a) Meaning of Scholarship A scholarship is an award given by an organization or institution to fund the education of a selected student. the primary work that feeds into all else academics are supposed to do.” It contributes to the “stock of human knowledge” and also to the intellectual climate of the institution. corresponds to different approaches to the ways knowledge is perceived and approached: the advancement of knowledge. The scholarship of integration is concerned with making inter-disciplinary connections: “In calling for a scholarship of integration … what we mean is serious. The ideal of the scholar is frequently intimately associated with ideas about the essence of what universities are for. the award can be used for consumables. Scholarship is bound up with the nature and functions of the university or Institutes. Many senior researchers (such as group leaders) spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. books. RESEARCH FUNDING/ SCHOLARSHIPS Most funding for scientific research comes from two major sources: Corporate research and development departments. but also as a source of merit. CSIR. draw together. ICMR etc. room and board. while the concept of scholarship also includes the idea of a quality describing the way in which inquiry should be done. Usually. research. representation and integration in society. It is highly valued in higher education.

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There is a caution against seeing theory and practice separate for what is envisaged is a dynamic interaction where “the one renews the other”. Finally there is the scholarship of teaching. This is defined as well informed teachers; teaching which is carefully planned, continuously evaluated and relates to the subject taught; teaching which encourages active learning and encourages students to be critical, creative thinkers with the capacity to go on learning after their university days are over; and a recognition that teachers are also learners. 1.7. RESEARCH ETHICS It involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation, animal experimentation, various aspects of academic scandal, including scientific misconduct (such as fraud, fabrication data and plagiarism), whistle blowing; regulation of research, etc. The scientific research enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Scientists trust that the results reported by others are valid. Society trusts that the results of research reflect an honest attempt by scientists to describe the world accurately and without bias. But this trust will endure only if the scientific community devotes itself to exemplifying and transmitting the values associated with ethical scientific conduct. There are many ethical issues to be taken into serious consideration for research. Sociologists need to be aware of having the responsibility to secure the actual permission and interests of all those involved in the study. They should not misuse any of the information discovered, and there should be a certain moral responsibility maintained towards the participants. There is a duty to protect the rights of people in the study as well as their privacy and sensitivity. The confidentiality of those involved in the observation must be carried out, keeping their anonymity and privacy secure. As pointed out in the BSA for Sociology, all of these ethics must be honoured unless there are other overriding reasons to do so for example, any illegal or terrorist activity. a) Codes and Policies for Research Ethics Given the importance of ethics for the conduct of research, it should come as no surprise that many different professional associations, government agencies, and universities have adopted

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specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics. Many government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have ethics rules for funded researchers. Other influential research ethics policies include the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors), the Chemist's Code of Conduct (American Chemical Society), Code of Ethics (American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science) Ethical Principles of Psychologists (American Psychological Association), Statements on Ethics and Professional Responsibility (American Anthropological Association), Statement on Professional Ethics (American Association of University Professors), the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association). b) Purpose of code of ethics The purpose of code of ethics is to establish a set of principles and procedures to guide the partners to achieve the goals and objectives of the project. The code outlines the obligations of each of the partners through all of the phases of the project, from design of the research through to the publication and communication of the experiences of the project. The following is a rough and general summary of some ethical principles that various codes address: (i) Honesty Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public. (ii)Objectivity Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.


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(iii) Integrity Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. (iv) Carefulness Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals. (v) Openness Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new idea (vi) Respect for Intellectual Property Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize. (vii) Confidentiality Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, and trade and patient records. (viii) Responsible Publication Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. (ix) Responsible Mentoring Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions. (x) Respect for colleagues Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly. (xi) Social Responsibility Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy. (xii) Non-Discrimination Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity.


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(xiii) Competence Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole. (xiv) Legality Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. (xv) Animal Care Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments. (xvi) Human Subjects Protection When conducting research on human subjects minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly. (xvii) Ethical Decision Making in Research Although codes, policies, and principals are very important and useful, like any set of rules, they do not cover every situation, they often conflict, and they require considerable interpretation. It is therefore important for researchers to learn how to interpret, assess, and apply various research rules and how to make decisions and to act in various situations. The vast majority of decisions involve the straightforward application of ethical rules.

1.8. PUBLISHING AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN RESEARCH Academic publishing describes a system that is necessary in order for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The 'system', which is probably disorganized enough not to merit the title, varies widely by field, and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Most established academic fields have their own journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields; from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since about the early 1990s,


There are many online tools which are today available for finding and then preventing plagiarism. Using words. 2. has been very common.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 licensing of electronic resources. data. computer programs. class handouts. even if you have paraphrased those ideas in your own words. If you use others’ words. where the author makes a copy of their own work freely available on the web.9. newspapers. materials from a research service. photos. websites. graphs. ideas. magazines. “Work” includes the words and ideas of others. This phenomenon is also known as content scraping and is used by many blogs and sites. computer code. as well as art. pictures. speeches. 1. you must cite it. there are many ways in which this can be prevented. notes.g. of any kind. charts. Citations must be given when using others ’ideas. and other creative expression. plays and unpublished sources(e. a major trend. movies. is open access. textbooks. Open access publishing. Types of Open Access Journals 1. blogs. or other communication media The term “source” includes published works books. There are free tools which are available and many methods which are available for finding out if any other website has copied their text and to limit online plagiarism on the web pages. TV broadcasts. particularly with respect to scholarly journals. or any work without giving proper credit is plagiarism. One of the reasons why this is done is to attract the SEO generated traffic of the original website to one's own website an however.. Self-archiving. particularly journals. The work may consist of writing. movies. websites. Presently. music. graphics. There have been several instances where such plagiarism has been detected in the past and a notice has been sent for removal of the content from the 10 . a) Web based Plagiarism Online plagiarism is basically a growing phenomenon since it is quite easy to steal the content from the website by just copying it and pasting it. lectures. Any time you use information from a source. diagrams. PLAGIARISM Plagiarism means using another’s work without giving credit. or other students papers). you must put them in quotation marks and cite your source. paintings. in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication.

students is to enhance career opportunities and future earning capacity through possession of the Ph. illustrative material. Pupils and students cannot accept their graduation diplomas or degrees honestly if they know they have plagiarized others' works.D. SKILLS HABITS AND ATTITUDES FOR RESEARCH 1 Reasons to decide towards a Ph. and presenting them as if they were your own.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 offending sited to convert them to profit through the online ads and sales of their own products and services. degree.D a) Significant Contribution: One of the most common aims at the beginning is the wish to make a significant contribution to the chosen field. findings. It undermines the rights of honest pupils and students." The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century. data. the language. can seriously affect the moral rights of some authors and it denigrates academic grades. Others decide on research when they find it more difficult than they had expected to get a job in industry straight from university. There are other career reasons for wanting to take a doctorate. b) Enhance Carrier Opportunities: Important aim for many Ph. "Plagiarism is the illegal practice of taking someone else's ideas. According to Kennedy (2006). if they have not assimilated the academic ethics themselves? 1. images. or writing. c) To get ‘Dr.’ As title: Some students find that they are being called ‘Dr’ by people coming in to the laboratory or hospital department where they work and feel guilty at accepting the title they have not yet achieved. while in the previous centuries authors and artists were encouraged to "copy the masters as closely as possible" and avoid "unnecessary invention. In these cases students have become particularly interested in a topic during the course of their undergraduate degrees and wish to add something to the current state of knowledge. Others feel that relationships with their medical colleagues may be easier 11 . Some decide on this course of action when considering plans for the future. degrees and even the academic institution itself. How will they perform and succeed in their future academic careers. b) Consequences of Plagiarism in Academia Plagiarism is a serious offence for academia and no academic institution can turn a blind eye to it.D.10.

2. The sooner one learns this the better it is. Even within the framework of the scientific method there will be the need for guesses. PSYCHOLOGICAL PHASES OF PH. and a degree of tolerance of ambiguity is a prerequisite for successful research work.D. backtrackings. Also. an important objective should be to make a success of what you have set out to do. together with very many more enthusiastic new recruits. is to be achieved. PROCESS: The activity of getting a Ph.11. Other conceptual paradigms provide even less structure. Towards the end their aims become narrower: simply to reach the goal of the PhD – ‘got to get it’ – or else to complete an unfinished task – ‘must finish’. inspiration if the Ph. change their way of talking about their Ph. rather than brilliance that is needed. they will follow a predictable path to its conclusion.D. These diverse aims of students do not remain the same throughout the period of registration for the higher degree. Some are embarrassed at being alone in their academic group without a title and succumb to their feelings of peer pressure in order to conform. You therefore need some signposts for understanding to help you along the way.D. It is important that research students eventually realize that it is determination and application. The students. Students often embark on their research with the naive view that. just like any other job of work. however. student as somebody dedicated to advancing knowledge and potentially worthy of becoming an undisputed expert in a given field. 1. as the years of learning to do research and become a full professional pass by.D.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 if they too have the title. not even for those students who do start because of the intrinsic satisfaction of actually doing research and because of their interest in the work for its own sake. above all. having identified their topic. Real Purpose of PhD All of these motives are far removed from the idealistic view of the Ph. is inevitably a complex one. a) Enthusiasm 12 . reworking. Unfortunately this is totally misleading. Uncertainty is inherent in the doctoral process.D. corrections and. d) Getting Scholarship: Another reason for undertaking a research degree after doing well at undergraduate level is simply taking up the offer of a studentship as a form of employment and without having any real career aims. Conducting a piece of research to a successful conclusion is a job of work that has to be done just like any other job of work.

the effect of these feelings was to dampen their initial enthusiasm and slow down their pace of work almost nil. Students become dissatisfied with the amount and quality of their interactions with their supervisor. which he thought was of no importance or interest to anybody else. d) Transfer of dependence from the supervisor to the work As students become more involved with their work.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Postgraduates begin the period of their research full of enthusiasm for their new undertaking. These changes during the time that it takes to complete the course.D. When this happens you will find that you become increasingly absorbed in the work that you are doing. In fact supervisor should be engaged in a kind of ‘weaning processes’ to enable student to become more independent. b) Isolation Students discover what not to do for their Ph. Nevertheless. so too do they become more involved with their work because of its own intrinsic interest. or university the postgraduates interviewed were suffering from the effects of the social circumstances in which they were working rather than from the work itself. The way that own increasing independence in the 13 . and that the problem you are investigating demands more and more of your time and attention. Once you have learned how to interpret the results of your own efforts you will find that you can grapple with problems as they arise instead of turning immediately to your supervisor for advice. they do not talk with anyone about their work. Generally they have experienced disappointments in the amount of work they have managed to get done during this period and usually feel that they should be much farther ahead than they actually are. They also feel that they had very little in common with others in their department. The main reason that initial enthusiasm diminishes is the length of time that has to be spent working on a single problem. Intellectual isolation is a necessary and desirable component of successful research. after they have spent some time struggling with their own topic. But there is no need for this to be accompanied by social or emotional loneliness. so there is a lessening of the need for external approval. The lack of intellectual stimulation and exchange of ideas with either peers or supervisor eventually led to a loss of interest in his topic. c) Increasing interest in work As students develop self-confidence and gradually become independent of their supervisors. in addition. topic. Regardless of discipline.

one will have entered the final crucial motivating stage of the process. criticism or interpretation. or that you will have 14 . Therefore this indicates that simultaneous growth in independence from external approval coupled with reliance on the information that is received while working on the topic. f) Frustration As the research progresses. It is from the student’s output that the supervisor is able to evaluate progress in the explicit terms necessary for giving feedback. This final stage is that which occurs after student has had the viva and been told that you have been awarded the doctorate. just like any other kind of work. but by a higher degree. e) Boredom About halfway through the period of research student tend to get fed up. ideas and theories is a constant source of dissatisfaction and frustration for most research students during the thesis stage of their PhD. the less needed to turn to supervisor for comment. confused and feel completely stuck. but if student completes the agreed research programme in time it is important to concentrate on the problem in hand and not be sidetracked. The more can be relied on own judgement of the quality and standard of the work.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 work is related to a lessening of dependence on productivity. needs to be planned and developed and completed in a given period of time. not in this case by a financial bonus. This becomes increasingly frustrating as the original problem becomes more and more familiar. Supervisors too commented on it during the interviews. including those who discuss it as part of their own experience of doing research. It is very tempting to pursue some of these new avenues. As with other jobs. h) Euphoria After submission of the thesis there is a period of anxiety and expectation that the student have to live through waiting for the day of the viva. new ideas about how to follow up the results of work that student have already done are constantly being generated. g) A job to be finished It seems to be important for the morale of most research students that they think in terms of a goal – ‘got to get it!’ – or an unfinished task that needs completion – ‘must finish!’ If student have got to the point of realizing that his/her work. This ‘getting nowhere syndrome’ has been remarked on by many creative people. the student will be rewarded at the end of it. and the longer development in the thinking. Not being able to follow up results.

Understanding motivation will also help the institution (through the supervisor) support and encourage the student in the best way. the selection criteria may be extended or the number of case studies increased.D. institution and supervisor that they know will excite them for the long run. there may be an opportunity to revise the theory or model being tested and this may result in a better thesis. light headedness and achievement. the more likely he is to experience isolation. d) Isolation The further a student gets into his Ph. Sometimes their responses will not allow students to address their research questions in the way they had expected. This can be due to difficulties in recruiting respondents. from the supervisor. Then you are overwhelmed with feelings of joy. If numbers of respondents are insufficient. If there’s no doctoral student society in place. If the responses are not what were expected. a consequence of studying something completely original. e) Running out of Money 15 .. a student could try to organise one. and to select a topic.D. b) Experiments That Don’t Work All scientists know the frustration that can arise when an experiment doesn’t work. If this happens to a research student. The years you have been working now seem worthwhile just to get to the feeling of euphoria that permeates your whole being once you have succeeded in what you set out to do all those years ago. STRESS POINTS DURING RESEARCH a) Loss of Motivation The best way to avoid loss of motivation is for students to really know why they want to do a Ph.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 the doctorate once you have made specific alterations to the text of the thesis within a limited amount of time. he should seek help from his fellow students. Joining student societies and trying to maintain a life outside university are two ways of combating this. c) Problems With Data-Collection Sometimes social science research students face problems collecting their data. from other researchers in the department and also from scientists working at other Universities and research laboratories.

However. students on grants often find it very difficult to complete their studies once their grant has run out. they had successfully completed. and part-time students are likely to find it hard to make ends meet throughout their studies. students should keep in touch with both their research project and their supervisor during the period of suspension. and it is worth reiterating that the chance of someone reproducing independently a student’s programme of work is very. If it does. The latter option may not be a satisfactory situation. but it is not uncommon that students who do this find it hard to re-start. it is important that the student discuss the situation openly with the supervisor. Due to the focus and importance of research in PhD. a key ingredient for success is their ability to manage the program and they have to face the following problems like: 16 . personality clashes. If it is essential that a suspension be put in place. talk with the student union or student association. the main objective of doing PhD degree is to become a competent researcher who can conduct independent research in his or her chosen area. They then find themselves in a program that bears little resemblance to previous degree programs. If that is impossible. go to the Departmental Research Degree Coordinator or Head of the department/Institute. it is often believed that creating new knowledge is the main goal of PhD.on” understanding of the demands of such a program. a change of topic or a multitude of reasons. In that case. re-orientate the thesis so that it focuses on a different aspect of the research. g) What if Someone Publishes a Student’s Original Idea Before He Does? A student shouldn’t worry about this because it very rarely happens. but with little “hands. f) Problems With a Supervisor Problems with a research degree supervisor can arise from overwork. Though creating new knowledge is part of the PhD training. If none of these are possible. very slim. but it may well save the doctorate the student has put so much work into.D. It is a student’s right to have good supervision and a university’s failure to provide it leaves it liable. Think about drawing on a different aspect of the literature review or do some additional empirical work to move the idea on. Maintaining links improves the chances of eventual completion considerably. In some countries. it is possible to suspend a doctoral registration. MANAGING YOURSELF FOR PHD/ RESEARCH Students often enter a doctoral program desirous of a research and teaching career. Whatever the reason.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Ph.

Make sure you start writing early on and regularly throughout your PhD. Writing 4. Personal Problems 6. there is need to properly manage yourself before entering the research which is possible through: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Estimate how long each task will take Use of planning tools to establish important sequences Enter start dates. Isolation 5. then give it to your supervisor and ask for feedback. Start with a modest target (may be review). PhD is an opportunity to develop an effective and highly efficient process for working and there should be the proper consideration of following points during doctoral programme. The more you write. Even if you are not going to try and publish anything while you are doing your work. you will be able to write the research paper also as well as become competent to academic 17 . Methodological difficulties 3. Supervision a) Self directed Learning and management Because a PhD largely involves self-directed learning – self-management is critical. you must get into the habit of writing down your ideas.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1. Poor planning 2. milestones and completion dates in routine diary Review and revise regularly your experiments Write down everything you can so that you do not need to keep it in short-term memory Hopelessly inaccurate estimates are much more efficient than no estimates at all Make a list of your glassware. the better you will become at it. Once you are capable of wrting a good review following the instructions of journal and standard guidelines. So to overcome the above problems. chemicals and technological needs and work out how you’re going to get them b) Managing your Writing Writing is one of the most challenging tasks you will have to undertake during your research.

workshops and trainings 3. A reflective journal is not a work log or diary. discuss it with your supervisor and reach an agreement on your research direction. They are a chance for you to explore your “blocks” and “dead ends” and to think about and plan strategies to overcome them. like a documentary of your journey of discovery. What is the key problem your PhD addresses? III. you must aware of your research priorities on the basis of your topic of interest and justification of gap studies. d) What is your thesis about? Before starting your research.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 wirting to some extent Research scholars can also improve their academic writing skills by attending conferences. c) Habit of exploring research journals Reflective journals are a very private form of leaning supervision. seminars. Write your short research statement (25-30 words). In the reflective journal you record your experience of formulating questions and of how you came to find answers. Attending conferences. workshops and by poster and oral presentations. Attending departmental orientation and technical programs 2. Use SPQR (Situation-Problem-Question-Response) to help structure your research – it can be quite helpful in writing early versions of your abstract which includes I. What questions arise from problem? IV. In essence of good journals you become your own supervisor. How would you describe the current situation? II. How did you respond to answer the question? e) Find out what you are expected to do by: 1. 2. Following points can help the research scholar in managing their research topic 1. It will change over time but it is important that you formulate what it is. Course handbooks 18 . seminars.

Spending time grappling with research issues. This is one of the most important abilities for a researcher. what is missing. reports. most PhD programs have three components in them – some course work to provide the breadth of knowledge. i. But doing research is much more than getting an idea. etc. The idea has to be developed using the established paradigms of scientific research. Behind every research there is some new idea. and studying research work 19 . Formulating a problem properly is half the research done. problems whose outcomes are not known. Ability to actually do the research. actually doing research. some methods to develop the depth of knowledge in the chosen area of study. Books and websites 6. and monographs and appreciate the subtle or complex issues that may be involved. This skill is strengthened as the person develops the subjective ability of judging results and problems. an area in which he has full knowledge of what is known. i. This skill is also needed by a PhD person as a member of the research community where one is called upon to review other peoples work.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 4. This ability requires a good knowledge of the recent developments in the area. which form the foundation of a career in research: 1. and the experience of working on research problems. Expertise in a vertical area in which the PhD candidate can say “I am an expert in this”. and the ability to create a bigger picture and see how the different work fit and what might be missing. 3. most PhD candidates spend much of their time in defining the problem. Breadth in the discipline – can be provided through courses. through which the researcher shows the value of the idea. To develop these critical abilities. which forms the foundation of the research work. as well as the ability to critically read and understand research papers. GSO (Global Standard Organisation) guidelines 5. and a thesis that provides the experience of working on research problems. Through these components a PhD candidate should expect to develop the following abilities. some hypothesis. Read excellent theses f) Abilities to develop by Research scholar The ability to conduct research in an area requires deep knowledge in that area. Developing this expertise requires ability to search for relevant work done in an area. 2.e.e. knowledge about related areas. Ability to identify research problems. In fact. 4.

due to the many facets of academic supervision. guidance on issues that pertain to the organizational culture of the university and the discipline. unlike choosing the research topic or paradigm. not only does the student choose the supervisor. EMPATHY AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPERVISOR. if published) that the work is worthy of their time. is mutual. COLLEAGUES AND SUPPORTING STAFF To carry out research in a lab or in a organization is not a process of isolation. The supervisory empathy or understanding and relationship is the most important academic connection you will have throughout your PhD. the results have been put in context. and perhaps the only reliable method to subject a research work to scrutiny as well as use by others. etc. This is very important and very difficult. timely and with patience. Choosing a supervisor. a doctoral student must also select a supervisor who will accompany him or her throughout the doctoral research. Though you need privacy and concentration during your research but you have to be in the contact of many persons like your supervisor. but one has to convince a group of peers (who review it and later read it. 5. Ability to write and present the results. however. there is need of better understanding between you and the persons linked to you during your research process. This mutual selection leads to the formation of a professional and significant relationship for the doctoral student. academic development. a) Empathy and Relationship with Supervisor In addition to choosing the research topic and paradigm. smoothly. So to carry out your work effectively. such as active guidance in the execution of the research and in choosing academic study courses. and many more. Publishing the results of research has been the time honored tradition and benchmark. staff members and persons not related to your department or organization but related to your research. the value is clearly articulated. It is critical that you learn to manage it efficiently by 20 . Not only are issues of communication involved. assisting research students in their professional. That is the main reason why doing independent research is always a part of a PhD program. colleagues. but the supervisor must also agree to supervise the student.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 of others can help in developing this ability. assistance in obtaining financial resources.

Research Interests 2. This multiplicity of roles may lead to conflict between the supervisor and students. 2. The main problems which may arise from supervisor and student side are discussed as below c) Problems related to research scholar 1. "promoter". Will you be able to get on? 6. "teacher". data analysis) d) Problems related to Supervisor 1.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1. Experience supervising 4. "boss". 4. 3. "friend". "principal investigator” etc. How much time they will have? 5. Students lack independence 21 . Lack of guidance Not available for discussions Fault-finding Unreasonable expectations Not interested Lack of resources or facilities lack of support in process of research (techniques. 5. 3. 6. Recent publications 3. 7. Distinguish between what you want to do and what your supervisor wants you to do Work out the best way of getting in contact with your supervisor Know your supervisor’s strengths/weaknesses As soon as possible find out your supervisor’s: 1. What kind of role does your supervisor expect? b) Problems related to scholar and supervisor The relationship between the student and the supervisor is unequal and hierarchical. 2. The supervisor plays many roles as "adviser".

2. and the supervisor needs continual feedback in order to give instruction. poor written work not honest about progress lack commitment don’t realise how much work it takes Lack of effort absent from lab/desk Oversensitive don’t accept challenge 10. The first has already been mentioned: the student needs constant support and reassurance. 3. No enthusiasm 11. before discussing what has been happening with the supervisor. 4. Thus good communication and 22 . 9. False expectations Failure to see whole picture Survival of the fittest? Personality clash Other pressures Lack of communication f) Managing Relations There are at least two patterns from which to choose with regard to working with supervisor.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2. don’t follow advice e) Basis of problems 1. 6. 6. 8. The second pattern is a relationship in which the student needs time to think about the work to be done and needs the freedom to make mistakes during early attempts to get started. 3. In this relationship the supervisor must feel relaxed about giving the student time to learn by trial and error. 5. 4. thus providing direction for the research. 7. Such supervisors are content to give guidance at regular intervals rather than the direction provided by those who stay much closer to the students and their work. 5.

The reality of this situation is that all personal relationships within the academic community. Further. that this is part of the general malaise of postgraduate life and not peculiar to you and your inadequacies. they have some understanding of your own experience. If you can arrange to meet regularly with others in your situation you will find that you can help yourself and them in several ways. As one of the group confronts the problems. Each of you states what work you want to do and sets a time limit for its completion. aware of what you are doing. This commitment serves as a motivator. attrition. Once you become aware that such feelings are experienced by the majority of research students from time to time. and that such relationships may serve as a source of support. you will all start to feel better. RELATIONSHIP WITH COLLEAGUES AND SUPPORTING STAFF Socialization of doctoral students in academia takes place mainly through their interaction and experience within the research group or groups to which they belong. or concerned about how you are feeling with regard to the research degree. Since they are at the same stage as you.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 rapport between students and their supervisors are the most important elements of supervision and needs to balanced throughout the research program. is that you are no longer in solitary confinement. and when it comes to their turn they will remember how it was and know that it is possible to get through it. with nobody interested in your work. and most obvious. The first. It is evident that the professional relationships between doctoral students and their colleagues are important during the doctoral research period (and probably also after that). 23 . This need not be the case. have to be worked at and take time to develop. and so on. A more pragmatic function for your group or peer (just one other postgraduate at your stage of the PhD is sufficient) is to help in keeping you to deadlines. Throughout the whole of your course this group will enable you to compare not only how your research is progressing. You will discover. Working towards the PhD is often experienced as an isolating and lonely time. you will be able to put them into perspective as part of the process that has to be got through. professional development. as elsewhere. the others will be able to help. when you feel depressed and discouraged and are thinking seriously about dropping out. instead of seeing them as proof of your own incompetence. once you are able to share these feelings and to talk about them and their effect on your work. but also your feelings about it.

active listener. TEAM WORK AND SENSE OF HUMOR There should be the need to develop many skills during the doctoral program inspite of carrying out only the experiments in the lab. since recovery from failure to deliver on expectations can be difficult to achieve. values. honest commitment to an interest in the other person. Concern: .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Despite the colleagues. This is best demonstrated by devoting time and by being a sincere. Though the main important skills are your bility to plan and conduct your experiments as well as your academic writing skill but there are many other skills 24 . Define clear boundaries. These expectations must be established early in the relationship and reestablished as situations present themselves. Supervisor has limited time for guiding the scholar and then the scholar gets much help from the supporting staff regarding the department. Synergy is developed through sharing insights and new ideas. equipments/ instruments as well as about the chemicals. Confidentiality: -Respect for confidentiality must be given while maintaining a careful balance with individual values. Individual egos are put aside as help is freely requested and given. or goals. ASSERTIVENESS.being dependable in who we are and what we do. It can be experienced within the mentoring relationship and also observed in dealings with others. 5. Competence: -Individual skills and gifts are identified. This could include common background. evaluated and shared with each other. interests. 3. Consistency: . opinions. 2. The Five C’s of an Ethical Relationship with Colleagues and Staff 1. a research scholar must have good relationships with the other staff members of departments or of other departments. LISTENING. 4. Commonality: -seek the common ground of shared experience as a first step in understanding one another and as a basis for communication.

Listen openly and with empathy to the other person 2. 14. not global 10. not the messenger or delivery. rephrase.. tell a person that his behavior really upsets you. not "I've heard you are noncooperative" 16. Don't react to emotional words. your reactions. paraphrase what the other is saying to make sure you understand it and check for understanding 6. Ask the other for his views or suggestions 9. listen between the lines 8. Skill in communication involves a number of specific strengths. Respond in an interested way that shows you understand the problem and the employee's concern 7. but interpret their purpose 25 . comprehend before you judge 3. not "They". The one of the important skill involves listening skills. repeat. State your position openly. Be validating. and finding out reasons for performance discrepancies. Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide. acknowledge other's uniqueness. Attend to non-verbal cues.) 4. be specific. Don't totally control conversation. Be conjunctive.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 which demands prime consideration throughout your research program which are discussed below a) Listening There are a number of situations when a research scholar needs to solicit good information from others. body language. acknowledge what was said 15. don't get angry) 11. these situations include interviewing candidates. Be descriptive. not evaluative-describe objectively. Active body state 5. solving work problems. Communicate your feelings but don't act them out (eg.. Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend (ask. not just words. Judge the content. consequences 12. Own up: use "I". etc. seeking to help an employee on work performance. The following lists some suggests for effective listening when confronted with a problem at research work: 1. not disjunctive (not "I want to discuss this regardless of what you want to discuss"). not invalidating ("You wouldn't understand").importance 13.

to have and express personal preferences. never to pretend to wit. Assertive leaders project confidence and encourage feedback when expressing their thoughts. Assertiveness helps scholars perform 26 . but to make that of others appear as much as possibly we can. They also tend to blame others for problems instead of offering solutions. always to distrust our own reason. These rights include not only legal rights but also rights to individuality. Decide on specific follow-up actions and specific follow up dates Benjamin Franklin emphasized the importance of ‘listening’ in the following words ‘The great secret of succeeding in conversation is to admire little. Assertive attitudes and behaviours are at the heart of effective advocacy. b) Assertiveness Assertiveness is a way of thinking and behaving that allows a person to stand up for his or her rights while respecting the rights of others.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 17. Assertiveness is built on the understanding that each individual has the right to be open and express themselves honestly. Passive individuals are not committed to their own rights and are more likely to allow others to infringe on their rights than to stand up and speak out. not one-way listening 18. Research Scholars with these traits communicate openly and honestly with those around them. Democratic politician used to say. On the other hand. U. A person with an assertive attitude recognizes that each individual has rights. aggressive individuals insist that their feelings and needs take precedence over other people's.” Dean Rusk. to hearken to what is said and to answer to the purpose.” One of the best ways to persuade others is with your ears—by listening to them. The assertive individual not only believes in his or her rights but is committed to preserving those rights. to hear much.S. and sometimes that of our friends. aggressive persons are very likely to defend their own rights and work to achieve their own goals but are also likely to disregard the rights of others. An assertive attitude is important in recognizing that rights are being violated Assertiveness is a widely recognized leadership trait. Additionally. Practice supportive listening. feelings and opinions. Assertive individuals are self-confident and clear about what they want. Non assertive people may be passive or aggressive.

embarrassment or shilly-shally. He is also capable of responding to and utilizing the resources of others. For maximum results. Assertive leaders are able to comfortably confront subordinates about poor performance. and humor has an important contribution to make in each case.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 many tasks and achieve goals. c) Sense of Humor Creative thinking in the workplace is more important now than ever before. He or she is willing and able to confront conflict. 27 . and to make tough decisions. Sometimes unplanned humor can help move toward a solution to tough problems." and coming up with innovative and effective solutions that your competitors have not thought of. you can move in all three directions at the same time. to say “no” without guilt. They are able to send this message of confidence and competence through their personal demeanor while showing respect for their group. and even make demands on higher management when necessary for the group to meet its objectives. In theory there is a free exchange of information and the whole group works in harmony. He or she is sufficiently confident and self-possessed so that defensive and abrasive behavior which inhibits the enthusiasm. d) Team Work Each student is working on a specific problem. creativity and motivation of others is minimized. 2) hire more creative employees. and 3) find ways to build up the creative abilities of the employees you have. It is essential to have researchers in organization who are capable of "thinking outside the box. you need all the creativity you can muster up to be successful. set high goals. The PhD is awarded for original work. In an evermore-competitive global marketplace. There are three ways to increase the level of creativity within your company: 1) create a work environment conducive to more creative thinking. Each problem is closely linked to all the others. and authority in any situation. Assertive leaders recognize their own level of knowledge. In some programmes though. Without this ability the communication would breakdown and the relationship between the leader and his team would quickly begin to deteriorate. ability. research students take care to guard closely the work for which they are responsible because they occasionally fear that one of the others may discover something that will render their own research unworthy of continuation. An effective research scholar is clear about goals and purposes.

In well managed laboratories there are regular group meetings to ensure that there is a general knowledge of the work that is being undertaken. that another student’s work so closely borders on their own that it will make their work unoriginal or second past the post. between people who should be making each other’s work more comprehensible and less alienating. Any socializing that may take place as a result of a seminar.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Postgraduates working on a programme such as the one described have two worries: first. second. and good communication about the issues and difficulties involved. The first six months of third year require analysis of results and the last six months involve preparation of theses and its submission 28 . This is because within the sciences there is the illusion of companionship. The strange thing about this is that sometimes the science students appear to feel the isolation more strongly than their counterparts in the Social Sciences or Arts faculties. Duration of PhD is generally dependent on many things like length of the research work. shared room or organized event is perceived as a bonus. and the expectations of new postgraduates are that they will be part of a group of friends. interest and capabilities of research scholar and more importantly the relationship between supervisor and his student. availability of techniques. standard methods. chemicals and equipments in the lab. writing and thinking rather than experimenting. The duration of PhD which is generally considered for three years involves preparation of synopsis by reviewing the literature in first six months. DURATION AND STAGES OF PHD PROGRAMME Generally PhD is considered to be of three years of duration but this is not a harden and fasten rule. as well as a work group. that somebody else will demonstrate something (for which that other person will be awarded a PhD) that will at the same time show their own line of research to be false. not competition. reading. In other faculties new research students expect to be working alone in libraries or at home. What is needed is collaboration. The second year of PhD involves optimization and standardization of your experiments. Yet often students experience alienation and isolation as the overriding themes of their postgraduate days. presentation of synopsis and planning to conduct the experiments and collection of raw materials in the next six months.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 There are some common “mistakes” students make in their doctoral program that often hinder their ability to manage their progress. student growth Stage I: The Stage of Exploration The Stage of Exploration epitomizes first year students. Despite the plethora of voluminous research many students do when searching for the right program. the pendulum does not swing until they are actually in the program. This idea of stages of development in a doctoral program can help students benchmark their progress and circumvent common mistakes. These mistakes are avoidable when they can be identified and the students can see them within the larger context of the program and the stages through which their program develops.D. they listen to senior students tell them how hard they need to work. While the pace and acuity of development might vary by student based on their capability. Here is when they realize that doctoral study is outside the scope of their previous reality from what they envisioned coming from a professional masters program. the stages generally remain the same. motivation. and the importance of working on research 29 . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Figure 1: Maturity model of Ph. the battles of the job market. Here. and ability to manage their program or manage their advisor. comprehensive exam pressures.

30 . and then proactively trying to position themselves to maximize learning and success. While failure here may not result in failure in the program. There are four key negative characteristics students must identify and overcome in order to avoid the most common mistakes: doctoral students are: 1) too reactive. 3) do not build an asset base. They also begin to sense their path of success through the program. question. understanding the political landscape. including the colleagues and faculty members they will need to interact with and a sense of research areas and methods they particularly enjoy. making mistakes early could be costly. The biggest challenge in the Stage of Exploration is trying to position oneself within the new context. and where they are going. they need to take a deep breath and explore. Internalizing this concept requires students to focus on getting a good understanding of the faculty members. 2) do not seek help. This is exploration with a purpose. Many of these concepts are new to the first year students and they have to battle this noise as they deal with seminars and research articles not written for the common man. and perhaps their chosen profession. This is the stage where students engage with faculty members. it is necessary for students to recognize that the nature of a doctoral program is fundamentally different from their other experiences and they need to assume more responsibility for their success. It is still a struggle for many to prioritize because opportunities increase and students straddle the broad view and the more narrow personal view of research. student and institutional resources surrounding them. with published work. While these “mistakes” should be recognized in the first stage. and with research ideas. resulting in a dismal path of counterproductive results. their position in their institution. Such mistakes could lead the doctoral student into a vicious circle that is difficult to counteract as the program proceeds. In this stage first year doctoral students must take advantage of the resources available to actively begin molding their program. what they are doing there. Doctoral students begin to have a sense of doctoral study. they must be considered in all stages in order to maximize the quality and efficacy of results. This becomes a trying time. and 4) are not politically astute. Stage II: The Stage of Engagement The Stage of Engagement is further up the value-added axis. and to succeed. and learn about where they are. and statistical techniques that they never knew existed. At this point.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 outside the classroom.

creating synergies between projects. Doctoral students in this stage are more engaged and committed to their research. The students should also develop their level of engagement with the broader profession as they package themselves for the job market. Here is where two more common mistakes manifest themselves: 1) doctoral students do not create synergy.. the pace of the program picks up and it is necessary for students to begin considering relations with faculty members. For instance. by not being responsible about meetings and deadlines). and the institution is irreversibly committed to the students particularly if the students pass their comprehensive examinations and are admitted to candidacy. and 2) doctoral students do not carefully evaluate opportunity costs. evaluating potential opportunities. Failure at this stage is fatal in most cases. Stage III: The Stage of Consolidation The Stage of Consolidation is when ideas crystallize. The student at this stage should have a very good sense of his or her field and its structure. as the personal view of research dominates the latter part of this stage. The biggest challenge in the Stage of Engagement is to navigate the broad view of the field while managing personal research projects. By this stage the student is more comfortable within the program and has worked very hard up to this point. which could eliminate an important option of working with this faculty member in the future. and to start taking advantage of the resources available to actively begin molding their programs. This makes it more difficult to counteract the spiraling vicious circle. After students pass their comprehensive examinations is the start of the stage where the program makes its turn and begins to head into the final phase of the dissertation and program conclusion. The student should be able to traverse up and down between the supra-system (the broad field) and the sub-system (individual research). I’ve observed cases where doctoral students have not cultivated a good working relationship with a faculty member (i. Since this stage is still prior to comprehensive exams (or the equivalent system in place that qualifies the student for the dissertation stage). and the ability to position research within that structure.e.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 At this point. deterring a 31 . The biggest challenge in the Stage of Consolidation is to engage in deep research and establishties with professionals in the field. Dissertation ideas should be developed in this stage. but the probability of failure associated with making them increases. the mistakes mentioned earlier are still applicable.

The Stage of Entry is the final thrust before the doctoral student formally enters the profession as a peer. the two common mistakes in this stage: doctoral students 1) do not make appropriate tradeoffs and 2) leave too early. and/or created synergy across their projects will have a much harder time developing a research topic and engaging in the profession.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 student from ever finishing the program. cultivated good relationships with faculty members. timetabling and time management become crucial to success. location. 3) do not manage their advisor. often doctoral students do not make appropriate tradeoffs resulting in problems with completion of the dissertation or getting a job. The biggest challenge in the Stage of Entry is to manage the transition as the student has one foot in the home institution and another foot trying to move outside it. the temptation of getting a head start in their career prompts them to leave before their final defense. the previous mistakes impede progress and compound the vicious circles as they interact with other “mistakes. Since these have to be achieved within a limited period. conduct and complete your PhD. and job satisfaction. In this stage. We now have to consider the conceptual and practical tasks that have to be undertaken to obtain a PhD. Of course. and tenure enter the student’s consciousness. or an equivalent amount part-time. spread over five or six years. and 5) do not seek resources.” Doctoral students that have not been proactive. 4) are too ambitious. built some core competencies. Broader notions of career. research stream. So. They will then spend the next two or more years wishing they had put that year to better use and then they get frustrated. In other cases. The “light at the end of the tunnel” keeps the student going as the process culminates with a doctoral degree. TIME MANAGEMENT It is a truth universally acknowledged that a PhD student in their first year will spend most of that year sitting in a library wondering what on earth they should be doing. 2) do not carefully select their committee. managed their time well. leading to the last career threatening mistake: doctoral students leave too early. as do family. students tend to make five more common mistakes important for the post-comprehensive stage: doctoral students 1) fall into a lull. However. You will probably have three years full-time after your taught component in which to design. Stage IV: The Stage of Entry Finally. sought help. you will have some idea of what you will be 32 . Further.

Ideally the results of these different tasks will be written down. for the simple reason that the dissertation itself will also be a written product. the general level at which the tasks required to complete a PhD must be realistically charted if they are to be accomplished in the time available. Modules are clearly identifiable. What's more. make it easy for other people to look at your work and criticize it. a) Taking a modular approach To get a grip on your research project. and collecting. analyzing. and. these intermediate goals are much more manageable targets on which to focus.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 doing during those years but how much thought have you given to just how and when you will be undertaking specific activities? These activities operate at two levels: first. Instead of getting scared of the book that needs to be finished. 33 . The research. the detailed level concerned with setting timetable deadlines for particular tasks. designing new models. Examples include outlining the research problem. plan that clearly outlines the modules. eventually. it is wise to take a modular approach. and achieving them. but aim for a loose. it is of course essential to schedule them with the help of a time plan. In addition. therefore. will have to be broken down into several modules that will serve as the stepping stones to your final destination: the manuscript. or interpreting data. but nevertheless concrete. the activities must be seen as both part of the research task and part of the essential structure into which the timetabling of the PhD falls. such written reports really force you to spell out the argument as fully and strongly as possible. b) Time planning Having identified the modules of your project. making an inventory of theoretical perspectives. and second. intermediary tasks which have to be completed in order to finish your dissertation. You should not strive for a railroad-like timetable.

4. 12. 10. 3.g. 6. or possibly within a few months). within a week. in a day. 9.. 11. Take a couple of courses that will improve your knowledge of the field or your research skills. 2. Short-term goals are ones that you will achieve in the near future (e. you should also set both short-term and long-term goals. 5. Now you can not only see how much time each activity will take. d) Long and Short term goals Not only should you set useful goals. 14. At the start of the project. but also how many of them coincide. 8. 13. 34 . This will certainly help you to find the right mix of activities for each period. it is a good idea to supplement your often long and lonely days while you are getting acquainted with the theoretical perspectives of your research. Writing/outlining the research problem Training: skills courses Teaching Appointments with your (daily) supervisor and dissertation committee Data collection/fieldwork Analyzing data/reporting measurements Writing papers/chapters/articles Rewriting papers/chapters/articles Conferences/seminars/workshops Drafting and rewriting the manuscript Finding a publisher/lay out Administrative duties Holidays The unexpected! All these activities are placed on a time scale.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 c) Items for your planning: 1. 7.

inactivity or inability to estimate the amount of work accurately. realistically. If you define short-term goals it will be less necessary to rely on external sources of information. you discover that you have not managed to complete the projected work in the time assigned to it. one semester. next.g. either orally or in writing. five years. such as supervisors. This last is the most usual discovery. This clarity results in information on progress that you can interpret for yourself with very little difficulty. Typically. but the best way of learning how to judge your own efforts is to pay careful attention to your supervisor’s comments. Short term goals are of prime importance as they help us achieve a long-term goal. This realization eventually leads to a reassessment of what may. First. then one result will inevitably be a much greater dependence on your supervisor for feedback concerning your progress.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Long-term goals are ones that you will achieve over a longer period of time (e. or twenty years). you will know whether you managed to do it in the time allocated. because the step-by-step structure will be clear. If. As this happens with short-term goals the related longer-term goals can be adjusted too. research students gradually realize that progress is slower than they had expected. f) Management of work In time you will be able to do this evaluation for yourself. and how much was due to your own inexperience. you will be in a good position to analyse the reasons. one year.. Very few people are able to work well without some pressure (either 35 . you will know whether you have managed to do what you said you would do. DEADLINES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE Deadlines create a necessary tension between doing original work and reporting its progress. Evaluating your own work will also be more difficult. be achieved. on the other hand. These goals are like stepping stones that help us measure our progress toward reaching longer-term goals and help in e) Structured Planning of Work If you do not take this kind of structured approach to planning your PhD work. You might estimate how much was due to circumstances that could neither have been foreseen nor prevented.

It is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training. Knowing that a deadline is looming is usually sufficient for most people to get on and do whatever it is they are supposed to do. the timing of the work that they have to complete is not marked except by the final submission of the thesis. as one of the most important things that you have to do during the course of your research degree is to keep writing. regular opportunities to discuss progress and exchange ideas are vital to the development of the project and your continuing enthusiasm.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 internal or external). For many students. you must ensure that you have somebody to report to once the deadline has been reached. to have no steps along the way. They may be set by your supervisors. Even if this last is the case. Your overall agreement with your supervisor must include provision for regular reporting meetings. In such cases it is imperative that pseudo-deadlines are created. but this should be only in order for you to take smaller steps than you have agreed with your supervisor. Deadlines are as important for monitoring the development of thinking as they are for ascertaining that an agreed amount of reading or practical work has been completed. it is certainly advisable. Such a lack of structure in the task or its timing is not conducive to effective working. 36 . But neither is it desirable. when you have a long period of time in which to complete something. Pseudo-deadlines are time limits accepted by the student as a motivating device. the purpose of which is to supply disinterested counsel and service to others. for a direct and definite compensation. or set by and for yourself. The public commitment that you have set up in this way strengthens your motivation. While it may not always be necessary to provide a written report for such occasions. colleague or relative will agree to help. and requiring standards of practice and code of ethics is established by a recognized body. In fact it is not at all unusual for people to leave things until the very last minute because they find it difficult to work well if they are not under pressure – a strategy not to be recommended. Whatever the short-term goals. agreed between you. wholly apart from expectation of other business gain. For these reasons it is crucial to ensure that you have firm deadlines all the time. though. PROFESSION Profession as a specialized kind of work practised through and by use of classified knowledge a common vocabulary. It may be that a friend.

CPA) of the United Kingdom. However. ICAEW. which means they have a high degree of control of their own affairs: "professionals are autonomous insofar as they can make independent judgments about their work" This usually means "the freedom to exercise their professional judgment. as is the case for accountancy in the United Kingdom (except for auditing and insolvency work which legally require qualification by a professional body). apprenticeship. 3 Autonomy Professions tend to be autonomous. IFA. the emergence of regulatory bodies with powers to admit and discipline members.this professional autonomy can only 37 . In such cases. There may be several such bodies for one profession in a single country. CIMA. and may additionally set examinations of competence and enforce adherence to an ethical code of practice. and some degree of monopoly rights. with the responsibilities of enforcement delegated to respective professional bodies.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 1 Formation of a profession A profession arises when any trade or occupation transforms itself through "the development of formal qualifications based upon education. 2 Regulation Professions are typically regulated by statute. promote. qualification by the professional bodies is effectively still considered a prerequisite to practice as most employers and clients stipulate that the individual hold such qualifications before hiring their services. all of which have been given a Royal Charter although not necessarily considered to hold equivalent-level qualifications. ICAS. However. whose function is to define. ICAI. support and regulate the affairs of its members. and examinations. However. individuals may not be required by law to be qualified by such a professional body in order to practice.. oversee. individuals are required by law to be qualified by a local professional body before they are permitted to practice in that profession. an example being the accountancy bodies (ACCA. Typically. These bodies are responsible for the licensure of professionals.. "Professional autonomy is often described as a claim of professionals that has to serve primarily their own interests. CIPFA. AAPA. it has other meanings. they all require that the individual hold at least a first professional degree before licensure. in some countries.

38 . rebuffing competition from ancillary trades and occupations. Training also requires regular updating of skills through 1.1. and also its area of expertise and interests. It is used to control its own members. and exercises a dominating influence over its entire field which means that professions can act monopolist. A profession tends to dominate police and protect its area of expertise and the conduct of its members.1. 1. regard and esteem conferred upon them by society. which is regarded as vital to society as a whole and thus of having a special and valuable nature.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 be maintained if members of the profession subject their activities and decisions to a critical evaluation by other members of the profession .The concept of autonomy can therefore be seen to embrace not only judgment.g. but does not claim to include every characteristic that has ever been attributed to professions. and scripture) and to possess skills based on that knowledge that they are able to apply in practice.4 Status and prestige Professions enjoy a high social status. 1. prestige and value that society confers upon a profession that more clearly defines it. as well as subordinating and controlling lesser but related trades. A profession is characterized by the power and high prestige it has in society as a whole. law.1.5 Power All professions have power.6 Characteristics of profession The list of characteristics that follows is extensive. medicine. It is the power. All professions involve technical." Training for this work involves obtaining degrees and professional qualifications (see Licensure) without which entry to the profession is barred (occupational closure). specialized and highly skilled work often referred to as "professional expertise. architecture. This high esteem arises primarily from the higher social function of their work. but also self-interest and a continuous process of critical evaluation of ethics and procedures from within the profession. nor do all of these features apply to every profession: (a) Skill based on theoretical knowledge: Professionals are assumed to have extensive theoretical knowledge (e.

even when they are employed outside the profession in commercial or public organizations. which are intended to enhance the status of their members and have carefully controlled entrance requirements. 2 years work experience and a further year of work related study before one can apply to become a chartered member. Continuous upgrading of skills through professional development is also mandatory these days. respected practitioners and the most highly qualified members of the profession. (c) Extensive period of education: The most prestigious professions usually require at least three years at university. They have also gained control over their own theoretical knowledge. (h) Code of professional conduct or ethics: Professional bodies usually have codes of conduct or ethics for their members and disciplinary procedures for those who infringe the rules. Undertaking doctoral research can add a further 4–5 years to this period of education (for example. (d)Testing of competence: Before being admitted to membership of a professional body. 39 . (g) Work autonomy: Professionals tend to retain control over their work. architecture generally requires 5 years of study. Architects generally become chartered in their late 20s early 30s and earn between 22 24k before tax in the United Kingdom). (i) Self-regulation: Professional bodies tend to insist that they should be self-regulating and independent from government. there is a requirement to pass prescribed examinations that are based on mainly theoretical knowledge. Professions tend to be policed and regulated by senior. (e)Institutional training: In addition to examinations. (f) Licensed practitioners: Professions seek to establish a register or membership so that only those individuals so licensed are recognized as bonafide. there is usually a requirement for a long period of institutionalized training where aspiring professionals acquire specified practical experience in some sort of trainee role before being recognized as a full member of a professional body.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 (b) Professional association: Professions usually have professional bodies organized by their members.

certifying the insane) but are also seen as adding legitimacy to a wide range of related activities. Medicine and law are typically not school subjects and have separate faculties and even separate libraries at universities. (k) Exclusion. For example.g. (n) Male-dominated: The highest statuses professions have tended to be male dominated although females are closing this gender gap Women are now being admitted to the priesthood while its status has declined relative to other professions. and seeks to bar entry for the unqualified and to sanction or expel incompetent members. This is often termed professional closure. Similar arguments apply to race and class: ethnic groups and working-class people are no less disadvantaged in most professions than they are in society generally. (p) Inaccessible body of knowledge: In some professions. in accountancy. (o)Legitimacy: Professions have clear legal authority over some activities (e. monopoly and legal recognition: Professions tend to exclude those who have not met their requirements and joined the appropriate professional body.g. the body of knowledge is relatively inaccessible to the uninitiated. 40 . (L) Individual clients: Many professions have individual fee-paying clients. (q) Indeterminacy of knowledge Professional knowledge contains elements that escape being mastered and communicated in the form of rules and can only be acquired through experience. e. (m) Middle-class occupations: Traditionally.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (j) Public service and altruism: The earning of fees for services rendered can be defended because they are provided in the public interest. "the profession" usually refers to accountants who have individual and corporate clients. rather than accountants who are employees of organizations. many professions have been viewed as 'respectable' occupations for middle and upper classes. the work of doctors contributes to public health.

Scientific integrity Scientific integrity” defines the commitment of researchers to adhere to the fundamental rules of good scientific practice. transparency in conflicts of interest or potential conflicts of interest. not the organizations for which they work. including       intellectual honesty in proposing. protection of human participants in the conduct of research. Truth and transparency. an Effective recordkeeping.g. and reporting research. fairness in peer review. Within the framework of the research project. the PI should take the lead 41 . self criticism and fairness are indispensable for behaviour of integrity. integrity embodies above all a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for ones actions and to a range of practices that characterise the responsible conduct of research. Professionals are therefore relatively mobile in employment opportunities as they can move to other employers and take their talents with them.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 (r) Mobility The skill knowledge and authority of professionals belongs to the professionals as individuals. self discipline. They represent the basis of all scientific activity and are preconditions for the credibility and acceptance of science. Standardization of professional training and procedures enhances this mobility. depending on the size of the project. Project management The project managers (often called PI: principal investigator) are the individuals responsible for the execution of a scientific project. accuracy in representing contributions to research proposals and reports. Concept of Research Integrity For the individual researcher. e. human care of animals in the conduct of research. professors. performing. senior scientists. senior assistants and post‐doctoral fellows. This function may be performed by one or more individuals.

Therefore.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 role in guiding and supervising the junior scientists. Any professional relationship or action that may result in a conflict of interest must be fully disclosed to the project management. linear audit trail of the research decision‐making process. raw data. decisions taken a the analysis and interpretation of results. They must be fully Comprehensible for all participants to the project and for persons in charge of checking the research results. Such questions may arise following the challenging of research evidence. When objectivity and effectiveness cannot be maintained. on the financing and its sources and on the handling of the data or materials. in the form of an agreement between all participants. including interim results. (i)The results of research should be recorded and stored in a form that allows analysis and review by authorized persons. records should be compiled and maintained on the research methodology and procedures followed. (ii)Records should contain sufficient detail to provide clear answers to questions concerning the validity of data or the conduct of research activities. the sponsor or the Dean of Research. The plan must provide information on the persons responsible for the project and their specific roles. 42 . In particular. Conflicts of Interest There are many professional activities of researchers that have the potential for a conflict of interest. the relevant rights and obligations must be established in due time. Realisation of research projects Data and material Fabrication of data or selective reporting of data with the intent to mislead or deceive is an egregious departure from the expected norms of scientific conduct. Patenting If a patent application is to be considered. to create a transparent. the activity should be avoided or discontinued. he/she must ensure that all research project participants are aware of the present guidelines. and the existence of accurate. as is the theft of data or research results from others. Documentation The research plan of third party financed projects and their subsequent major modifications must be available in writing.

complete. If possible. Following publication. researchers must be able to retrieve or reproduce lost data. both electronic‐ and / or paper‐based. Authorship should be limited to those who meet all the following criteria (i) have made a significant personal contribution to the concept. the process. clear. (iv) Collaborations are expected to organize the appropriate means to archive (e. stored in a secure location. (vi)The PI is responsible for ensuring that. after the completion of the project. Errors detected following the publication of results could be mistaken for research misconduct if a researcher could not subsequently provide valid corroborative research evidence. All members of any given collaboration should be familiar with. and cross‐referenced to the original. the data should be retained for a reasonable period in order to be available promptly and completely to collaborating scientists. laboratory logs. design.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 contemporary. This should allow facilitating internal communication and allowing all authors to be fully aware of the entire work. durable and legible records is invaluable should this occur. If necessary. execution or interpretation of the research study. should be securely stored for an appropriate time period. Therefore. a hard copy should be made. Exceptions may be appropriate in certain circumstances in order to preserve privacy or to ensure patent protection. for particularly important data. and understand. electronic data carriers) and verify the research record. back up records should be made at regular intervals and kept securely for electronic data stored on a computer.g. (iii)Original research evidence. (v )Research data should be timely available to scientific collaborators and responsible bodies in the case of an inquiry. Publication of research results does not negate the need to retain original records of research evidence generated during the lifetime of the research project. and 43 . An individual member of the research project staff should be assigned responsibility for this. (ii) Participate in the writing of the manuscript. He/she is also responsible for ensuring their durability and protection. and respond to questions concerning the joint work and enable other responsible scientists to share the data. the data and materials are stored for a period of time appropriate for the specific field.

(c) Selection of applicants (e. Some co‐authors have responsibility for the entire paper as an accurate. (b) Acceptance of publications (peer review). ( iv )The question of authorship and the order of the authors in a publication must be discussed and settled among all contributors as early as possible. Honorary or courtesy authorship is not acceptable. in particular concerning: (a) Project financing. departments and research organization. It is not unethical to be wrong. portfolio of projects. publications .g. in case of appointments). carry out the analysis. to characteristics of the program/project being reviewed.Researchers should be willing to serve as experts. write the manuscript. co‐authors who are accountable for the integrity of the critical data reported in the paper. or provide scientific leadership for junior colleagues. (v)All collaborators share some degree of responsibility for any paper they co‐author. verifiable. These include. 44 . report of the research. and to the purpose and goals of the review. or individual project). provided that errors are promptly acknowledged and corrected when they are detected Integrity of peer review In order to support scientific quality and maintain ethical standards peer review should be applied to all research proposals.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 (iii) Approve the final version of the manuscript (iv) A mere hierarchical. Peer review must be conducted with: Rigor and Appropriate Selectivity The review process should be tailored to the level of review (activities in an entire program. (d) Evaluation of groups. for example. present major findings at conferences. administrative or financial function and organizational support to the project does not entitle anyone to appear as author. (vi) Project managers have responsibility for ensuring that the staff of their research group is not engaged in the publication of research that is not authentic It should be recognized that honest error is an integral part of the scientific enterprise.

Misconduct in the scientific context The ombudsperson provides advice and assistance to researchers in matters regarding research integrity and good scientific practice and serves as mediator in cases of conflict. Efficiency It is acknowledged that the process of peer review is a time‐consuming one so that the time and effort required should be kept to the minimum possible consistent with effectiveness and efficiency. 3. the procedure “Internal procedure in cases of suspected scientific misconduct” will be implemented. is open to potential bias all those involved must take steps to guard against this. 5. 4. Care must be taken to avoid conflict of interests between reviewers and applicants and also situations in which such conflict may appear to be present. Integrity The personal beliefs and interests of the reviewer must not be allowed to influence the outcome of any review. Since peer review.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Equity and Fairness All research proposals should be assessed against the same set of Consistent and explicit standards and the process and procedures applied should be open and transparent. In case of an allegation of Such misconduct. violations of these guidelines may amount to research misconduct. as a system. Openness Reviewers must ensure that researchers are fully informed of the process of review and of its outcomes. 6. Reviewers must not derive unfair competitive advantage from the reviewing process and from their knowledge of other researcher’s ideas or research plans. Confidentiality The duty of confidentiality to others applies in the reviewing of research proposals and all reviewers have an absolute obligation to protect the work of other researchers. Reviewers must declare any such conflicts or potential conflicts when reviewing a research proposal. Objectivity (philosophy) 45 . openness and transparency will help in this regard.

While there is no universally accepted articulation of objectivity. Stronger versions of this claim might hold that there is only one correct description of this reality. the truth or falsity of typical moral judgments does not depend upon the beliefs or feelings of any person or group of persons. in this context.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Objectivity is both a central and elusive philosophical category. According to metaphysical objectivists. Realists argue that perception is key in directly observing objective reality. but is useful in interpreting and predicting reality. 1Objectivism "Objectivism" is a term that describes a branch of philosophy that originated in the early nineteenth century. an object may truthfully be said to have this or that attribute. is an alternate name for philosophical realism. and idealism and to establish a critical method of approach in the distinction between epistemology and metaphysics. The concepts that encompass these ideas are important in the philosophy of science. or history: they describe (or 46 . Objectivism. The importance of perception in evaluating and understanding objective reality is debated. not the result of any judgments made by a conscious entity or subject. while instrumentalists hold that perception is not necessarily useful in directly observing objective reality. Essentially. the terms "objectivity" and "objectivism" are not synonymous. Objectivity in referring requires a definition of truth. an epistemological and metaphysical theory of Immanuel Kant's rationalism attempted to reconcile the failures he perceived in realism. it is thus inclusive of objects that are unknown and not the subject of intentionality. empiricism. the view that there is a reality or ontological realm of objects and facts that exists independent of the mind. This view holds that moral propositions are analogous to propositions about chemistry. If it is true that reality is mind-independent. with objectivism being an ontological theory that incorporates a commitment to the objectivity of objects. 2 Ethical objectivism According to the ethical objectivist. only propositions have truth values. as in the statement "This object exists. Gottlob Frege was the first contrary to apply it. Thus. a proposition is generally considered to be objectively true when its truth conditions are "mind-independent"—that is. to that when he expounded Kant." whereas the statement "This object is true" or "false" is meaningless. biology.

There are. and they hold widely diverse beliefs. wishes. so that it requires the existence of intrinsic value. they are false no matter what anyone believes. economists cannot claim special expertise on this issue. or feels. on the marginal productivity of the resources they hold. Consequently. our decision to give money to one charity rather than another indicates that we find some goals more deserving than others. however. hopes. They often rely on arguments from philosophers when they discuss fairness. which means that it involves judgments about what is good and what is bad. Of course if you look at a situation and decide that it is unfair because one person has too much and another has too little. some insights from economics that can be useful when one discusses issues of fairness. As a result. or feels. wishes. whereas those who hold no valuable resources earn little or no income. There are many versions of ethical objectivism. Those who hold resources that are highly valued will earn large incomes.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 fail to describe) a mind-independent reality. you probably are making a judgment that compares goals. 47 . with some exceptions. and certain forms of ethical egoism and contractualism. including various religious views of morality. We commonly make this sort of normative judgment. Note that Platonists define ethical objectivism in an even more narrow way. hopes. Our decision to give at all suggests that we decide that the goals of someone else are more worthy than our own "selfish" goals. The most important resource is a person's ability to work (human capital) but others are ownership of natural resources and capital. When they describe it accurately. This unequal distribution of income that a market system produces raises questions of whether or not a market system is fair 1 Fairness It is a normative issue. When they fail to describe this mindindependent moral reality. utilitarianism. FAIR & FAIRNESS In a competitive market economy the ability of people to obtain goods and services depends. they are true—no matter what anyone believes. The judgment says that the person with too much is satisfying goals that are less worthy than those of the person with too little. they reject the idea that contractualists or egoists could be ethical objectivists. Platonistic intuitionism.

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Economic analysis suggests that people earn different amounts of income both because they have different goals and different abilities (or resource endowments, to use a more comprehensive but also more abstract term). From this starting point, we can examine a few common judgments on fairness. One view is that fairness means everyone should have an equal opportunity to succeed. In this view, process matters not results. This position sees economic life as a race. In any race, some people are faster than others. As long as all contestants face the same rules, the race is fair even though some win and others lose. Some people fail in the economic game and have low incomes because they made mistakes or were unlucky or did not have enough ability. Yet their failure does not mean that the system is unfair, provided that no one erected obstacles in their path. This view is sympathetic to a market system. Both these views have internal inconsistencies. Obtaining equal results requires the use of government power, and only some will be able to wield this power. Those who have the jobs of equalizing incomes will have more power than those who do not; equal income results in unequal political power. Obtaining a system of completely equal opportunity is impossible because the results that one generation obtains help determine the starting points of their offspring. People who do well in the economic game will try to help their children succeed by giving them a good childhood environment, a good education, and inherited wealth. A third viewpoint suggests that income should be determined on the basis of need. Though this view is often associated with socialism, it has a very long tradition in Christian thought, which is where the socialists, a product of the 19th century, found it. A position that equal work deserves equal pay, which is a position consistent with the opportunity approach, is inconsistent with the need approach. To implement the need approach there must be some way of measuring need. This measurement is most practical in small-group situations, that is, within groups where members know each other well and where members have the same goals. It is hard to implement in large groups of strangers who do not know each other well and who may disagree radically about which goals


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are worth attaining. One escape from this problem has been to assume that everyone's needs are identical, which collapses this point of view into egalitarianism. Modern societies have taken aspects of all three viewpoints and established them as public policy. Income taxes are progressive; that is, they take greater percentages of income from those with big incomes than from those with small incomes. This policy can be justified from an equal results point of view. Employment laws require equal pay for equal work. The employer is prohibited from taking factors such as personal need of an employee into account in establishing pay. These laws make sense from an equal opportunity point of view. Finally, tax laws and some transfer payments favor families with more children and higher medical bills. The need viewpoint can justify this aspect of taxes. Because economists are interested in fairness, they have developed ways to measure how evenly or unevenly income is distributed. Fairness is a social rather than a psychometric concept. Its definition depends on what one considers to be fair. Fairness has no single meaning and, therefore, no single definition, whether statistical, psychometric, or social. The Standards notes four possible meanings of “fairness.” The first meaning views fairness as requiring equal group outcomes (e.g., equal passing rates for subgroups of interest). The Standards rejects this definition, noting that it has been almost entirely repudiated in the professional testing literature. It notes that while group differences should trigger heightened scrutiny for possible sources of bias (i.e., a systematic error that differentially affects the performance of different groups of test takers), outcome differences in and of themselves do not indicate bias. It further notes that there is broad agreement that examinees with equal standing on the construct of interest should, on average, earn the same score regardless of group membership.

2 Bias The Standards notes that bias refers to any construct-irrelevant source of variance that result in systematically higher or lower scores for identifiable groups of examinees. The effect of such irrelevant sources of variance on scores on a given variable is referred to as measurement bias. The effects of such sources of variance on predictor-criterion relationships, such that slope or intercepts of the regression line relating the predictor to the criterion are different for one group than for another, is referred to as predictive bias. The Standards notes that, in the employment

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context, evidence of bias or lack of bias generally relies on the analysis of predictive bias. Both forms of bias are discussed below.

3 Predictive Bias While fairness has no single accepted meaning, there is agreement as to the meaning of predictive bias. Predictive bias is found when for a given subgroup, consistent nonzero errors of prediction are made for members of the subgroup (Cleary, 1968; Humphreys, 1952). (Another term used to describe this phenomenon is differential prediction. The term “differential prediction” is sometimes used in the classification and placement literature to refer to differences in predicted performance when an individual is classified into one condition rather than into another; this usage should not be confused with the use of the term here to refer to predictive bias.) Although other definitions of bias have been introduced, such models have been critique and found wanting on grounds such as lack of internal consistency (Petersen & Novick, 1976).

3.5 Consistency as a practice associated with integrity Consistency takes the form of: consistent application of principles and values in practice, forming partnerships with those who also abide by the same values, or at least a shared value set, and not seeking to subvert the principles of a project. An important aspect of consistency is the degree of matching of values between different interacting entities such as employees and the employing organisation, or between an organisation and the local community In logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction. The lack of contradiction can be defined in either semantic or syntactic terms. The semantic definition states that a theory is consistent if it has a model; this is the sense used in traditional Aristotelian logic, although in contemporary mathematical logic the term satisfiable is used instead. The syntactic definition states that a theory is consistent if there is no formula P such that both P and its negation are provable from the axioms of the theory under its associated deductive system. Although consistency can be proved by means of model theory, it is often done in a purely syntactical way, without any need to reference some model of the logic. The cut-elimination (or equivalently the normalization of the underlying calculus if there is one) implies the consistency


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of the calculus: since there is obviously no cut-free proof of falsity, there is no contradiction in general 3.6 Loyalty as an interpreter of relation of person with service or enterprise A characteristic of a person showing any relation with an object, goods, service or enterprise. Loyalty demonstrates person’s disposition to brand of goods (service), supermarket, category of goods, a certain activity (Uncles, Dowling, Hammond, 1998). An enterprise seeks loyalty of investors, employees and customers in order to consolidate its position in the market. There is a linkage between these participants of the business (Reicheld, 1996). The growth of revenues and share of the market enables to attract potential customers or customers of competitors. Referring to Donio, Massari, Passiante (2005), the growth of the market share stimulates more rapid expansion of the enterprise and its competitive advantage. It makes attracting of investors easier. Enterprises create loyalty programmes in order to develop loyalty and to reward. It is effective marketing instrument helping to create such a situation where all interested sides win. Customer loyalty programmes are more frequent. Loyalty programmes allow enterprises to understand their customers better as well as to satisfy their needs and expectations (Nuttley, 2004). Customer loyalty programmes relate enterprise and customers, initiate permanent dialogue between them, and increase satisfaction of customers (Loyalty Marketing Workshop, 2005); also they are a source of different information about customers, they mitigate potential shift of the best customers to competitors, and help to cooperate with partners and to keep terms with competitors (Rotherham, 2004). It is faithfulness or a devotion to a person, country, group, or cause. (Philosophers disagree as to what things one can be loyal to. Some, as explained in more detail below, argue that one can be loyal to a broad range of things, whilst others argue that it is only possible for loyalty to be to another person and that it is strictly interpersonal. Loyalties differ in basis according to what foundations they are. Co Enterprises create loyalty programmes in order to develop loyalty and to reward. It is effective marketing instrument helping to create such a situation where all interested sides win. Customer loyalty programmes are more frequent. Loyalty programmes allow enterprises to understand their customers better as well as to satisfy their needs and expectations (Nuttley, 2004)


"Blood is thicker than water. Integrating the elements of customer satisfaction and commitment. They can range from supreme loyalties that override all other considerations.1 Loyalty and marketing Businesses seek to become the objects of loyalty. Fan loyalty is similar: an allegiance to and abiding interest in a sports team. 3. a brand name reflects an organization’s positioning relative to its competitors as well as the organization’s personality in the context of the target market. Lexus is known for pursuit of perfection. a strong brand is more than just a name.6.2 Structure of loyalty Loyalty and loyalties Although we often speak of loyalty as though it were a relatively free-floating practical disposition which it can be it is very common to associate loyalty with certain natural or conventional groupings. Other businesses establish loyalty programs. Our loyalty tends to be expressed in loyalties. Brand loyalty is highly important in contemporary business environment. and often allow the business to keep track of their preferences and buying habits. in order to have their customers return. Brand loyalty is a consumer's preference for a particular brand and a commitment to repeatedly purchase that brand in the face of other choices. That is. Nathan son observes that strength of loyalty is often interrelated with basis. brand loyalty echoes favorable consumer attitudes typically expressed with repeated purchases. Devoted fans of a sports team will continue to follow it. explaining that loyalties that have biological ties as their bases are generally stronger than loyalties that do not. which relates a firm’s products or services and reputation with consumer needs and shareholders expectations.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Loyalties differ in strength. 3. or fictional series. relatively undaunted by a string of losing seasons. it is not just a 52 . which offer rewards to repeat customers.6. providing but one motivation for action that is weighed against other motivations. Therefore. fictional character. In the minds of consumers. Apple for innovation and design and PepsiCo for its appeal to younger generations. that affect one's presumptions. Typically being distinctive and authentic. it is a promise that can be trusted. Brand is a product or service." states an aphorism. to merely presumptive loyalties.

families. but only to those to which we are sufficiently closely bound to call ours. ideals. If we further argue that the core of morality is concerned with the quality of relationships that people have with each other. fellow citizens. or quasi-persons such as organizations or social groups. and religions. and so on loyalty will be partially constitutive and sustaining of these particular others in contexts in which self-interest is likely to be better served by abandoning them. causes.” Intrinsically valued associational attachments are usually those to which we have developed a form of social identification.Royce himself argued that loyalty is the “willing and practical and thoroughgoing devotion of a person to a cause” .6. There is some reason to favor the more restrictive focus for loyalty. ideas.” we have the language of integrity. brands. in the case of what is spoken of as “loyalty to one's principles.3 Objects of loyalty There is no doubt that the primary objects of loyalty tend to be persons. those who personalize the objects of loyalty point out that we have equally available to us the language of commitment or devotion and. countries. Associations that evoke and exact our loyalty tend to be those with which we have become deeply involved or identified.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 general affiliational attachment. organizations. Some argue that it is only to such that we can be loyal. Our core loyalties. There is a reason for this. which also happen to be those that are psychologically more powerful. tend to secure the integrity of our particular human associations. or even to any group with which we have some association. and ideologies . But that is at odds with the view that almost “anything to which one's heart can become attached or devoted” may also become an object of loyalty principles. but one that tends to be tied to certain kinds of natural or conventional associations. both as fellow humans and in the various 53 . To the extent that our moral obligations encompass not only our relations with other human beings in general but also our relationships with particular others our friends. Our loyalties are not just to any groups that may exist. This is implicit in the working definition's reference to “intrinsically valued associational attachments.In response. We have come to value the associational bond for its own sake (whatever may have originally motivated it). personal collectivities. families. such as friendships. 3. professions.

master's theses.9 Problem finding It means problem discovery. journals. Finding a problem can. Reviewing the literature on the topic area at this time helps the researcher to focus further interviews more meaningfully on certain aspects found to be important is the published studies even if these had not surfaced during the earlier questioning. This involves the application of creativity. be either much easier or much harder than solving the problem. 3. doctoral dissertations. newspapers. Literature survey is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher. synthesize and analyze the arguments of others. With computerized databases now readily available and accessible the literature search is much speedier and easier and can be done without entering the portals of a library building The researcher could start the literature survey even as the information from the unstructured and structured interviews is being gathered. It is part of the larger problem process that includes problem shaping and problem solving. depending on the problem. the main purpose of which is to support your own argument. • Its purpose is to summarize. The library is a rich storage base for secondary data and researchers used to spend several weeks and sometimes months going through books.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 associative groups that they form. magazines. An example of a problem that was much easier to find than to solve is Fermat's Last Theorem. government publications and financial reports to find information on their research topic. (It is not an academic research paper. 3.) • It should describe and analyze the knowledge that exists and 54 . So the literature survey is important for gathering the secondary data for the research which might be proved very helpful in the research.10 Literature review • It is a critical and evaluative account of what has been published on a chosen research topic. Problem finding requires intellectual vision and insight into what is missing. conference proceedings. and then loyalty will constitute an important dimension of that relational network.

10. (c)Political science Literature reviews may have to include a section which establishes basic premises and has definitions of certain terms and models. Understanding the literature requires you to read. Include the authors would or could contradict your ideas.1 Literature search The literature search will help you identify scope and key issues. It will rather argue for a particular slant on the material. Efficient searching will help to identify which authors are interested in your specialism and those who take a generalist’s view. re-read and assimilate complex ideas. You can do a database search to find models put the words “literature review” along with your Keywords to retrieve references to articles of this type Problem formulation You should try to construct a working statement that will form the basis of your literature review. Trace authors who are prominent in your subject and who can help you justify the importance of your research idea. (a) Evaluation of findings Reading research articles is different from other types of reading. (b) Read the easier articles first Difficult or badly written articles will probably be easier to understand if you read them last when you have gained familiarity with your subject.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 What gaps occur in research related to your field of interest? (This should clarify the relationship between your own research and the work that has previously been done. Must develop a good understanding of the research literature to be able to write a competent literature review. 55 . consistencies and inconsistencies and controversies in previous research Find models Look for other literature reviews in your discipline and read them to get an idea of the types of themes you might want to include in your research or ways in which you could organize your final review. The statement does not have to argue for a position or an opinion.) • It should reveal similarities and differences. 3.

56 . 3. A close reading may reveal differences in theoretical outlook. Or.10. 3. you will need to have an in-depth understanding of their work. if three methodologies have been used to address a question. In contemporary literary studies an “explicit” chapter may not be needed. When you are comparing the work of a number of researchers some of whom have a different take on the problems of the research question.10.3 Writing the Literature Review Number of articles reviewed Published review articles may contain more than a hundred studies.4 Organization There are a number of different approaches to organizing a literature review so again do consult your supervisor before beginning the work. Introduce your research question (what it is. why it is worth examining) Narrow research question to the studies discussed briefly outline the organization of the paper. 3. Allow enough time Before you can write about your research project you must have evaluated the existing literature Properly so do allow yourself sufficient time to do this. The following method can be used.10. identify the precise methods used and the theories tested. You may wish to consult your supervisor about how far you should go back in time and how many articles you want to include. describe its results in great detail and cite it repeatedly while another may give it only a Passing reference. describe it and explain that you will present research supporting one side and then the other. How do different authors cite the same work? One author may explain the method of an earlier Study.2 Analysis and interpretation of the literature After you have an idea of the main ideas in each article. briefly describe them and say that you will compare the results obtained by the three methods Describe studies in detail Compare and evaluate studies Discuss the implications of the studies and how you intend to build on them.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 (d)Literary and historical literature Reviews do not have a single convention. The researcher may be taking a new theoretical approach to material which as already been studied before. If there is a major controversy.

To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesistesting research studies).10. collecting. 3.5 Conclusion/Recommendations Discuss what you have learned from reviewing literature so for and where the research leads? After reading your review. 4. Though each research study has its own specific purpose. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study. making deductions and reaching conclusions. and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. In short. 2. comparison and experiment. observation. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies). To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies). organizing and evaluating data. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research. Unit-II SURVEY BASED RESEARCH MEANING OF RESEARCH Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. RESEARCH PROBLEM 57 . situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies). As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 3. the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. reader should be convinced that your proposed research project will play a necessary role in furthering knowledge in your field. we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual. formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures.

Theories could be a third source. the WHERE. Step 5: He should draw an analogy and insight in identifying a problem or employ his personal experience of the field in locating the problem. at clarifying contradictory findings. The following are the major tasks to be performed in analyzing a problematic situation as given below: 1. at reconciling conflicting opinions. Step 4: On the basis of review. This could lead to a research problem. The following steps are to be followed in identifying a research problem: Step 1 : Determining the field of research in which a researcher is keen to do the research work. Step 3 : He should review the researches conducted in area to know the recent trend and studies in the area. Shortcomings in theories could be researched. You may read about certain findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. Step 6 : He should pin-point specific aspect of the problem which is to be investigated. He should proceed step by step in locating the research problem. at correcting a faulty methodology. the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT. Accumulating the facts that might be related to the problem. Step 2 : The researcher should develop the mastery on the area or it should be the field of his specialization. at correcting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniques. Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory. Three sources usually contribute to problem identification. Setting by observations whether the facts are relevant. 58 . or at solving existing practical problems IDENTIFICATION OF A PROBLEM The identification and analyzing a research problem is the first and most crucial step of research process. There are many problem situations that may give rise to research. A problem can not be solved effectively unless a researcher possesses the intellect and insight to isolate and understand the specific factors giving rise to the difficulty. He may take help of supervisor or expertee of the field. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source of problem supply. A second source could be scientific literature. 2. he should consider the priority field of the study. confused and ill at ease.

is the extensive study of available literature-research abstracts. the researcher has to decide his field of investigation. Personal experiences of the investigator in the field of education are the main source for identifying suitable problem. After going through these processes. He can draw an analogy for selecting a research problem or can think parallel problem in the field studied. In the choice of a suitable problem. It is a serious responsibility to commit oneself to a problem that will inevitably require much time and energy and which is so academically significant. 9. Questioning assumptions underlying the analysis of the problem. 4. He can discuss certain issues of the area to emerge a problem. the researcher will be able to define or state the problem. 3. 59 . He should study the field intensively in the specific area. Ascertaining through observations and analysis whether these explanations are relevant to the problem.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3. SOURCES OF PROBLEMS The selection of a suitable problem is not an easy task. The most practical source of problem is to consult supervisor. 5. 6. The following are the main sources to which one may proceed for a suitable research problem: 1. Proposing various explanations for the cause or the difficulty. journals. technological changes and curricular developments are constantly bringing new problems and new-opportunities for Social Studies Research. 4. 7. hand-books of research international abstracts etc. Tracing any relationship between facts that might reveal the key to the difficulty. Locating the irrelevant explanations which are not related to the problem. Tracing relationship between explanations that may give an insight into the problem solution. 10. 5. They may suggest most significant problem of the area. experts of the field and most experienced person of the field. 2. The other source of problem which is most frequently used by the investigator as suggested by the supervisors. Tracing the irrelevant facts which are not concerned with the problem. this may enable him to identify a problem from the specific field. 8. Tracing relationship between facts and explanations. The new innovations.

2. 3. It involves the regency of the data summarized especially in the case of survey studies made during a period of great Economic. Costs and returns 60 . Availability of data and method The data under consideration must meet certain standards of accuracy. 4. 7. The researcher can pick up a suitable problem for his own study. intellectual curiosity and drive One of the personal motives of research most frequently mentioned by scientists themselves is pure curiosity. Thus criteria for the selection of the problem suggested by Good and Scates are as follows: 1. objectivity and verifiability. etc. 5. It is a general practice that researchers suggest some problems in their research reports. Sponsorship and administrative cooperation It is a common practice for the thesis to be sponsored by a faculty adviser in whose area of specialization the problem lies. External criteria have to do with such matters as novelty and importance for the field availability of data and method. Personal criteria involved such considerations as interest.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 6. cost and time. 6. accompanied by genuine interest and a drived satisfaction and enjoyment. and institutional or administrative cooperation. training. Interest. Importance for the field represented and implementation This criterion of importance in choice of a problem involves such matters as significance for the field involved. timelines and practical value in term of application and implementation of the results. Special equipment and working conditions The major purpose of equipment is to define the process of observation-to provide control of conditions and accuracy or permanence of recording. Educational and Social change. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF THE PROBLEM The factors are to be considered in the selection of a research problem both the criteria external and personal. Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary duplication The question of novelty or newness is not merely one of duplication of earlier investigations.

4. 3. (b) Precautions are to be taken in identifying the problem The following precautions should be taken into consideration for identifying problem.e. DEFINING A PROBLEM Defining a problem means “To pin-point the problem or defining a problem to reach the core of the problem i. The statement of the problem must be brief but comprehensive. 8. experimental case and longitudinal genetic studies frequently require more time than the several types of normative survey work. 4. Time factor As a general rule the minimum amount of graduate work for the Master’s degree is one year. The words used for defining a problem should have a single meaning. 2. The problem should have practical importance in the field of Education. 1. 61 . threadbare analysis. The definition of a problem sets the direction of the study.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 The candidate must consider carefully his own financial resources in the light of such facilities and assistance as can be provided by the institution. The definition helps the researcher to control subjectivity or biases of the researcher. The-definition makes the research work practicable. The definition reveals the methodology or procedure of the study. 5. Historical.” (a) Need of defining a problem The definition of a problem serves the following purposes: 1. and for the Doctor’s degree three years. The assumptions are to be recognized for the study. 3. The definition of the problem suggests and specifies the variables to be taken up into the investigation through a problem involved into so many variables. 2.

quantification. Researcher should have to develop a conceptual framework of the problem. It is also known as field work. 7. 4. 3. The definition or the statement of the problem should have certain rationale. (c) Steps in defining a problem The following steps are to be followed in defining a problem: 1. Deciding the practical difficulty in conducting the study. Data collection consists of taking ordered information from reality and transferring to some recording systems so that social behavior can be understood and predicted. in manifest or phonotypical”.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 5. It connects link to the reality of the work for the researchers. Delimiting the elements of the problem. Evaluating the theoretical security of the problem. 6. According to John Geltang: A datum is what is observed. DATA COLLECTION Data collection is an important step in social research. function and others. It involves administrating the research tools to gather data. Information reduces uncertainties in a decision making. By nature of data. 5. They can be classified on the basis source. Locating the key-points in the conceptual framework. 1. Classifying the elements in the homogeneous group. there are two types of data: facts and opinion. 62 . The conceptual frame work should be such that it can be stated into verbal form. 2. The final form of the statement can be given into verbal form to a conceptual framework of the problem. Data provide information for decision making. It is based on research design. Data Data are observations and evidence regarding some aspects of the problems/issue under study. Types of data Nearly endless varieties of data existence can be obtained but only few types are relevant to each research study.

Examples of opinion: I believe there is life on Mars. It can be an attitude or image. intensions. Importance of data collection • Data collection completely fulfills the data requirements of a research project. However. Facts then described as things done or a piece of information having objectives reality. 3. It is the connecting link for the researchers to the world of reality. Attitudes are mental sets or predispositions to some manner. An image is what something is like. data are presented and analyzed. knowledge and motives. It is from that pattern that social behavior can be predicted. 2. They are the results of people attitudes. It is not easy to list them in details. Several data collection methods are used to collect several types of data. the general classification of data collection sources can be presented under two groups: 63 . • It serves as a source of future reference and evidence because they are used to prepare written records. They are what people believe about something and what whose beliefs signify. •It helps to takes ordered information from reality and transferring into some recording system so that it can be later examined and analyzed. These all reflects people perception about matter. Sources of data collection Data may be collected from several sources. • It provides the sources of comparative data by which data can be interpreted and evaluated against each other. • It suggests the type and method of data for meeting the information needed.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 (a) Facts Facts describes tangible things. They can now provide lots of material for the subsequent research. They measure anything that actually exists or can exist. Researchers use these sources according to their data needs. Examples of facts: • The distance between Dharan and Biratnagar is 42 km • We have 8 planets (b) Opinion Opinions are how people perceive something. Facts can be intangible as long as they can really be determined. • Based on the data collection.

to look over something from high place. Such sources include published report. “ sur” which means over and “ view” which means to see. 4. computer. Types of secondary data Internal secondary data They are available from in-house source. (4) Data collection methods/techniques No matter what the basic design of the research. shipment records. representatives. accounting data etc. Thus. They are as follows: 1. organization. etc. 5. 2. External secondary sources They are available from the sources outside the organization. original data collected by the researchers for the research project by hand. etc. the word survey means to oversee. it is necessary to collect accurate data to achieve useful results. data books. They are attained indirectly. They are collected for meeting the specific objectives of the study. Primary data are first hand. They are collected by some other researchers before and have been processed at least once. interviews. 3. The source like within the organization. Secondary data are already gathered by others.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 (a) Primary sources It provides primary data. They can be obtained from families. library. that is. The researcher doesn’t obtain them directly. Sources of such data include representative’s report. SURVEY The term survey has two constituents. Researchers use a number of methods to collect data. questionnaire. A survey is a data 64 . (b) Secondary sources It provides secondary data. observation are the major tools for collecting data from primary sources. Survey Interview Questionnaire Case study Observation 1.

f) Primary survey: It is conducted in order to acquire directly the relevant facts and information. It is not concerned with character of individuals. The survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. Periodic Survey/Relationship surveys 3. c) Sample survey: It covers the study of a sample group only. Mostly. n) Social survey: It is conducted to collect facts about the social aspects of a community’s position and activities. the government uses it to obtain data about economics problems etc. It is more reliable than secondary survey. Transaction Driven Survey/ Follow-up Survey 2. Transaction Driven Survey/ Follow-up Survey 65 . k) Repetitive survey: It is conducted subsequent to first survey. h) Official survey: It is conducted by government to serve general or specific information for formulating plans and policies. The repetitive survey is publicly available. National population census is an example of survey. j) First survey: It is conducted in area for the first time. Generally. Types of surveys b) Census survey: It covers the survey of entire population. o) Public opinion: It is conduced to know the views of the people in any subjects like legalized abortion. homosexual activities etc. getting missing or new information. It is less expensive and less time and effort consuming. It is made for second or third time and so on. It is essentially cross sectional. l) Open survey: It is also called public survey. Information is not revealed to the common people. d) Regular survey: It is conducted after regular intervals. m) Confidential survey: The result of the survey is not made public.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 collection method based on the study of a given population. A part of the population or unit. It is concerned with generalized statistics that results when data are abstract from a number of individual cases. it is conducted for testing hypothesis. It is very expensive and time and effort consuming. Survey data are expressed in numbers or percentages. g) Secondary survey: It is conducted after the primary survey has been completed. But it provides diverse range of data. e) Ad Hoc survey: It is conducted for certain purpose and is undertaken once for all. i) Non official survey: It is conducted by non-government persons or agency. ONE MORE CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEY 1. It is a systematic gathering of information from the people for the purpose of understanding or predicting some aspect of their behavior. It is of general importance. Specific Survey 1. open prostitution.

or technical support staff. the quality of a product (that is. Such surveys can be conducted for multiple reasons. but this survey style requires the customer to "take action. I. They are a great way to perform quality control to determine the level of service being provided and can be used to determine inconsistencies in providing service. Some deploy an interactive voice system (IVR) where upon completion of the touch point. its conformance to specifications) can be assessed during its manufacture and also when complete through a final inspection. in-process inspection is typically not possible or practical. a request for service or a product return. (a) The role of a transaction based follow-up survey Unlike relationship based surveys examining customer attitudes over a long period of time. pre-recorded survey. In essence. In a service interaction. In a factory. Transaction follow-up surveys are conducted after a wide range of touch points. the process is impersonal and there is great temptation to terminate the call before the survey is completed. such as a purchase. Some companies use an online process to gather information. Although this system allows the customer to provide feedback while their experience is still "top of mind". a transaction based follow-up survey is designed to assess customer satisfaction with a specific transaction. Transaction based follow-up survey as a quality control tool: The most common application for event surveys is as a customer satisfaction survey. and more specifically for customer service satisfaction surveys. a call to a contact center. The customer is then asked to respond to a series of questions. The reason for its strong application in customer service is that an event survey is perhaps the most efficient and effective method for measuring the quality of service from the most critical perspective -. A transaction based followup survey can provide valuable information on a broad range of issues. so instead we measure the quality of the service product by assessing its outcome. a transactional survey is a quality control device. Follow-up surveys can identify dissatisfied customers so that service recovery can be attempted and can measure the effectiveness of service staff. the customer is forwarded to an automated." There is no guarantee that enough customers will respond to provide decision makers with a statistically valid survey sample.that of the customer. (b) How to conduct a transaction follow-up survey Companies use a wide range of methodologies to conduct transaction follow-up surveys. 66 . including contact with your customer service group. II.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 The follow-up or transactional survey concerns itself with getting customer feedback regarding a specific transaction. sales representatives.

Relationship surveys tend to be longer and more challenging for the respondent since the survey designers are trying to unearth the gems that describe the relationship. Location specific survey III. They typically assess broad feelings toward the organization. significant miscues can exact a high price. Perhaps the biggest potential mistake is failing to act upon the information collected during the survey process. One of the best methodologies to perform a transaction follow-up survey is to poll customers using the telephone. etc. say every year. Product specific survey 3. bonded relationship with the respondents. Specific Survey Types of specific survey 2 Periodic Survey/Relationship surveys -.a Complement to Event surveys Although a transaction follow-up survey can provide a wealth of actionable information that improves the performance of your organization.has with the organization. how the organization compares to its competitors. INTERVIEW 67 . where the respondent feels the organization should be focusing its efforts going forward.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 1. whether products and services have improved over the previous period. a relationship (or periodic) survey attempts to measure the state of the overall relationship the customer -. Poorly conceived and executed transaction follow-up surveys run the risk of further alienating already disgruntled customers. A phone survey strategy provides a detailed. a long survey will lead to survey abandonment. Relationship surveys are done periodically. Notice that these items are more general in nature and not tied to a specific interaction. So experts are required to conduct the transaction driven survey. In contrast to an event survey that measures the satisfaction with some service interaction soon after the transaction is complete.or other stakeholder -. Customer specific survey 2. But unless the surveying organization has a tight. in-depth dialogue with respondents and guarantees that statistically valid samples are achieved.

Example: How do you rate your college library in relation to your needs? 4. how often is that? Scale item A scale is set of verbal items to each of which an individual responds by expressing degree of agreement or disagreement or some other mode or response. and other two alternative items often a third alternative don’t know or undecided is added. agreedisagree. The purpose of interview is to find out what’s in or on someone else’s mind.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 It is a technique of primary data collection. asks a person being interviewed. They are: There are three formats of interview schedule Fixed – alternative item interview It offers the respondents a choice among two or more alternatives. Unsatisfaction 3. The contents of the schedule are dictated by the research problems. According to Kerlinger “ The interview is a face to face interpersonal role situation in which one person. questions designed to obtain answers pertinent to the purpose of the research problem. The interview is a face to face interpersonal role situation in which one person asks another person being interviewed. The interview may be regarded as a systematic method by which one person enters more or less imaginatively with the inner life of another who is generally a comparative stranger to him. Terrible 2. Example: Do you have any contacts with any members of the faculty outside of class? If yes. Open-end item Open-end item is an interview schedule that lists only the main question. It is an oral method in which one person asks another person questions designed to obtain answer pertinent to the research problem. Misunderstanding can be clear up through poling. The commonest kind of fixed – alternative items is dichotomous. Excellent TYPES OF INTERVIEW 68 . Satisfaction 4. the interviewer. Very good 5. It permits the respondent to answer the question in the way s/he likes. It is most commonly used direct method in the study of human behavior. The responses are limited to stated alternatives. They have possibilities of depth. Scale items have fixed alternatives and place the responding individual at some point on the scale. Openend questions are more flexible. They impose no other restriction on the contents and the manner of respondents answer.” Formats or research interview schedule: providing 3 kinds of information. If asks for yes-no. the respondent.

Longer period needed in the field collecting data 2. the interviewer doesn’t have flexibility to change the question. Good cooperation from participants 2. The interviewer doesn’t follow preplaned list of the question. and record the responses. If the interview is conducted at the residence of the respondent. use follow up questions and gather information about observation 3. Interviewer can ask questions about survey. their format or order. their sequence and their wordings are fixed. Ordinary no schedule is used. That liberty is specified in advance. It is more flexible and open.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Structured or standardized interview It this interview. Special visual aids and devices can be used 4. Standardized interviews are interview schedule that have been carefully prepared to obtained information pertinent to the research problem. respondents are interviewed face-to-face. such an interview may be called as in personal in home interview. the questions. Interview may be conducted by the following ways: a) b) c) d) Personal interview Telephone interview Mail interview Electronic interview a) Personal interview In personal interview. Illiterate participants can be reached 5. Sometimes an interviewer may be allowed some liberty in asking question but relatively little. May be wide geographic dispersion 3. the sequence and wording of question are not fixed. Interviewer can prescreen participants to ensure that he or she fits the population profile 6. ask the questions. responses can be entered into a portable microcomputer to reduce error and cost Disadvantages of personal interview 1. In general. Through computer assisted personal interviewing. probe for answers. They don’t mean that unstructured interview is casual. The interviewer will have a tentative list of question to be covered during the interview. Advantages of personal interview: 1. Unstructured or unstandardized interview In the interview. The researcher or interviewers task is to contact the respondents. The interviewer writes the response of the interview during the interview or after interview is completed. Not all participants are available or accessible 69 . The same question is asked to everybody in the same manner.

Some participants are unwilling to talk to strangers in their homes Follow-up is labor.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 4. 8.intensive Some neighborhoods are difficult to visit Questions may be altered or participants may be coached by interviewers High costs Need for highly trained interviewer b) Telephone interview In this kind of interviews. 6. 5. Higher costs if interviewing geographically dispersed sample 3. Expanded geographic coverage without dramatic increase in cost 3. The conduct of this kind of interview may be computer assist also. Completion time is very fast 6. 7. Responses rate is lower than for personal interview 2. interviewer phones to respondents and asks them a series of questions. Reduces interviewers biasness 5. 9. Interview length must be limited 4. Use fewer but highly skilled interviewers 4. Sometimes many phone numbers are unlisted. Can use computerized random dialling 8. Responses may be less complete 7. Illustrations can not be used 70 . Lower costs than personal interview 2. commonly known as computer assisted telephone interviewing which used a computerized questionnaire administered to respondents over the telephone Advantages of telephone interviews 1. Better access to hard to reach to participants 7. Some target groups are not available by phone 6. 5. Through computer assisted telephone interviewing response can be entered directly into a computer file to reduce error and cost Disadvantages of telephone interview 1.

Advantages of electronic methods 1. Because most surveys pull the participants from a random sampling. Recruiting the right sample is costly and time consuming 71 . The respondents complete and return of questionnaires. literacy level and language ability of the respondents. especially as it relates to the mail-in. But the main consideration in this type of data collections methods is that respondents needs to be broadly defined and identified. Shorter turnaround from questionnaire draft to survey execution 6. respondents are not recruited. Short turnaround of results 2. Participants feel anonymous therefore are free to participate in the survey 5. Ability to do numerous surveys over time 3. is the low response rate Another problem with self-administered surveys is three fold: assumptions about the physical ability. questionnaires are mailed to respondents. Respondents may be recruited over internet form potential respondent databases through email or they can be recruited by conventional methods. they happen to be visiting the website where the survey is posted from where thay are invited to participate in the surveys. internet or web surveys use questionnaire which are posted on the webpage. it is impossible to control for such variables d) Electronic methods: In contrast to e-mails surveys. Many times. There is no verbal interaction between the researcher and the respondent. Ability to attract participants who are otherwise difficult to reach 4. Experiences unavailable by other means Disadvantages of electronic methods 1. Disadvantages of mails survey   One of the biggest drawbacks to written surveys. selfadministered method. from some sources as mailing list Advantages of mails survey    Mail surveys are low in cost as compared to other methods of surveying Mails surveys provide convenience as the participants are able to work on the surveys at their leisure It is possible to reach a greater population and have a larger universe with this type of surveys because it does not require personal contact between the researcher and the respondents.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 c) Mail Interview In the mail interviews.

Rough draft of the Questionnaire/Schedule be prepared. 3. It is a formal and structured technique for data collection that consists of series of questions. Questionnaires or schedules previously drafted (if available) may as well be looked into at this stage. Any questionnaire has three objectives as: 1. and in case of need may revise the rough draft for a better one. Questionnaire must contain simple but straight forward directions for the respondents so that they may not feel any difficulty in answering the questions. Pilot study should be undertaken for pre-testing the questionnaire. 4. 2. QUESTIONNAIRE Questionnaire is a formal set of questions for obtaining information from the respondents. Converting survey to web page is sometimes expensive 2. Technical as well as research skill is required to conduct the web survey 4. Appropriate form of questions depends on the nature of information sought. The researcher must decide whether to use closed or open-ended question. giving due thought to the appropriate sequence of putting questions. Each item in the flow chart depends upon the successful completion of all the previous items. Unlike telephone and mail survey. Questionnaire must translate information required to set of specific questions that respondents can and will answer.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 2. Since questionnaire is the major source of response error. Researcher must invariably re-examine. rather it should encourage and motivate the respondent to provide complete answers to the questions asked. Questionnaire should not make respondent bore. He must be clear about the various aspects of his research problem to be dealt with in the course of his research project. 2. 3. The researcher must keep in view the problem he is to study for it provides the starting point for developing the Questionnaire/Schedule. no list exists 3. Questions should be simple and must be constructed with a view to their forming a logical part of a well thought out tabulation plan. Technical defects must be minutely scrutinized and removed. the sampled respondents and the kind of analysis intended. a) Questionnaire Research Flow Chart Questionnaire research design proceeds in an orderly and specific manner. it is 72 . 5. Therefore. The units of enumeration should also be defined precisely so that they can ensure accurate and full information. Questionnaire should make the respondent involved in the research project in general and questionnaire in particular. 6. The questionnaire may be edited in the light of the results of the pilot study. it should minimize that. The researcher must pay attention to the following points in constructing an appropriate and effective questionnaire or a schedule: 1. Response error is on account of inaccurate answers provided by the respondents.

do not use it in the survey. Welldefined goals are the best way to assure a good questionnaire design. 3. Design Methodology Determine Feasibility Develop Instruments Select Sample Conduct Pilot Test Revise Instruments Conduct Research Analyze Data Prepare Report b) Questionnaire Design .General Considerations Most problems with questionnaire analysis can be traced back to the design phase of the project. 2. The questionnaire is developed to directly address the goals of the study. One of the most effective methods of maximizing response is to shorten the questionnaire. One important way to assure a successful survey is to include other experts and relevant decisionmakers in the questionnaire design process. When the goals of a study can be expressed in a few clear and concise sentences. handaddressed and use a commemorative postage stamp. Make the envelope unique. If you cannot specify how you intend to analyze a question or use the information. Their suggestions will improve the questionnaire and they will subsequently have more confidence in the results. 73 . As a general rule. Notice that there are two feedback loops in the flow chart to allow revisions to the methodology and instruments. The respondent's first impression of the study usually comes from the envelope containing the survey. Know how every question will be analyzed and be prepared to handle missing data. Formulate a plan for doing the statistical analysis during the design stage of the project. Keep your questionnaire short. the ones that make you want to see what's inside) are colored. The same holds true for questionnaires. the design of the questionnaire becomes considerably easier. The best envelopes (i. long questionnaires get less response than short questionnaires.e. We all know how important first impressions are. with only a few exceptions.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 important not to skip a single step. While designing the questionnaires one should be considered the following points: 1. 4..

10. Whatever you choose. so use short sentences and basic vocabulary. We want the respondent to complete our questionnaire. 13. Give your questionnaire a title that is short and meaningful to the respondent. Include clear and concise instructions on how to complete the questionnaire. Make them want to continue by putting interesting questions first. Try different colored inks and paper. It provides your best chance to persuade the respondent to complete the survey. 15. it is important to group items into coherent categories. A questionnaire with a title is generally perceived to be more credible than one without. Begin with a few non-threatening and interesting items. Make items as brief as possible. Use simple and direct language. italics or underlining. Leaving white space also makes the questionnaire look easier and this increases response. The object is to make your questionnaire stand out from all the others the respondent receives. The wording of a question should be simple and to the point. Leaving space for comments will provide valuable information not captured by the response categories. there is little chance that the person will complete the questionnaire. Respondents often send back partially completed questionnaires. One way to eliminate misunderstandings is to emphasize crucial words in each item by using bold. Hold the respondent's interest. This will reduce misunderstandings and make the questionnaire appear easier to complete. 9. At the same time. The easier it is for the respondent to complete the questionnaire the better. Do not use uncommon words or long sentences. Attaching a dollar bill to the questionnaire works well. Envelopes with postage stamps get better response than business reply envelopes (although they are more expensive since you also pay for the nonrespondents). offering a free summary report is also an excellent motivator. Provide incentives as a motivation for a properly completed questionnaire. 7. Place the most important items in the first half of the questionnaire. The importance of the cover letter should not be underestimated. Be creative. These must be very easy to understand. The respondent's next impression comes from the cover letter. 12. The questions must be clearly understood by the respondent. All items should flow smoothly from one to the next. it must make the respondent want to complete the questionnaire. Always include a self-addressed postage-paid envelope. 8. 74 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 5. the partially completed questionnaires will still contain important information. Make it convenient. By putting the most important items near the beginning. Use professional production methods for the questionnaire--either desktop publishing or typesetting and keylining. One criticism of questionnaires is their inability to retain the "flavor" of a response. Varying the questioning format will also prevent respondents from falling into "response sets". One way to keep a questionnaire interesting is to provide variety in the type of items used. 6. People generally look at the first few questions before deciding whether or not to complete the questionnaire. Leave adequate space for respondents to make comments. Be sure to print the return address on the questionnaire itself (since questionnaires often get separated from the reply envelopes). What does the respondent get for completing your questionnaire? Altruism is rarely an effective motivator. 14. Provide a well-written cover letter. 11. If the first items are too threatening or "boring". If the information you are collecting is of interest to the respondent.

There are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent. 4.. and they usually provide insightful information that would have otherwise been lost. 4. Questionnaires are structured instruments. they often lose the "flavor of the response" (i. 2. well-designed studies consistently produce high response rates. Questionnaires are familiar to most people. A questionnaire probing sensitive issues or attitudes may be severely affected. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive. There is uniform question presentation and no middle-man bias. however. 3.e. he is free to complete the questionnaire on his own time-table. This is especially true for studies involving large sample sizes and large geographic areas. Low response is the curse of statistical analysis. the respondent is not interrupted by the research instrument. By allowing frequent space for comments. Comments are among the most helpful of all the information on the questionnaire.90%). d) Disadvantages Of Written Questionnaires 1. When returned questionnaires arrive in the mail. Many times business questionnaires get handed to other employees for completion. Data entry and tabulation for nearly all surveys can be easily done with many computer software packages. Unlike other research methods. Gestures and other visual cues are not available with written questionnaires. Questionnaires are easy to analyze. respondents often want to qualify their answers). 3. it's natural to assume that the respondent is the same person you sent the questionnaire to. Questionnaires reduce bias. The lack of personal contact will have different effects depending on the type of information being requested. Questionnaires are very cost effective when compared to face-to-face interviews. 2. This may not actually be the case. Written questionnaires become even more cost effective as the number of research questions increases. A questionnaire requesting factual information will probably not be affected by the lack of personal contact. They allow little flexibility to the respondent with respect to response format. 5. In essence. One major disadvantage of written questionnaires is the possibility of low response rates.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 c) Advantages of Written Questionnaires 1. Nearly ninety percent of all communication is visual. It can dramatically lower our confidence in the results. Questionnaires are less intrusive than telephone or face-to-face surveys. Another disadvantage of questionnaires is the inability to probe responses. The researcher's own opinions will not influence the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner. Response rates vary widely from one questionnaire to another (10% . When a respondent receives a questionnaire in the mail. Housewives sometimes respond for their 75 . the researcher can partially overcome this disadvantage.

It is a confounding error inherent in questionnaires. A good question asks for only one "bit" of information. Evokes the truth. country B. a researcher investigating a new food snack asks "Do you like the texture and flavor of the snack?" If a respondent answers "no". For example. The qualities of a good question are as follows: 1. Anonymous questionnaires that contain no identifying information are more likely to produce honest responses than those identifying the respondent. Apple 4. there is no way to know whether the quality of the food. if the respondent answers "no". IBM PC B. More frequently. A question that asks for a response on more than one dimension will not provide the information you are seeking. Asks for an answer on only one dimension. Questions must be non-threatening. e) Elements of a questionnaire (qualities of a good question) There are good and bad questions. If your questionnaire does contain sensitive items. or both. 3. For example. city 76 . consider the question: What brand of computer do you own? __ A. people are turned off by written questionnaires because of misuse. For example. questionnaires are simply not suited for some people. or both were unsatisfactory. farm C. There should be only one correct or appropriate choice for the respondent to make. A good question leaves no ambiguity in the mind of the respondent.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 husbands. Kids respond as a prank. 5. Another questionnaire asks. 2. a written survey to a group of poorly educated people might not work because of reading skill problems. Asking a question that does not accommodate all possible responses can confuse and frustrate the respondent. An obvious example is: Where did you grow up? __ A. For a variety of reasons. Multiple choice items are the most popular type of survey questions because they are generally the easiest for a respondent to answer and the easiest to analyze. Has mutually exclusive options. be sure to clearly state your policy on confidentiality. there is a good possibility that the answer will not be truthful. Finally. the respondent may not be who you think it is. The purpose of a survey is to find out information. When a respondent is concerned about the consequences of answering a question in a particular manner. service. Can accommodate all possible answers. then the researcher will not know if the respondent dislikes the texture or the flavor. "Were you satisfied with the quality of our food and service?" Again.

Write your questions so they apply to everyone. must be careful not to lead the respondent 77 . Transitions between questions should be smooth. This question would not provide meaningful information. Produces variability of responses. Does not presuppose a certain state of affairs. It's somewhere between the worst and best C. it could frustrate the respondent and the questionnaire might find its way to the trash. Are you satisfied with your current auto insurance? ___ Yes ___ No ___ Don't have auto insurance 8. Writing a questionnaire is similar to writing anything else. This often means simply adding an additional response category. very little information is learned. 5. An example of this type of mistake is: Are you satisfied with your current auto insurance? (Yes or No) This question will present a problem for someone who does not currently have auto insurance. we are left with considerable uncertainty about why we asked the question and what we learned from the information. Among the most subtle mistakes in questionnaire design are questions that make an unwarranted assumption. Design your questions so they are sensitive to differences between respondents. Does not imply a desired answer.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 A person who grew up on a farm in the country would not know whether to select choice A or B. The wording of a question is extremely important. For example: What do you think about this report? __ A. therefore. As another example: Are you against drug abuse? (circle: Yes or No) Again. If a question does not produce variability in responses. it will not be possible to perform any statistical analyses on the item. 6. Grouping questions that are similar will make the questionnaire easier to complete. We are striving for objectivity in our surveys and. When a question produces no variability in responses. Follows comfortably from the previous question. Questionnaires that jump from one unrelated topic to another feel disjointed and are not likely to produce high response rates. It's the best report I've read Since almost all responses would be choice B. 7. It's the worst report I've read B. Worse than that. there would be very little variability in responses and we'd be left wondering why we asked the question in the first place. and the respondent will feel more comfortable.

This becomes increasingly difficult as the number of items increases. While branching can be used as an effective probing technique in telephone and face-to-face interviews. Abbreviations are okay if you are absolutely certain that every single respondent will understand their meanings. Does not use unfamiliar words or abbreviations. Do not use uncommon words or compound sentences. Quantifying adjectives (e. Branching in written questionnaires should be avoided. Is not dependent on responses to previous questions. but it would not be a good question for the general public.g. How much did you spend last year for life insurance? ______ 12. and the answers become less reliable. An example of branching is: 1. it should not be used in written questionnaires because it sometimes confuses respondents. It is important to understand that these adjectives mean different things to different people.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 into giving the answer we would like to receive. Limiting the number of items to five will make it easier for the respondent to answer. Write short sentences. most. How much is your annual life insurance premium? _________ These questions could easily be rewritten as one question that applies to everyone: 1. Does not ask the respondent to order or rank a series of more than five items. do not use the abbreviation. Do you currently have a life insurance policy? (Yes or No) If no. Questions asking respondents to rank items by importance should be avoided. In order to successfully complete this task. The following question might be okay if all the respondents are accountants. This becomes especially problematic when asking respondents to assign a percentage to a series of items. majority) are frequently used in questions. This is one of the areas overlooked by both beginners and experienced researchers.. 78 . 10. Leading questions are usually easily spotted because they use negative phraseology. go to question 3 2. Does not use emotionally loaded or vaguely defined words. the respondent must mentally continue to re-adjust his answers until they total one hundred percent. least. Remember who your audience is and write your questionnaire for them. What was your AGI last year? ______ 11. If there is any doubt at all. As examples: Wouldn't you like to receive our free brochure? Don't you think the Congress is spending too much money? 9.

it will be necessary to consider this for both the type of question you choose and the wording. If you introduce them too early. Which topics should be introduced early in the survey. first impressions are important in survey work. and which later? If you leave your most important questions until the end. Remember. The following are examples of survey questions divided into two groups: closed-end questions and open-end questions. we have to ask respondents about difficult or uncomfortable subjects. consider the following questions:    Is the answer influenced by prior questions? Does question come too early or too late to arouse interest? Does the question receive sufficient attention? The Opening Questions Just as in other aspects of life. g) Question types The task of designing questionnaires is no easy matter and it underlines the idea that research is a process. the opening few questions should. Sensitive Questions In much of our social research. Without an understanding of your subject. With that in mind. they may not yet be ready to address the topic. In this respect it’s worth thinking clearly about the characteristics of your audience. in general.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 f) Sequencing questions (question placement) One of the most difficult tasks facing the survey designer involves the ordering of questions. The first few questions you ask will determine the tone for the survey. you should attempt to develop some trust or rapport with the respondent. For instance. You should become familiar with these and think about how each might be used 79 . Before asking such questions. For instance. It is often helpful to have a transition sentence between sections of your instrument to give the respondent some idea of the kinds of questions that are coming. Whenever you think about question placement. you cannot begin to ask sensible and relevant questions in a way which will be most effective. There are no easy answers to these problems . be easy to answer. you might lead into a section on personal material with the transition: In this next section of the survey. grounded in preliminary work such as the literature search. You might start with some simple descriptive questions that will get the respondent rolling. preceding the sensitive questions with some easier warm-up ones will help. especially if it is a difficult or disturbing one. if they are specialists with a high level of knowledge about your have to use your judgment. we do not want you to answer any questions if you are uncomfortable doing so. You should never begin your survey with sensitive or threatening questions. you have to make sure that the sensitive material does not come up abruptly or appear unconnected with the rest of the survey. But. you may find that your respondents are too tired to give them the kind of attention you would like. and can help put your respondent at ease. Often. or just a general sample. we'd like to ask you about your personal relationships.

… . and the respondent selects the point that represents his or her opinion. 5 = strongly agree 1_ 2_ 3_ 4_ 5_ Semantic differential A scale is inscribed between two bipolar words.… .… .… . Example: Good critical reviews are an important factor for me in choosing to attend a new exhibit at the museum.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 in your project... 2 = disagree.Poor speakers Importance scale 80 .… Lo w ticket prices.… .… . 3 = undecided.… .… .… . Top speakers … .… . 4 = agree. Example: Is this the first time you have attended this museum? Yes or No Multiple choice A question offering three or more answer choices.… .… . Example: With who m are you attending this museum? No one_ Spouse_ Relatives/Friends_ Business associates organized group_ Likert scale A statement with which the respondent shows a specific amount of agreement/disagreement. 1 = strongly disagree.… . Example: High ticket prices … . Think about what kind of data the question is designed to deliver and what conclusions you might draw: Closed-end questions Dichotomous A question offering two answer choices...

4 = not very important. 5 = poor. 4 = fair. Example: What is your opinio n of the Melbourne Museum? Word association Words are presented. 4 = probably not buy. I would … ……… 1 = definitely buy. and respondents mention the first word that comes to mind. 2 = very good. 3 = somewhat important. Example: The quality of our exhibit is … 1 = excellent. 2 = very important. 3 = good. 1_ 2_ 3_ 4_ 5_ (Kotler & Kotler 1998.170–1. pp. Example: Ticket exchange privilege to me is … 1 = extremely important. Melbou rne Museum_____. one at a time. 3 = not sure. Example: If subscriptions were offered for packages of 6 lectures. Example: What is the first word that co mes to mind when you hear the follo wing? Museum_____.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 A scale that rates the importance of some attribute. 1_ 2_ 3_ 4_ 5_ Intention-to-buy scale A scale that describes the respondent’s intention to buy. emphasis added) Open-end questions Completely unstru ctured A question that respondents can answer in an almost unlimited number of ways. 2 = probably buy. 1_ 2_ 3_ 4_ 5_ Rating scale A scale that rates some attribute from “poor” to “excellent”. 5 = definitely not buy. 5 = not at all important. Colonial art_____ 81 .

or Pacific Islander?). 4.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Sentence completion Incomplete sentences are presented. do you want more detail (like divorced. How personal is the wording? With a change of just a few words. In this kind of case. For instance. the most important consideration in my decision is ________ h) Question Wording One of the major difficulty in writing good survey questions is getting the wording right. if you ask for marital status. you may need to use a filter question first to determine whether either of these assumptions is true. one at a time. do you want someone to say simply that they are either married or no married? Or. Example: When I choose a lecture series to attend. 1. Or. if it does. Is the time frame specified? Whenever you use the words "will". each of which asks about the respondent's satisfaction with working conditions:    Are working conditions satisfactory or not satisfactory in the plant where you work? Do you feel that working conditions satisfactory or not satisfactory in the plant where you work? Are you personally satisfied with working conditions in the plant where you work? 82 . 3. if you ask a person for their nationality. etc. you might suspect that the question asks a time-related question.)? 2. it might not be clear what you want (Do you want someone from Malaysia to say Malaysian. For instance. Can the Question be misunderstood? The survey author has to always be on the lookout for questions that could be misunderstood or confusing. Even slight wording differences can confuse the respondent or lead to incorrect interpretations of the question. We don't think about the assumptions behind our questions. if you ask what social class someone's in. Be sure that. or "may" in a question. What assumptions does the question make? Sometimes we don't stop to consider how a question will appear from the respondent's point-ofview. you assume that they know what social class is and that they think of themselves as being in one. widow/widower. Asian. Consider the following three questions. a question can go from being relatively impersonal to probing into your private perspectives. "might". For instance. "could". and respondents complete the sentence. you might ask: Do you think Congress will cut taxes? or something like Do you think Congress could successfully resist tax cuts? Neither of these questions specifies a time frame. To over come this problem following points should be considered. you have specified the time frame precisely.

all of this may simply be begging the question. It asks about equipment in the field. their trust. Therefore. The last question is probably the least direct and least threatening. For instance. Without trying to generate an exhaustive list. Bashing the new recruits is standard protocol in almost any social context. and often. Of course. The question is likely to get the respondent talking.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 5. Is the wording too direct? There are times when asking a question too directly may be too threatening or disturbing for respondents. without eliciting much stress. for the rest of your life as well!): To put this in more practical terms. 6. The second question is a less direct one. but. recounting anecdotes. Is the Question Necessary/Useful? Examine each question to see if you need to ask it at all and if you need to ask it at the level of detail you currently have. I hope. 1. their attention. you should reconsider the ethics of doing the study. for this population. For this population it may elicit powerful negative emotions based on their recollections. Other wording issues The nuances of language guarantee that the task of the question writer will be endlessly complex. you should keep the following in mind:       Thank the respondent at the beginning for allowing you to conduct your study Keep your survey as short as possible -. here are a few other questions to keep in mind:     Does the question contain difficult or unclear terminology? Does the question make each alternative explicit? Is the wording objectionable? Is the wording loaded or slanted? 7. you should always keep in mind the "golden rule" of survey research (and. may also lead the discussion toward more difficult issues to discuss directly. If you are doing a study where the respondents may experience high levels of stress because of the questions you ask. Examine the following three question options:    How did you feel about being in the war? How well did the equipment hold up in the field? How well were new recruits trained? The first question may be too direct.only include what is absolutely necessary Be sensitive to the needs of the respondent Be alert for any sign that the respondent is uncomfortable Thank the respondent at the end for participating Assure the respondent that you will send a copy of the final results i) Question Content For each question in your survey.   Do you need the age of each child or just the number of children under 16? Do you need to ask income or can you estimate? 83 . for personal information. Here are some content-related questions you can ask about your survey questions. You are asking for their time. you should ask yourself how well it addresses the content you are trying to get at. The Golden Rule You are imposing in the life of your respondent. consider a study where you want to discuss battlefield experiences with former soldiers who experienced trauma.

Are several questions needed? This is the classic problem of the double-barreled question. It's one thing for a respondent to tell you they support something. if you ask someone to list the televisions program they liked best in the past week. CASE STUDY 84 . 4. 3. let's say you want to find out respondent's opinions about a specific book. or their show was preempted by another program. you probably should also ask them whether they ever watch it or if they would be willing to have their tax dollars spent on it. For instance.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 2. let's say you want to ask the question: 4. you could get a very different answer than if you asked them which show they've enjoyed most over the past year. you need to ask additional questions because your question does not determine the intensity of the respondent's attitude or belief. But the intensity of that response is greater if they are willing to back their sentiment of support with their behavior. A subject is more likely to respond if they are involved and interested in the research topic. You could ask them How well did you like the book? on some scale ranging from "Not At All" to "Extremely Well. You should think about splitting each of the following questions into two separate ones. long questionnaires get less response than short questionnaires. For example." But what would their response mean? What does it mean to say you liked a book very well? Instead. Does the question need to be more specific? Sometimes we ask our questions too generally and the information we obtain is more difficult to interpret. More important than length is question content. However. You can often spot these kinds of problems by looking for the conjunction "and" in your question. Is question sufficiently general? You can err in the other direction as well by being too specific. you might as questions designed to be more specific like: Did you recommend the book to others? or Did you look for other books by that author? 5. some studies have shown that the length of a questionnaire does not necessarily affect response. Perhaps a show they don't usually like had a great episode in the past week. if they say they support public TV. For example.   What are your feelings towards African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans? What do you think of proposed changes in benefits and hours? At times. Do respondents have the needed information? Look at each question in your survey to see whether the respondent is likely to have the necessary information to be able to answer the question. For example. Questions should be meaningful and interesting to the respondent. The Length of a Questionnaire As a general rule.

A case study is description of a real event or situation where as a statistical study involves abstraction form real situation. The unit may be a person. Features which are not common to all cases but are common to certain subgroups. The unit may be a person. Features which are common to all cases in a general group. 85 . Case study is particularly useful as background information for planning major investigations in the social sciences.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 A case study refers to specific unit of analysis for the study. A generalization drawn from a single case cannot be applied to case in given population. Collect the data. 1. Organize the information to form a coherent. 3. 4. 3. but not descriptive of a single unit in the group. It identifies three factors: 1. What is the unit or study and what characteristics and process will direct the investigation? 2. 3. It follows on typicalness rather than uniqueness. a committee or situation. well integrated reconstruction of unit of study. a social group. It describes the complex behavior pattern of a unit. More accurate data are obtained. Example: an average may be typical of a large group. It is quantitative analysis not based on scientific analysis. a family. 2. The researcher gains many new insights into human behavior and becomes emotionally mature. It views a social unit as a whole. a social group. a social institution or committees. A case study involves intensive study of a relative small number of situations. Design the approach. It is a study of a unit as a whole. Steps/phases in case study The steps/phases in case study are as follows: 1. It shows a development over a period of time. It examines a small number of units across a large number of variables and conditions. How will the unit be selected? What sources of data are available? What data collection method is used?. State the objectives. an institution. It deals with both what and why of the subject. It is a longitudinal approach. family. It is source of important hypothesis. Strength/merits of case study Inferences are obtained from study of an entire situation. Report the result and discuss their significance. It places more emphasis on the full analysis of limited number of events or conditions another behavior. Features which are unique to specific cases. Characteristics of Case Study Case studies are in depth investigations of a given social unit resulting in a complete well organized picture of that unit. 2.

Observers should know what they are looking for and what is irrelevant in a situation. the researcher should identify and 86 . It is the process of recognizing noting people. This may lead to unwanted conclusions. 6. investigators are inclined to generalize although the case study method does not lend itself to generalization. OBSERVATION It is a method of gathering primary data physically or mechanically recording events or aspect of the phenomenon under investigation. It should focus on wholeness of what is observed. Observation is systematic and deliberate study through eye. the researcher arrange to observe what product are brought and what program they watch. It should be checked and verified whenever possible by repetition or by comparison with those of other competent observers. 2. Example: instead of asking consumer what brand they buy or what television program they watch. For the researchers observation to achieve a satisfactory degree of validity. Case studies are limited in their representatives because of their narrow focus on few units. Since case study gives detailed description of complete situations. they should also know that the whole is often greater than the sum of its parts. In analyzing cases. systematic and perceptive. objects and events. 3. of spontaneous occurrence at the time they occur. 4. Observers observe the facts and make their interpretation at a later time. 1. Observation is the process of recognizing and recording behavior of people. Characteristics of good observations Observation should be carefully planned. 2. Informal method tends to become subjective rather than objective. To achieve a satisfactory degree of content validity. 4. Observers should not only be alert to significant details. Validity generally results from carful planning of observation. It lacks sample method. 3. Observations are collected in such a way that they are valid and reliable. 5. It is highly expensive and time taking. it is difficult to develop formal method of observation and recording. qualify and preserve the result of their observations. Validity of observation Validity is that trial or quality of a data gathering procedure that enables to measure what it supposed to measure.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Limitations of case study 1. Observers use appropriate instruments to systematize. 5. It should separate the facts from the interpretation of facts. Lack of objectivity carries out into the analysis case data. objects and occurrence of events rather than asking for information. criterion-related and construct validity. It involves recording of the respondents’ behavior. Observers should strive to eliminate their influence what see and report. It should be carefully and expertly recorded. It should be objective and bias-free. Observation should achieve content. It can supplement the information collected through questionnaire and interview.

Reliability of observation Reliability is that quantity of a data gathering technique that enables to measure the degree of consistency. Rating scale It involves qualitative description of limited number of aspects of things or triats of person. When recording would more appropriately done after observation. feelings and even attitudes may distort their observations. The presence or absence of behavior may be indicated by checking yes or no. The classification may set up in 5 or 7 categories in such terms as: Superior Always Average Fair Inferior Excellent Good Average Below average 87 . They are: Checklist It is a prepared list of behavior or items. When researchers are role observers. it may be desirable to engage others who are well prepared as observers. To overcome this. Their own values. The researchers should not be observer. This participate minimize the errors that results from faulty memory. For this. It is the simplest of the device. If it does not distract or create barrio between observer and those observed. The experts help in selecting a limited number of observable incidents whose relationship to the qualities of interest is based upon should established theory. they unconsciously tend. a subjective judgment of expert in the field may be taken. Systematizing data collection from observation To aid in the recording of information gained through observation. a number of device have been extensively used. What they expect to see and to overlook those incidents that do not fit their theory. or the type of number of items may be indicated by inserting the appropriate word or number. should be done as soon as possible while the details are still fresh in the mind of the observers. Recording observation Observation should be recorded. simultaneously recording of observation should be done. Observation data are considered to be reliable when they assure consistency in measurement.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 sample truly significant incidents of behavior.

Editing is done to assure that the data are accurate. editing involves a careful scrutiny of the completed questionnaires and/or schedules. shall prefer to observe the difference between the two terms as stated here in order to understand their implications more clearly. we can now proceed with the explanation of all the processing operations.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Poor III Always Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Scale specimen It provides a method for evaluating certain observed level of performance or measure of a quality in question. Technically speaking. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The data. consistent with other facts gathered. This is essential for a scientific study and for ensuring that we have all relevant data for making contemplated comparisons and analysis. coding. has to be processed and analyzed in accordance with the outline laid down for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. It is not frequently encountered in behavioral measures. Editing: Editing of data is a process of examining the collected raw data (specially in surveys) to detect errors and omissions and to correct these when possible. relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with original or new hypotheses should be subjected to statistical tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any conclusions”. however. As a matter of fact. They opine that analysis of data in a general way involves a number of closely related operations which are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing these in such a manner that they answer the research question(s). The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationship that exist among data-groups. as completed as possible and have been well arranged to facilitate coding and tabulation. 1. Field editing consists in the review of the reporting forms by the investigator for completing (translating or rewriting) what the latter has written in abbreviated and/or in illegible form at the time of recording the respondents’ responses. “in the process of analysis. processing implies editing. after collection. PROCESSING OPERATIONS With this brief introduction concerning the concepts of processing and analysis. Thus. uniformly entered.1 But there are persons who do not like to make difference between processing and analysis. We. preferably on the very day or on the next day. the 88 . This sort of editing should be done as soon as possible after the interview. classification and tabulation of collected data so that they are amenable to analysis. While doing field editing. This type of editing is necessary in view of the fact that individual writing styles often can be difficult for others to decipher.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 investigator must restrain himself and must not correct errors of omission by simply guessing what the informant would have said if the question had been asked. Such classes should be appropriate to the research problem under consideration. (c) They must make entries (if any) on the form in some distinctive color and that too in a standardized form. honesty. They must also possess the characteristic of exhaustiveness (i. sex. Data having a common characteristic are placed in one class and in this way the entire data get divided into a number of groups or classes.e. (d) They should initial all answers which they change or supply. they should just draw a single line on it so that the same may remain legible.. Editor(s) may correct the obvious errors such as an entry in the wrong place.) or numerical (such as 89 . Coding: Coding refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. etc. depending upon the nature of the phenomenon involved: (a) Classification according to attributes: As stated above. there must be a class for every data item) and also that of mutual exclusively which means that a specific answer can be placed in one and only one cell in a given category set. Classification can be one of the following two types. (e) Editor’s initials and the date of editing should be placed on each completed form or schedule. This type of editing implies that all forms should get a thorough editing by a single editor in a small study and by a team of editors in case of a large inquiry. Central editing should take place when all forms or schedules have been completed and returned to the office. 3. Coding is necessary for efficient analysis and through it the several replies may be reduced to a small number of classes which contain the critical information required for analysis. This fact necessitates classification of data which happens to be the process of arranging data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics. entry recorded in months when it should have been recorded in weeks. 2. data are classified on the basis of common characteristics which can either be descriptive (such as literacy. Classification: Most research studies result in a large volume of raw data which must be reduced into homogeneous groups if we are to get meaningful relationships. (b) While crossing out an original entry for one reason or another. Editors must keep in view several points while performing their work: (a) They should be familiar with instructions given to the interviewers and coders as well as with the editing instructions supplied to them for the purpose. and the like.

). only their presence or absence in an individual item can be noticed. Descriptive characteristics refer to qualitative phenomenon which cannot be measured quantitatively. say. persons whose incomes. age. are within Rs 201 to Rs 400 can form one group. In simple words. etc. For example.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 weight. come under this category. we can say that under exclusive type class intervals. under the exclusive type class intervals. For instance. an item whose value is exactly 30 would be put in 30–40 class interval and not in 20–30 class interval. Inclusive type class intervals: They are usually stated as follows: 11–20 21–30 90 . Data relating to income. etc. those whose incomes are within Rs 401 to Rs 600 can form another group and so on. the upper limit of a class interval is excluded and items with values less than the upper limit (but not less than the lower limit) are put in the given class interval. (b) Classification according to class-intervals: Unlike descriptive characteristics. the numerical characteristics refer to quantitative phenomenon which can be measured through some statistical units. Exclusive type class intervals: They are usually stated as follows: 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 The above intervals should be read as under: 10 and under 20 20 and under 30 30 and under 40 40 and under 50 Thus. Such data are known as statistics of variables and are classified on the basis of class intervals. income. height. the items whose values are equal to the upper limit of a class are grouped in the next higher class. Data obtained this way on the basis of certain attributes are known as statistics of attributes and their classification is said to be classification according to attributes. weight. production.

1: An Illustrative Tally Sheet for Determining the Number of 70 Families in Different Income Groups Income groups Below 400 401–800 801–1200 1201–1600 1601 and above Tally mark IIII IIII III IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII II IIII IIII IIII III IIII II Number of families or (Rupees) (Class frequency) 13 20 12 18 7 Total 70 4. This procedure is referred to as tabulation. can be measured and stated only in integers). Tabulation: When a mass of data has been assembled. then we should adopt inclusive type classification. the class-groups are written on a sheet of paper (commonly known as the tally sheet) and for each item a stroke (usually a small vertical line) is marked against the class group in which it falls. the fifth line for the item falling in the same group. is indicated as horizontal line through the said four lines and the resulting flower (IIII) represents five items. An illustrative tally sheet can be shown as under: Table 7.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 31–40 41–50 In inclusive type class intervals the upper limit of a class interval is also included in the concerning class interval. it becomes necessary for the researcher to arrange the same in some kind of concise and logical order. But when the phenomenon happens to be a continuous one capable of being measured in fractions as well. 91 . we can use exclusive type class intervals.* How to determine the frequency of each class? This can be done either by tally sheets or by mechanical aids. Under the technique of tally sheet.99999 and as such 11–20 class interval really means 11 and under 21. Thus. an item whose value is 20 will be put in 11–20 class interval. When the phenomenon under consideration happens to be a discrete one (i.e. All this facilitates the counting of items in each one of the class groups.. The stated upper limit of the class interval 11–20 is 20 but the real limit is 20. The general practice is that after every four small vertical lines in a class group.

It provides a basis for various statistical computations. 6. Hand tabulation is usually preferred in case of small inquiries where the number of questionnaires is small and they are of relatively short length. 2. In a broader sense. if any. Every table should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy reference. in the form of statistical tables) for further analysis. Generally accepted principles of tabulation: Such principles of tabulation.e. Lines are always drawn at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions. Source or sources from where the data in the table have been obtained must be indicated just below the table. Tabulation can be done by hand or by mechanical or electronic devices. along with the reference symbols used in the table. time pressures and the availability of tabulating machines or computers. Every table should have a clear. 1. can be briefly states as follows:* 1. 5. the list and tally or the card sort and count methods. There should be thick lines to separate the data under one class from the data under another class and the lines separating the sub-divisions of the classes should be comparatively thin lines. The units of measurement under each heading or sub-heading must always be indicated. When there are simple codes. 4. it is feasible to tally directly from the questionnaire. tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying the same in compact form (i. tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. we may use mechanical or computer tabulation if other factors are favorable and necessary facilities are available. 4. It facilitates the process of comparison. It facilitates the summation of items and the detection of errors and omissions. Explanatory footnotes. 8. The choice depends on the size and type of study. 3. Tabulation is essential because of the following reasons. Usually the columns are separated from one another by lines which make the table more readable and attractive. concise and adequate title so as to make the table intelligible without reference to the text and this title should always be placed just above the body of the table. 92 . particularly of constructing statistical tables. The column headings (captions) and the row headings (stubs) of the table should be clear and brief. Hand tabulation may be done using the direct tally. In relatively large inquiries. concerning the table should be placed directly beneath the table. 7. 3.. 2. It conserves space and reduces explanatory and descriptive statement to a minimum.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Thus. cost considerations.

accurate and simple as possible. Above all. 10. The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference. 18. 14. the table must suit the needs and requirements of an investigation. ELEMENTS/TYPES OF ANALYSIS As stated earlier. percentages and/or averages must also be kept close to the data. involves estimating the values of unknown parameters of the population and testing of hypotheses for drawing inferences. “Descriptive analysis is largely the study of distributions of one variable. 16. clear. different kinds of type. Abbreviations should be avoided to the extent possible and ditto marks should not be used in the table. 1. Those columns whose data are to be compared should be kept side by side.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 9. geographical. Miscellaneous and exceptional items. 15. if any. persons and other subjects on any of a multiple of 93 . It is generally considered better to approximate figures before tabulation as the same would reduce unnecessary details in the table itself. should be usually placed in the last row of the table. 12. Table should be made as logical. Total of rows should normally be placed in the extreme right column and that of columns should be placed at the bottom. The arrangement of the categories in a table may be chronological. therefore. work groups. 11. It is important that all column figures be properly aligned. be categorized as descriptive analysis and inferential analysis (Inferential analysis is often known as statistical analysis). alphabetical or according to magnitude to facilitate comparison. Similarly. 13. particularly in case of survey or experimental data. 17. spacing and indentations may be used. In order to emphasize the relative significance of certain categories. This study provides us with profiles of companies. Decimal points and (+) or (–) signs should be in perfect alignment. * All these points constitute the characteristics of a good table. Analysis. Analysis may. If the data happen to be very large. they should not be crowded in a single table for that would make the table unwieldy and inconvenient. by analysis we mean the computation of certain indices or measures along with searching for patterns of relationship that exist among the data groups.

94 . but can be classified into two or more groups on the basis of some attribute. (d) Canonical analysis: This analysis can be used in case of both measurable and non-measurable variables for the purpose of simultaneously predicting a set of dependent variables from their joint covariance with a set of independent variables. It is also concerned with the estimation of population values. We may as well talk of correlation analysis and causal analysis.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 characteristics such as size. the task of drawing inferences and conclusions) is performed. Inferential analysis is concerned with the various tests of significance for testing hypotheses in order to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate some conclusion or conclusions. In modern times. Correlation analysis studies the joint variation of two or more variables for determining the amount of correlation between two or more variables. Causal analysis is considered relatively more important in experimental researches. (c) Multivariate analysis of variance (or multi-ANOVA): This analysis is an extension of two way ANOVA. The objective of this analysis is to make a prediction about the dependent variable based on its covariance with all the concerned independent variables. with the availability of computer facilities. Usually the following analyses* are involved when we make a reference of multivariate analysis: (a) Multiple regression analysis: This analysis is adopted when the researcher has one dependent variable which is presumed to be a function of two or more independent variables. whereas in most social and business researches our interest lies in understanding and controlling relationships between variables then with determining causes per se and as such we consider correlation analysis as relatively more important. there has been a rapid development of multivariate analysis which may be defined as “all statistical methods which simultaneously analyze more than two variables on a sample of observations”3. This analysis can be termed as regression analysis. In this context we work out various measures that show the size and shape of a distribution(s) along with the study of measuring relationships between two or more variables. etc this sort of analysis may be in respect of one variable (described as uni dimensional analysis). 2. wherein the ratio of among group variance to within group variance is worked out on set of variables. efficiency. Composition. It is mainly on the basis of inferential analysis that the task of interpretation (i. preferences. It is thus a study of functional relationships existing between two or more variables..e. Causal analysis is concerned with the study of how one or more variables affect changes in another variable. The object of this analysis happens to be to predict an entity’s possibility of belonging to a particular group based on several predictor variables. or in respect of two variables (described as bivariate analysis) or in respect of more than two variables (described as multivariate analysis). (b) Multiple discriminant analysis: This analysis is appropriate when the researcher has a single dependent variable that cannot be measured.

1 2 95 .

It should indicate the subject. If the research report is confidential the name of those individuals to receive report should be specified on the title page. It is concise and clear communication of findings of the research work. Table of contents list the sequence of topic covered in the report long with page reference. Organization/format/main body of report a. why it is done. This presentation can be written or given orally or both. This act of communicating is called report writing. b. for whom prepared and by whom prepared. so obviously it must be tailored to his need. graphs. It is culmination of the research findings to a specific audience to accomplish given purpose. much of the acceptance of the results depends on the way as they are communicated to the relevant audiences. A report is simply a statement or description of theirs that have already occurred. The research report must be an objective presentation or the research findings. It should cover the important points of the project and should exclude the unimportant.“A research report can be defined as the presentation of the research findings directed to a specific audience to accomplish specific purposes. method used to solve the problem. Table of contents If the report is lengthy or it is divided into numerous parts. result of the investigation and conclusion inferred from the result. Its purpose is to aid the readers in findings the particular section in report. Report should be concise yet complete.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 REPORT WRITING No matter what quality is of the research undertaken. If the report includes numerous chart. outcome of the doing and researchers’ conclusion. It is to report what was done. c. It is the final step in the research process. and figures they should be listed immediately following the table of content by page number. According to Kinner and Taylor. it is usually describe to have table of content. Title page The title page appears first. 1. Management/executive summary 96 . Guidelines for report writing The research report is design to communicate information for use by decision maker. data to the report is prepared. “ Its objective is to tell readers the problems investigated.

various dimensional of the problem and whether any previous research was done which is pertinent to the specific project being reported. This includes the following (i) Research design It can be exploratory or conclusive the researcher should describe the particular design used. Foreword This serves to introduce the readers to the research project. Statement of objectives The specific objectives of the report need to be set forth clearly. sampling units. importance of the problem. It contains objective of the research project. Data can be collected from primary or secondary source with various methods. f. sampling procedure employed.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Most decision maker requires that the research report contains one or two page management summary. (iv) Fieldwork It should describe fieldwork activities such as description of the number. conclusion and specific recommendation for action. It provides the executives with the key research findings which bear on the decision problem. type of field workers used. how they were selected. It should give background of the problems like how and when it comes to existence. Most executives choose to read only this summary. sampling size. d. It requires the organization of the data into a 97 . (ii) Data collection method The researcher must explain the data collection method used. The readers must know exactly what the report covers. e. Methodology It describes the research procedure. (v) Analysis and interpretation It should include logically unfolding of information. trained and supervised and how their work was verified. (iii) Sampling It should specify universe.

They facilitate understanding of complex problems. This helps readers to form more accurate interpretations of the result than they would otherwise do. Appendix The purpose of the appendix is to provide a place for material which is not absolutely essential to the body of the report. This section makes up the bulk of the report. Limitations Every research project has weakness which needs to be communicating in a clear and concise manner. Bar chart 98 . Summary table and graphics methods of presentation should be used liberally. bibliography. Conclusions and recommendations It must flow logically form the presentations of the findings. Methods of diagrammatic presentation a. Conclusions should clearly link the research findings with the information needs and based on these linkage recommendations for action can be formulated. They are basically pictorial presentation. It is an organized narrative of the results. Findings Findings are the results of the study. h. Diagrammatic representation of information has now become a popular way to communicate findings to readers. This material is typically more specialized and complex or too detailed than presented in the main report and it is design to serve the needs of the technically oriented readers. i. The appendix typically contains the following materials: copies of data collection forms: details of sampling plan. Presentation of diagram Diagram refers to charts. 2. g. j. It also facilitates presentation of data that are already collected in time of research objectives.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 logical flow of information for decision making purposes. tables not included in findings. graphs or schemes that explain thesis.

Tables enable the reader to comprehend and interpret masses of data rapidly and to significantly details and relations at a glance.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 It depicts the magnitude of the data by length of various bars which have been laid with reference to horizontal or vertical scale. It permits quick and easy understandings of relative percentage or division of the whole. Bar chart shows only the total amount for a time period only whereas line charts shows variations within each time period. A table is systematic method of presenting statistical data in vertical column and horizontal rows. A line chart is preferred over a bar chart in the following situations •When the data involves a long time period • When several series are compared on the same chart • When emphasis is on the movement rather than the actual amount • When trends of frequency distribution are presented. Line or circle or sector charts It depicts change in quantitative data over time. They can be bilateral or two way which show both positive and negative characteristics of data. Tabulation involves arrangement of data in the form of tables. Pie chart It is a circle divided into sections such that the sixe of each section corresponding to a portion of the total. manpower and cost. b. incomes and expenses. 3. 99 . production and cost. Scatter diagram It is used to examine the relationship between two variables such as price and scales. e. and so on. Construction of tables The research data can be presented in tabular form. c. d. Time series graphs It shows the behavior of some variables overt time.

It tells the relation among three variables at a time. If the bibliography is extensive. Simple table: It is often called marginal table. The male category of a population can be classified as poor. a. It is one dimension or uni-variate table. Table showing the male and female population is an example. Two way or bi-variate table: It is two dimensional tables with two variables. It is always arranged alphabetically. c. It consists of a count of the number of response that occurs in each of the data categories that comprise a variable. It is added at the end of research report. middle income and rich. it can be divided into books. Types of tables 100 . newspaper. b. reports and public documents. The variables are interrelated. d. Such tables commonly occur in newspapers. Multiple tables: It gives information about four or more mutually related attributes. Three-way table: It indicates three mutually related and interlinked attributes of phenomenon. by common use both published and unpublished materials are listed in bibliography.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Note: Rules for preparing bibliography 4. However. Bibliography: A bibliography is a list of published works. It makes no difference how many categories any single variable has. periodically. government publications etc.

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       

Use surname of the author first followed by middle name or two initials. Use the name of institutions or agency if there is no author name. Place the parenthesis immediately after the name to enter the year of publication. Name the books in italic if computer printed, and use underline if it is typed. Give the place of publication and name of publisher. In case of two or more works by the same author, the author’s name is not to be repeated; a short horizontal line followed by a period should take the place of author’s name If there are two or more works by one author, arrange them chronologically, most recent last. Use double space between the entries. The second line of an entry should be single spaced.

For a book with one author Kotler, P (1998). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control. New Delhi: PHI

For a book with two authors Kotler, P and Armstrong (2005), Principle of marketing , New Delhi For an edited book Blois, Keith (Ed.) (2000). The oxford text book of marketing, New York: Oxford University Press Line.

For a corporate or institutional author Nepal Red Cross (1991). Fire representative training manual. Kathmandu: NRC For a newspaper article The Rising Nepal. April 15, 1997. P3. Col4

SAMPLING It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study. Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and the researcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn. Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. In non probability sampling, members are selected from the population in some


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nonrandom manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In non probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown.
1. Simple Random Sampling A simple random sample is one in which each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample i.e. a sample selected by randomization method is known as simple-random sample and this technique is simple random-sampling. Randomization is a method and is done by using a number of techniques as : (a) Tossing a coin. (b) Throwing a dice. (c) Lottery method. (d) Blind folded method. (e) By using random table of ‘Tippett’s Table

Advantages (a) It requires a minimum knowledge of population. (b) It is free from subjectivity and free from personal error. (c) It provides appropriate data for our purpose. (d) The observations of the sample can be used for inferential purpose.

Disadvantages (a) The representativeness of a sample cannot be ensured by this method. (b) This method does not use the knowledge about the population. (c) The inferential accuracy of the finding depends upon the size of the sample.


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2. Systematic Sampling Systematic sampling is an improvement over the simple random sampling. This method requires the complete information about the population. There should be a list of information of all the individuals of the population in any systematic way. Now we decide the size of the sample. Let sample size = n and population size = N Now we select each N/nth individual from the list and thus we have the desired size of sample which is known as systematic sample. Thus for this technique of sampling population should be arranged in any systematic way.

Advantages (a) This is a simple method of selecting a sample. (b) It reduces the field cost. (c) Inferential statistics may be used. (d) Sample may be comprehensive and representative of population. (e) Observations of the sample may be used for drawing conclusions and generalizations.

Disadvantages (a) This is not free from error, since there is subjectivity due to different ways of systematic list by different individuals. Knowledge of population is essential. (b) Information of each individual is essential. (c) This method can’t ensure the representativeness. (d) There is a risk in drawing conclusions from the observations of the sample.

3. Stratified Sampling It is an improvement over the earlier method. When employing this technique, the researcher divides his population in strata on the basis of some characteristics and from each of these smaller homogeneous groups (strata) draws at random a predetermined number of units. Researcher should choose that characteristic or criterion which seems to be more relevant in his research work. Stratified ampling may be of three types: 103

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1. Disproportionate stratified sampling. 2. Proportionate stratified sampling. 3. Optimum allocation stratified sampling.

1. Disproportionate sampling means that the size of the sample in each unit is not proportionate to the size of the unit but depends upon considerations involving personal judgement and convenience. This method of sampling is more effective for comparing strata which have different error possibilities. It is less efficient for determining population characteristics.

2. Proportionate sampling refers to the selection from each sampling unit of a sample that is proportionate to the size of the unit. Advantages of this procedure include representativeness with respect to variables used as the basis of classifying categories and increased chances of being able to make comparisons between strata. Lack of information on proportion of the population in each category and faulty classification may be listed as disadvantages of this method.

3. Optimum allocation stratified sampling is representative as well as comprehensive than other stratified samples. It refers to selecting units from each stratum should be in proportion to the corresponding stratum the population. Thus sample obtained is known as optimum allocation stratified sample.

These three types are clear from the table as given below:

21 22 23 24 25

Advantages (a) It is (more precisely third way) a good representative of the population. (b) It is an improvement over the earlier. (c) It is an objective method of sampling.


Thus. but it generally seems more than one criterion relevant for stratification. Disadvantages 105 . if the people who fail to reply the’ query differ in some fundamental way from the others in respect to the phenomena being studied. (b) This technique of sampling reduces the error. (c) It is costly and time consuming method. (d) Selected sample may be representative with reference to the used criterion but not for the other. wherein one sample is analyzed. a second sample may be drawn at random from the non-respondents and the people interviewed to obtain the desired information. This is done because some randomly selected subjects who are sent questionnaires may not return them. This double sampling technique enables one to check on the reliability of the information obtained from the first sample. 4. double sampling. double sampling is sometimes used to obtain a ‘more representative sample.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 (d) Observations can be used for inferential purpose. (e) There is a risk in generalization. Obviously. When employing a mailed questionnaire. the missing data will bias the result of the study. Disadvantages (a) Serious disadvantage of this method is that it is difficult for the researcher to decide the relevant criterion for stratification. (b) Only one criterion can be used for stratification. To eliminate this bias. This is most frequently used for establishing the reliability of a sample. Thus this technique is also known as repeated or multiple sampling. Advantages (a) This sampling procedure leads to the inferences of free determine precision based on a number of observations. Multiple or Double or Repetitive Sampling Generally this is not a new method but only a new application of the samplings we discussed above. (c) This method maintains the procedure of the finding evaluate the reliability of the sample. and information obtained is used to draw the next sample to examine the problem further.

and requires more competition. Rather than listing all elementary school children in a given city and randomly selecting 15 per cent of these students for the sample. costly. (b) It involves errors when we consider the primary and secondary stages.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 (a) This technique of sampling cannot be used for a large sample. In this type of sampling primary sample units are inclusive groups and secondary units are sub-groups within these ultimate units to be selected which belong to one and only one group. (b) Multi-stage sampling is an improvement over the earlier methods. 5. Stages of a population are usually available within a group or population. (d) The observations from multi-stage sample may be used for inferential purpose. whenever stratification is done by the researcher. 106 . and uses all of the children in the selected schools as the sample. 6. Advantages (a) It is a good representative of the population. In Cluster sampling the sample units contain groups of elements (clusters) instead of individual members or items in the population. a researcher lists all of the elementary schools in the city. It is applicable only for small sample. Disadvantages (a) It is a difficult and complex method of samplings. Multi-Stage Sampling This sample is more comprehensive and representative of the population. selects at random 15 per cent of these clusters of units. (c) It is an objective procedure of sampling. (c) Its planning and administration is more complicated. Cluster Sampling To select the intact group as a whole is known as a Cluster sampling. (c) It is again a subjective phenomenon. The Individuals are selected from different stages for constituting the multi-stage sampling. (b) This technique is time consuming.

All these above are techniques of probability sampling. (b) It is not comprehensive. (c) It reduces the time. this refers to groups which are used as samples of a population because they are readily available or because the researcher is unable to employ more acceptable sampling methods. Disadvantages (a) Cluster sampling is not free from error. 1. 107 . it is an economical method. (b) It is not free from error.e. money and energy i.e. Non-probability Sampling Techniques Non-probability is also known as non-parametric sampling which ate used for certain purpose. i. (e) Observations can be used for inferential purpose. Disadvantages (a) It is not a representative of the population. Incidental or Accidental Assignment The term incidental or accidental applied to those samples that are taken because they are most frequently available. (b) It is frequently used in behavioural sciences.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Advantages (a) It may be a good representative of the population. 7. Advantages (a) It is very easy method of sampling. (d) It is practicable and highly applicable in education. (c) It is an economical method. (b) It is an easy method.

so generalization is not possible. (b) It is not free from error. which are considered important for the particular study. (c) Sample groups data can be easily matched. 108 . Or the selection of a group by intuition on the basis of criterion deemed to be self-evident. It is to be representative of the total population. Disadvantages (a) This technique is objective. (c) It includes uncontrolled variation. 3. or it is known that it will produce well matched groups. (b) Better control of significant variables.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 (c) Parametric statistics cannot be used. Generally investigator should take the judgment sample so this sampling is highly risky. Judgment Sampling This involves the selection of a group from the population on the basis of available information thought. Advantages (a) Use of the best available knowledge concerning the sample subjects. Purposive Sampling The purposive sampling is selected by some arbitrary method because it is known to be representative of the total population. This method is appropriate when the study places special emphasis upon the control of certain specific variables. The Idea is to pick out the sample in relation to some criterion. 2. Advantages (a) Knowledge of the investigator can be best used in this technique of sampling. (d) Inferential statistics cannot be used for the observations of this sampling. (b) This technique of sampling is also economical.

(c) Errors in classifying sampling subjects. Advantages (a) It is an improvement over the judgment sampling. Disadvantages (a) It is not a representative sample. (b) Knowledge of population is essential. Disadvantages (a) Reliability of the criterion is questionable. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional 109 . (c) It has the influence of regional geographical and social factors. (d) Inability to utilize the inferential parametric statistics. (b) It is not free from error. 4. Snowball sampling is a special nonprobability method used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. the proportion of population falling into each category is decided. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. Quota Sampling This combined both judgment sampling and probability sampling. (b) It is an easy sampling technique. The population is classified into several categories: on the basis of judgment or assumption or the previous knowledge.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 (d) Homogeneity of subjects used in the sample. Quota sampling is very arbitrary and likely to figure in Municipal surveys. Thereafter a quota of cases to be drawn is fixed and the observer is allowed to sample as he likes. (c) It is most frequently used in social surveys. (e) Inability to make generalization concerning total population.

imaginations of the investigator to influence its choice. 110 . A good sample has the practicability for research situation. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs. it refers objectivity in selecting procedure or absence of subjective elements from the situation. A good sample is an objective one. A good sample is free from bias. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SAMPLE The following are the main characteristics of a good sample: 1. Therefore. 9. it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population. 7. The population is known as aggregate of certain properties and sample is called sub-aggregate of the universe. Comprehensiveness is a quality of a sample which is controlled by specific purpose of the investigation.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 subjects. 5. A good sample maintains accuracy. the sample does not permit prejudices the learning and preconception. 8. The probability of error can be estimated. 10. The size of good sample is such that it yields an accurate result. This feature of a sample is closely linked with truerepresentativeness. Since research design is a plan by which research samples may be selected from a population and under which experimental treatments are administered and controlled so that their effect upon the sample may be measured. time and money point of view. a second step in the establishment of an experimental design is to select the treatments that will be used to control sources of learning change in the sample subjects. The research tools can be administered on them and data can be collected easily. 6. It yields an accurate estimates or statistics and does not involve errors. A good sample is comprehensive in nature. The subjects of good sample are easily approachable. 2. A good sample is the true representative of the population corresponding to its properties. A sample may be comprehensive in traits but may not be a good representative of the population. 4. A good sample is also economical from energy. A good sample makes the research work more feasible. 3.

selects. but at this point the respondents assume most of the control. and so typically more invitations are extended until sufficient number accept so that the sample is of desired size.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Types of Errors in Sampling The samples of behavioural research are not representative and suffer from two types of errors: (1) Random error. To this point. Those who do form the data producing sample. methods and techniques. the researcher identifies the universe that is relevant for his research problem and then identifies his population. as sketched in figure. Thus. For now. it is from these data that the researcher obtains his findings and makes his conclusions. it provides a four-ways classification and has been shown in following manner: 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 THE SAMPLING CYCLE Five stages of sampling cycle are proposed here. that is. that portion of the universe to which he has access. Then by applying the techniques for sample selection. all or only some of the accepting sample actually produce data. and (2) Systematic error. These errors can be classified further as : (a) Sampling errors and (b) Error of measurement. Those who do accept from the accepting sample then the researcher applied his data gathering technique to the accepting sample depending upon factors like the data gathering design. the researcher has completed control over the process. he decides how large a sample he needs. 111 . and invites that number to participate. In this cycle. some do and others do not accept the invitation.

and need specific information to support business decisions. Hence. must get results quickly. A careful survey plan will help you focus your project. Survey Value 2. A well-designed plan answers the following questions: Questions Benefits What will be learned? Generate data that answers the business questions you have How long will it take? Keep the survey project focused and on schedule How much will it cost? Anticipate direct and indirect project costs 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 One can only answer these questions if he draft a plan prior to implementing your survey." Creating Effective Survey Plans Depending on the scope of your survey. while guiding your implementation and analysis so the survey research is finished quicker. Defining the Project 112 . then a survey is the most appropriate technique. and often end in frustration. Every survey plan should include consideration of the following six areas: 1. it is important to consider if the required information can be collected by a survey. Survey Cost 3. At this point. Many studies start with a general hope that something interesting will emerge. If you need input from a number of people.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PLANING A SURVEY PROJECT (How to Create an Effective Survey Project Plan) A survey usually originates when an individual or institution is confronted with a problem and the existing data are insufficient. an integral part of a well executed and a successful survey is the "planning quality. You can then concentrate on implementing wellsupported decisions. there could be many interrelated issues.

how high the cost will be to make an error in your decision. we can see how important it is to identify the information you need and define the decision that you must make for this survey project to be successful. Survey Cost Next. and justifying costs to colleagues or clients.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 4. only after the survey is complete. 2. Coke should have conducted a quantitative survey. Project Timeline 1. Knowing this cost. New Coke turned out to be a disaster with consumers and was a very expensive blunder. when actually it caused more uncertainty. before the survey. they ignored the focus group results. You want to make sure that you don't exceed your budget and realize. Objectively identify. 113 . who said that the company should not change its formula. To support this decision. Instead. Defining the Project Team 6. Define decision Do we change the Coke formula? Cost of making an error High (Coke lost market share and brand loyalty after making this decision) Amount of uncertainty High (Blind taste-tests could not evaluate brand loyalty or consumer reaction to the change) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 To resolve the contradictions posed by these two qualitative studies. After conducting blind taste-tests. They believed that the level of uncertainty that their second study would clarify was low. Looking at this example. estimate the total survey cost. they conducted several focus groups. identify the amount of uncertainty the survey is likely to reduce. Survey value depends on three main factors. Coke decided to change its formula because they believed that consumers preferred sweeter-tasting Pepsi. Defining the Audience 5. Numeric results from a survey could not have been manipulated or mis-interpreted the way that their qualitative research was. that you spent more than what you intended. and include a follow up survey in your plan if there are additional issues to be clarified once your initial survey is complete. Survey Value The first step in defining your survey project is to understand its scope and importance to your organization and how the information you gather can realistically benefit your work. They are:    A clear definition of the decisions you need to make The relative cost of making an error in those decisions The amount of uncertainty the survey will reduce To illustrate how these points work together consider Coca-Cola's decision to introduce New Coke in 1984. This stage of planning will assist you in framing the importance of your project.

when compared to traditional survey techniques using mail and telephone. including time to invite the respondents. printing.000 $16. enter and analyze results.000 $0. you need to plan the elements of the survey process and define the project. three significant costs that you incur are:    Actual cost of creating the survey instrument Cost of inviting your respondents and encouraging them to participate Cost for data entry and analysis Web-based surveys are considerably less expensive to conduct than traditional mail and telephone surveys because they do not include costs for design. Given the same project specifications for telephone. Internet surveys provide the ideal solution for information gathering because of their fast turnaround. By setting a measurable objective. however a conservative estimate of 10% was used for this analysis. A good example of an Objective Statement would be: Measure site visitor demographics daily for the next eight weeks to see how effective our online advertising campaign is at drawing our target audience. postage. Telephone Mail Panel Size Costs 10.000 10. telephone. although some methods are far more economical than others. Defining the Project * Online response rates vary. How you conduct your survey affects how long each of these steps will take.00 2% $80 10% * $0.00 Expected Response 10% Cost per Response $28 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 3. 114 . you can learn the effectiveness of your survey and it will help you in reinvesting the information you learned for future surveys. gather data. you can achieve a much lower cost per response by using eSurveysPro.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A good survey does not come "cheap". Apart from human resources time. or data entry. For instance.000 $28. call personnel. mail house. where printing alone will take a week for the mail survey. At this point.000 eSurveysPro 10. mail and online surveys. Calculate how long the survey will take. An entire web survey project can be completed in a couple of days.

or members. 4. Several ways that are commonly used are emails. By identifying at least one tangible or intangible benefit that you are offering to your respondents for answering the survey will help you compose an invitation that helps respondents to click through. By setting a timeline that includes each of these tasks. Hence you also need to estimate the percentage of those invited whom you want to respond. With the mail-based surveys the response rate is traditionally low. Most web-based surveys however are announced with an e-mail message that contains a link to the survey page. or online advertising. and maintain control over the survey process. website links. A survey panel is mainly dependent on your objective since it will help you identify your target audience. Bear in mind that all the people who you invite might not respond to the survey. prospects. This is dependent on your company and also on the kind of survey you are conducting. you can keep track of their commencement and end. or number of respondents you would need for your analysis to be valid and accurate. the larger the number of respondents must be.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 The next thing you identify is how you are going to invite your respondents to take the survey.Defining the Project Timeline What are the tasks and is there a specific order in which they need to be completed? Defining a project timeline will help list the entire set of tasks that are to be conducted for the survey and assign them to specific people in your company. so can yield results at the ten percent level. 5. In the Survey 115 . employees. Based on the population about which you are drawing conclusions. whereas an intangible benefit is the chance to voice opinions or contribute to research they view as valuable. focus on the sample size. A tangible benefit could be in the form of money or a gift. the greater the level of accuracy desired and the more certain you would like to be about the inferences to be made from the sample to the entire population. Defining the Project Team You need to identify the internal resources you may need to complete this survey process. This format allows users to respond at their convenience and results in significantly higher response rates. A few internal resources you might need are: Human Resources: Necessary for employee satisfaction surveys IT: Customized interactivity or additional templates Market Research: Data analysis and reporting 6. hovering in the 2 to 3 percent range. Defining the Audience Who is going to respond to your survey? Your target audience could include your customers. Next. Telephone surveys allow for retries when the contact isn't available.

direct. website.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Development Worksheet. the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources. graphic design. blogs. Although each project is unique. acquisition. as well as micropublishing. We have looked at the activities that are involved in planning a survey which include the survey value. defining the audience. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information or scientific knowledge – the activity of making information available for public view. marketing and distribution of newspapers. enabling researchers to build on one another's findings. literary work. books. such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals. Traditionally. production – printing (and its electronics equivalents). software and other works dealing with information. scientific work. UNIT-III Publishing and Patenting INTRODUCTION Scientific progress depends on the publication of results. where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works. and coordinate the tasks required to initiate and complete your survey successfully. Publishing includes the stages of the development. the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspaper. using a standardized planning tool will help you get the results you want from every research project. Publication is also important as legal concepts for the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention and for copyright purposes. copyediting. 116 . the survey cost. including the electronic media. It is important for you to create a survey plan since it will guide. etc. defining the project. Industry needs patents to protect its investment in research and development. magazines. Conclusion We have reviewed why you need to create a plan and the benefits that you can get by planning your survey. With the advent of digital information systems and the internet. defining the project team and defining the project timeline. The main scope assesses the impact of publishing and patenting on the diffusion of technical and scientific knowledge. we have identified a set of tasks associated with most survey projects and are presented to give you a starting point for developing your own timeline in creating an effective survey plan.

or importing the patented invention for the term of the patent. offering for sale. A patent is not a right to practice or use the invention. a patent provides the right to exclude others from making. which is usually 20 years from the filing date. article of manufacture. The term patent usually refers to an exclusive right granted to anyone who invents any new. they serve different purposes and have fundamental legal differences: Headings Performed by Description Motivation Types of research Manner of research Typical situation For knowledge for which there are no patenting intentions or a patent application has already been filed Ownership Normally the author of the paper.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Patenting is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state (national government) to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention. Examples of particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents. selling. Rather. DIFFERENCE: PUBLISHING AND PATENTING Both scientific publishing and patenting result in a dissemination of scientific knowledge. using. and claims that right in a formal patent application. chemical patents and software patents. or composition of matter. useful. unless he transfer its rights to publisher For new knowledge (inventions) likely to be able to be actually exploited in Industry Normally the Inventor’s employer (Unless otherwise agreed in a collaboration Open Secret University Science Improve science Basic/ Fundamental Publishing Industry Technology Increase Share holder value Applied Patenting 117 . and non-obvious process. business method patents. machine. or any new and useful improvement thereof.

Cost of the reader Other than in the case of open access publishing models. which will almost always be the case for scientific articles. novel and are capable of industrial application. the consultation of scientific publications may involve a costly subscription. Patents only protect an Patents are restricted to inventions which are new. 118 . Geographical Copyright protection is practically Patents. however. Scope of protection Copyright only protects the expressed form of an article (language and style) and does not prevent anyone from reusing the ideas or any inventions described in it. Patents involve a formal and relatively lengthy procedure of up to 36 months in Europe.contract) Purpose Publishing is primarily intended to share knowledge and obtain recognition from peers. Patenting is primarily intended to create exclusive rights for an invention which are enforceable against third parties and may generate revenue. grant an exclusive right over the use of the invention. Patents involve application fees and associated legal/administrative costs. Legal requirement Copyright protection only requires a minimal level of creativity (“originality”). Cost of the research Publishing does not involve any real costs for the researcher (unless in the case of some open access “author pays” publishing models. Speed Copyright protection is granted automatically and publishing a scientific article can occur relatively fast (although some peer review processes may cause a delay). Patents. can generally be consulted for free or for a small fee in online databases. on the other hand. as noted above).

if any) Cannot be prevented and is likely to happen Yes (requiring specialized assistance) Can be prevented by the owner. By exploring our options we can decide which type of publication would be best suited for your submissions. The scientific research work can be published in one or more of the following under headings: I. or allowed by the owner through a licence No protection of the invention. Involve an “Inventive step” and be susceptible to Industrial application.scope Conditions worldwide Conditions relating to peer review process (if any) invention in designated countries The invention must be new (no prior publication). INVESTIGATIONS 119 . Formal Procedure Use of invention by third parties Duration of “Protection” Geographical scope of “Protection” Ability to get financial return No (other than peer review process. Possibly regarding reproduction of the paper resulting from publication Yes (Licensing) from third parties and indirectly through heightened reputation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 VARIOUS FORMS OF PUBLICATIONS The following is a list different types of publications to which we can submit our work. only protection of the article itself (70 years after author’s death) Practically worldwide Maximum 20 years Only in those countries in which a patent has been granted Not regarding exploitation of the invention.

HYPOTHESES It includes preliminary studies which may establish a solid basis for further in-depth investigations. causal aspects of disease. the pointing up of ambiguities. Often. These reports includes the new research findings into the enhancement factors of health. This is the “pilot study. they do have a use.” These kinds of papers are found rarely. and the establishment of clinical efficacies of related diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. and the delineation of areas which may constitute areas for further study. and one cannot be sure that all the necessary information and differing points of view have been presented. LITERATURE REVIEWS Literature review are critical assessments of current knowledge of a particular subject of interest. The goal is to provide a synopsis of the existing literature. they are presented as pilot studies. where the feasibility of doing a larger project is studied. This information is often biased in some fashion. b) Systemic review 120 . II. the methods for selecting papers is typically not specified. There are 3 types of literature reviews: a) Descriptive reviews b) Systematic reviews c) Meta-analytic reviews a) Descriptive review These are designed not so much as to answer a specific research question. but rather to provide an overview of a topic are so that a clinician can gather information about the diagnosis and or treatment of a condition or a scientist can gather information about a particular area of research. with emphasis upon better correlation. the mainstay of scientific publication. III.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 It is the general original research or data report. However.

and developments of every field are first published. who critique not only the writing but the importance and usefulness of the information presented. based heavily on current authoritative knowledge. ie. didactic papers on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. V. the method of selecting from the papers that were identified is also provided. Case reports are often looked at as some sort of lower echelon kind of paper. JBJS (journal of bone & joint surgery). It is in these journals that the cutting edge discoveries. Also. Many of these journals are peer-reviewed. informative. once papers have been identified then the goal is to abstract data and combine it so that one can draw conclusions about a specific research question.which later led to other such cases being reported and the start of the AIDS epidemics. But they have real valueconsider the initial report of Kaposi sarcoma.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Systematic reviews are much more rigorous in nature. This is the primary method used presently for doing reviews. This kind of paper is not often published in a research journal. difficult. SCHOLARLY JOURNALS The purpose of scholarly journals is to share findings. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine etc. a specific search strategy is used to identify papers of interest. In such reviews. as well as specific information about how the data is to be compiled. IV. ideas. this strategy is published in detail. CASE REPORTS This accounts of the diagnosis and treatment of unusual. c) Meta-analytic review In meta-analysis. CLINICAL PROCEDURES These are Succinct. VI. but is more common in a clinical journal. and discoveries within a community of specialized scholars. meaning that every article that is deemed a possible candidate for publication is read by two or three recognized scholars in the field. ideas. or otherwise interesting cases which may have independent educational value or may contribute to better standardization of care for a particular health problem when correlated with similar reports of others. 121 .

TECHNICAL REPORTS 5 VIII. the emphasizing of evidential support for the fulfillment of that purpose. with how to prepare case reports or structured abstracts. my own editorials have dealt with publishing. Some publications are able to publish all of the letters they receive. Technical reports are now commonly published electronically. particularly as such assessment may add to. whether on the internet or on the originating organization's internet. CASE REVIEWS/SERIES A retrospective comparative assessment of the diagnosis and treatment of several cases of a similar condition. can get published and read by a large audience. but also with policy issues and with publication issues. They are prepared for internal or wider distribution by many organizations. Editorials are usually unsigned and may be supposed to reflect the opinion of the periodical.. technical reports rarely undergo comprehensive independent peer review before publication. In the past. though it can. or the discussion of related controversial issues. the comparative evaluation of two or more (perhaps hundreds) of case reports. with persistence. IX.e. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 A technical report (also: scientific report) is a document that describes the process. with financial conflict of interest. clarify. such as scientific journals and the proceedings of some academic conferences. progress. Unlike other scientific literature. 122 . or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. It deals not necessarily with scientific issues. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters to the editor is one of the places nearly anyone. but most exercise some form of discretion.Communications which are directed specifically to the editor which critically assess some aspect of the journal.1 2 3 4 VII. etc. This is the editor’s prerogative only. or point-up a deficiency in a recently published paper. The presentation of points-of-view or opinion relating to the editorial purpose of a journal. Technical reports are today a major source of scientific and technical information. X. EDITORIALS An editorial is an opinion piece written by the senior editorial staff or publisher of a newspaper or magazine. i.

except that postal charges and SASEs are not involved. XI. and to nearly every sort of specialized subject you can imagine. also known as e-zines.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 XIII. raise issues of general interest to the profession or anything else. eBooks. For one thing. to e-publishing. possibly. There are online magazines devoted to news and politics. come in as many forms and genres as print magazines. with respect for his or her limited time and attention. or. particularly abstracts of presentations. to science fiction and fantasy writing. CHOICE OF JOURNAL AND REVIEWING PROCESS 123 . 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 authors are afforded the privilege of a counter-response. What is interesting is that studies have shown that somewhere around 1% of papers that are published in conference reports are ever later published in a scientific journal. WEBZINES Webzines. It is to point out problems in papers that have been published. BOOKS Most writers’ guidelines recommend getting an agent if you want to publish a book-length work. It is not to get into personal issues. There is a real art here. The same guidelines that apply to submitting to print magazines also apply at these magazines. this is acceptable secondary publication. We can publish a paper in a conference proceeding and still be able to publish it in a journal. to literary work. letters need to be brief. Approach an agent the same way you would a publisher. if your book is likely to sell well. if you have a book with a very specialized audience. There are exceptions to this rule: if you are submitting to a small press. prior to their publication in a proceedings volume or elsewhere. even under these circumstances an agent is recommended. People do like their free trips to exotic places. CONFERENCE REPORTS Documentation of related scientific conferences. or online magazines. XII.

Urgency of publication and cost: There is a time lag between submission and publication of an article. Actual values or estimates of rejection rates should be obtained. Peer-review factors: Information about the peer-review process for the specific journal.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Publication usually represents the culmination of most research efforts. searching through online listings. This can be done by consulting your peers. This will contribute towards addressing the suitable target audience. Knowing the options: It is essential to obtain reasonably comprehensive knowledge about available journals in the given subject area. Journal requirements and distribution: Most journals follow a certain style and specify requirements for the article. 2. The costs involved in publishing (whether page or peer-review 124 . including stature of reviewers. The mode of distribution (print/online) and number of subscribers decides the reach of the journal. which is dependent on editorial processing schedules. and periodicity of production and publication. Determining the impact: The recognition factor is obviously an important consideration. an estimate of the typical number of readers helps. information about the editorial policies and practices should be obtained in order to anticipate any situations that may emerge during the submission and peer-review process. 4. Quantitative measures such as impact factor. where the content is available to all. These are generally linked to the citation rate for articles published in the journal however these values and the absolute numbers of citations can both be scrutinized. Authors have to optimize between many criteria or constraints before reaching a decision about where to publish. The process of selecting the appropriate journal has become increasingly complex due to the proliferation of journals. objectivity and timelines. Various factors to be considered for publication are given below: 1. should also be gleaned from a variety of sources. 3. This time lag should be taken into account for timely dissemination of the research. Further. 6. areas of specialization and emergence of interdisciplinary topics. 5. Consistency of the article with these requirements should be ensured. time for peer review. article influence and H-index are used. and checking with professional associations. For open access journals. Journal scope and policies: The subject areas covered and the types of articles published should be ascertained. journal rank.

future viability should be taken into account. and publication and dissemination of the research within the specified constraints.    Does the journal provide unrestricted access to all articles within a set time frame? Does the journal provide free reprints or off prints to authors? Does the journal offer a manuscript template for authors? 125 . For new journals. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Other Factors to be considered while choosing for publishing:  Does the journal have a limit on the size of the manuscript? Some journals have a word count limit.1 2 3 4 5 charges) may also be a factor based on the available research budget. Note: Using the above considerations and following the various steps mentioned should allow selection of the best possible journal in terms of visibility and quality.

description of the invention should be duly mentioned with desirable and appropriate information about the product or process. address of the applicant. An inventor or any other person or company assigned by the inventor can apply and obtain the patent over the invention. A patent is obtained by the inventor or his assignee by filing an application with the appropriate office of the patent office in stipulated forms and fees as required by the Act. complete details. once the application is accepted than publication 126 . It provides an enforceable legal right to prevent others from exploiting an invention. patent application is to be filed. The protection is granted for a limited period. But. which could result in two situations refusal or acceptance. selling and importing of the product or process innovatively invented. Patent Registration is an exclusive right given for specific number of years to the inventor of the product. generally 20 yrs. Patent registration process It is also a legal registration process therefore it requires a defined procedure. Name. If application is refused than appeal can be made in court. The main aim of patent registration is protecting and preventing the unauthorized use. With this other document such as power of attorney duly stamped by notary public is also need to be submitted. Firstly. the title of the invention. Invention as defined under the Act to mean a new product or process involving an inventive step and capable of industrial application. Every country has different law therefore patent is granted in accordance with the law of the country. Application is being examined by the concern authority. Patent is a legal right/document given by government to the inventor of the any new and useful product.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26   Does the journal offer an extensive “Instructions for Authors” section? Is the journal an open access journal? STAGES IN THE REALIZATION OF PATENT & HANDLING A Patent is an exclusive monopoly granted by the Government to an inventor over his invention for a limited period of time.

satisfy certain criteria. Finally. 2.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 in the official gazette is the next procedure. in general. 1970. Attorney would able to guide that what material is patentable and what is not. an invention must. Above 127 . The patent rights can usually be enforced in a court of law. The invention must be of industrial applicability. manufacture or sell his invention for the term of the patent. Patent is also a legal registration process therefore it requires a defined procedure. It means that the invention cannot be commercially made. It includes several stages as follows: 1. after verifying all the details certificate of registration is being provide to the applicant. A patent is not granted to an invention if it is already available with the public either in the form of published literature or common knowledge. used. Several documents are required for further processing. distributed or sold without the patentee's consent. must be new and must show an inventive step which could not be deduced by a person reasonably skilled in the field. Even there are patent registration offices are available to help and guide the applicant. It is a very complicated procedure in India therefore Patent Registration can also be done with the help of good attorney. Patent office looks after the various provisions of patent law relating to grant of patent. established under the ministry of commerce & industry. Patent Registration is a specialized process need experts. Patent registration in India Every Country has different law and national patent registration. Patent Search: It is prudent to conduct searches as early as possible to avoid spending time and money re-inventing a known matter. Rights conferred by registration A patent represents one of the powerful intellectual property rights. The law governing Patents in India is Patent Act. The registration of a patent confers on the patentee the exclusive right to use. Every country has different law therefore patent is granted in accordance with the law of the country. In India patent registration can be filed either alone or jointly with a partner or by legal representative of a deceased inventor. department of industrial policy & promotion. Patentable Inventions: To be patentable.

note that if you are filing online. Further. Form 2 . a set of forms has to be submitted to the patent office. such as. 3 and 5) have to executed and the scanned copies of the same have to be uploaded during filing. Alternatively. information corresponding to prior patent applications relating to the current invention. its subject matter must be accepted as "patentable" under law. As for example. The forms can be submitted online (https://www. Mumbai and Chennai. which you or any authorized entity has filed. among other information. form 1 will have to be filled in the online filing if you have a class 3 digital certificate. 3 and 5 can be submitted online.Application for Grant of Patent As the name suggests. Kolkata. An overview of each of the forms is provided below. The remaining forms (forms 9 and 18) have to be submitted to the patent office by sending hard copies of the executed forms. i. To file a patent 2. Form 1 . The remaining forms (2. It should be noted that Forms 1. Patent application filing: Filing a patent application in the Indian Patent Office is the first step towards securing a patent to your invention in India. this form is an application for grant of patent in India. The patent application has to be filed in the appropriate office based on your/your company’s location. Inventions which are frivolous or claim anything contrary to well established natural laws are not patentable. There are also other specific categories of inventions which are declared as nonpatentable. In this form.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 all. you will have to furnish information. name and address of the inventor(s).Provisional/Complete Specification 128 . and some declarations. Indian patent offices are located at Delhi. you can send true copies (hard copies) to the patent office. name and address of the applicant(s). 3.ipindiaonline. ii.

Note that the patent rights start from the date of publication of the patent application (enforceable after grant of patent). if you wish to expedite the patenting process. Hence. Further. you would be using form 3 to undertake that you will be keeping the patent office informed in writing the details regarding corresponding applications for patents filed outside India. filing of form 9 and 18 at an early stage is advised. any information relating to the rights corresponding to the present patent application has to be furnished. Form 9 . iv. you can generally have your patent specification published within 1 week from filing this form. The description of the invention is called specification. Form 18 . then the patent specification will be published by the patent office after 18 months from the priority date (filing of the first patent application for the current subject matter).1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Form 2 is used to furnish your patent specification. The patent office will not consider your patent application for examination unless this form is filed. Form 5 . Patent Specification: The process of patenting typically involves conducting prior art searches to distinguish the invention and develop a description that illustrates the best method of working the invention. iii.Request for Examination of Application for Patent This form can be filed within 48 months from the priority date.Declaration as to Inventorship This application is used to declare the inventors of the subject matter sought to be protected using the current patent application. Form 3 . 129 . v. by filing this form. vi.Request for Publication If this form is not filed. The patent specification can be provisional or a complete patent specification depending of the type of patent application (provisional or complete) you are filing. Additionally. On the other hand. 4.Statement and Undertaking under Section 8 Form 3 is used to furnish information/actions relating to patent applications filed in other countries for the current invention.

Presently. claims and abstract. opposition can be filed on limited grounds. The applications are examined substantively and a first examination report stating the objections is communicated to the applicant. the description of the related art. after the publication of the application. Application may be amended in order to meet the objections. the summary of the invention. The description and the appended drawings may be used to interpret the claims. The complete specification comprises a title. though the applicant can request for early publication. Complete specification must be filed within 12 months from the date of filing of the provisional specification. Upon complying the requirements the application is published in the Official Journal. 6. and the best method of making the invention work. Examination and Prosecuting Patent Applications: The procedure for the grant of a patent starts with filing of the patent application along with the prescribed fees at the appropriate office of the patent office followed by filing of request for examination in the prescribed format (present time limit within 36 months). At that time. Provisional and Complete Specification: A provisional specification is often the first application filed in respect of an invention. the application will be abandoned. Claims are the most important component in the patent specification as it is the legal operative part which define and determine the legal protection sought for. Compared with the provisional. the background of the invention. The extent of patent protection for an invention shall be determined by the terms of the claims. Normally all the objections must be met within 12 months from the date of first examination report. 130 . the complete specification contains the full description of the invention.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Depending upon the sufficiency of the description a specification may be both provisional and complete Specification. If the applicant does not comply with the objection. the brief description of the figures. 5. but hearing is not mandatory. field of invention. and usually contains only a brief description of the invention. It need not contain claims. drawbacks of the prior art. the detailed description of the preferred embodiments. application for patent is not open to open to public for 18 months from the date of filing or date of priority.

The whole process typically takes at least two years. ii. Thereafter. Then. However. The reliefs which may be usually awarded in such a suit are i. the application and other related documents will be open for public inspection. at any time after the grant but before the expiry of a period of one year from the date of publication opposition on substantive grounds is available. certain limitations will be imposed on the rights of the patentee when the patent is restored. 131 . 7. Damages or account of profits. Duration of a Patent: The term for patents is 20 years from the date of filing of the application for the patent. It is the patentee's duty to file a suit of infringement against the infringer. It is the responsibility of the patentee to maintain an issued patent by paying the annuities until the patent expires. After 20 years term the invention claimed in the patent falls into the public domain. Restoration: Restoration of a patent that lapses due to non-payment of renewal fees can be made within one year of lapse. Remedies for Infringement: It is the sole responsibility of the patentee to see that his patent is not being infringed. Injunctions whether interim or final.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Patent will be granted if the application is found to be in order. 8. 9.


1 133 .

134 . including technology transfer. The patenting process is primarily concerned with generating patents. While enforcement is about enforcing patents after they have been granted.1 2 3 4 5 PATENT FILING PROCEDURE TIME SCALE Patenting filing is time scale dependent activity and it required a definite time for the different activities involved as follows: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 GLOBAL PICTURE OF THE PATENT VALUE CHAIN Patent value chain process is consists of two major stages: patenting and enforcement. licensing and sales.

In the United States. During this process. Only a granted patent gives its owner legal rights. proving the invention actually works and further refinement of the original concept. this constitutes the limitation of times. Only a granted patent can be enforced or licensed. 13 14 15 16 17 LIMITATION OF PATENTING A patent is limited both in time and space. This is followed by what is referred to as the reduction to practice. the USPTO uses laws and rules to examine the patentability of the application. The completion of reduction to practice phase is typically marked by the filing of a patent application with the patent and trademark bureau.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A typical patenting process starts with an idea. this bureau is the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). In addition a patent is 135 . experimentation. a federal agency under the Department of Commerce. The Indian patent act (1970) grants protection for 7 or 14 years. The reduction to practice involves building the invention. in most countries this period is 15-20 years. called patent prosecution. Under subsequent examination of the application. A patent application should not be considered to be a patent unless and until it has actually been granted by the USPTO. A patent is valid for a specified period of time for the date of its award. inventors can rebut and appeal any rejections posted by a patent examiner (often in Office Action).

Ministry of Commerce and Industry. according to prescribed Performa with the patent office of the concerned country. The inventor may withdraw the application. An inventor files a properly prepared application. There are four patent offices in India. The Controller General delegates his powers to Sr. modify and resubmit it submit it with an explanation of the objections raised by the patent office. But if a patent is challenged. Joint Controller. The application is scrutinized and assessed by patent officials. The Office of the Controller General functions under the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. Mumbai and Chennai. 136 . the arguments and counter-arguments of both the applicant and the person challenging the application are heard by a competent authority of the patent office and a final decision is taken on the award of patent. if found unsuitable for patenting it is returned to the inventor along with the reasons thereof. In case a patent application is not challenged the patent is warded immediately after the expiry of this period and is said to be sealed.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 valid only in the country of its award. it is not valid for other countries this constitutes limitation in space. Examiners of patents in each office discharge their duties according to the direction of the Controllers. in India this is done 18 months after the date of filing of the application. PATENTING IN INDIA Patent system in India is administered under the superintendence of the Controller General of Patents. Deputy Controllers and Assistant Controllers. Joint Controllers. within four months in India. If an application is considered suitable for patenting the invention along with adequate detail of the desired patent is published for the information of all concerned. Anyone who wishes to challenge the award of patent can do so within a specified period of time e.g. The Head Office is located at Kolkata and other Patent Offices are located at Delhi. Trademarks and Geographical Indications. Designs.

The ability to effectively communicate is very important when it is usually underestimated and overlooked. your organization will become isolated. a message. The importance of speech and words whether through a paper or a voice is a communication medium to convey directions and provide synchronization. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender. Nowadays. many courses are available that provide training on developing business communication skills and correspondence and conduct classes on ways to 137 . Without communication. Communication is a crucial decisive factor in business relations.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 COMMUNICATION Communication is the activity of conveying information. although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication. but the ability to communicate effectively is necessary to carry out the thoughts and visions of an organization to the people. customers and stakeholders. ideas and feelings. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. It is very important to say the right things at the right time and at the right place when dealing with partners. we need to express and understand the expressions of others. Without a means to communicate. Communication is easily overlooked. and an intended recipient. Maintaining professional etiquette in oral and written business communication is of greatest importance and must not be taken lightly. Importance of Communication As living beings. The ability and the importance of communication become much more crucial when you are on a mission or need to fulfill a goal. 1 Importance of Communication in Business The success of any business lies as much in networking and building sound professional relationships as it does in individual tact and business acumen. Any miscommunication or ambiguity can pour pails of cold water on your hard work and ruin your chances of survival in today's competitive business environment. Communication requires a sender. thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. there is no way to express thoughts.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 improve communication skills. 2 Importance of Communication in the Workplace The most difficult part of running an organization is managing the human resources. History is galore with examples of many national leaders who have moved the masses by their life-changing speeches and powerful writings! Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr. Communication in the workplace involves interpersonal communication between colleagues. Effective communication skills in business go a long way in sealing your success. Even ideals resting upon strong principles can fall flat and fail to motivate due to lack of effective communication skills. as it involves communication along vertical. are prominent examples of outstanding leadership through effective communication. psychology or any other social science. This is the most random and volatile resource which must be managed with great dexterity to reach desired organizational goals. unrealistic expectations. horizontal and parallel organizational levels and such communication should always follow the hierarchy prescribed by the organization. economics. especially if it is of a vertical nature. guilt and can create personal differences. Importance of communication in the workplace is manifold. It is difficult for people who share their lives with each other to coexist for long without having regular and smooth communication oil 138 . 3 Importance of Communication in Leadership Communication is the best equipment a leader can use to achieve this goal. superior and subordinate and vice versa and workplace communication skills come handy in such situations.Lack of communication in relationships results in frustrations. misunderstandings. A clear understanding of the purpose of such communication. along with the expectations of the sender and receiver are extremely important for the smooth running of an organization. 4 Importance of Communication in Relationships . This is one resource which doesn't work on any principle of management. Communication is that lubricant which keeps this resource moving throughout the organizational machinery.

words written or spoken. email. which loads itself with it and passes it on to the intended receivers. smile. length.   Ideation: The ideation is the process of new thought or idea generated by the sender which can be analogous to starting a new life together. report.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 the machinery of the relationship. conversation. The important stages of communication are: (Pereira and Virag. face to face exchange) of communication i. letter. organization. books etc are the vehicles or media. from one word greeting to a lengthy letter. from a memo from a superior or subordinate to a HR manual and so on. The way the vehicles take and transport the information in such a way that the receiver understands it as it should be is the communication process. Relationship communication problems can only be solved through active and effective communication. commencement of effective communication. from email to detailed contract. receiver must first get message. hoarding. newspaper.   Receptance of the Message: For communication to occur. Paper. The decides on the form of message.ranging from hand signals to public speech. Information may be in any form. Encoding: The idea that a sender or an encoder conceivers are put into a message that the receiver will understand. from a hint with raised eyebrows to five-minute hug. memo. body gestures. from a message on a notice board of a school to a full page advertisement on a daily. public meeting. propagating and receiving a message through channel (verbal or non verbal. phone. tone and style according to the needs and requirements of receiver. 2009). STAGES OF COMMUNICATION The critical part of communication is the information. the receiver must understand the message. certain vehicle or medium is employed. Decoding: After receiving the message.e. Absorbing and understanding the message will help the receiver to interpret the message 139 .  Transmission of Message: it is the process of sending. For the transfer of the information or the message. one-to-one meeting. Encoding is garbing you thoughts with words. spoken or written) or medium (telephone. which is being transferred.

but depth. Sometimes silence is also used as feedback. The other type of verbal communication is written communication.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 correctly. assigning the same meaning to the sender’s words as intender by the sender. Two dimensional (two-way) communications where consumers participate. where both giver and receiver connect to a higher power and are changed in the experience. The decoded message must be stored in the receiver’s mind. volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. senders need feedback is order to determine the success or failure of communication. interacting. The effectiveness 140 ." Three dimensional engagements have "not only length and width. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process." VERBAL COMMUNICATION Verbal communication includes both written and oral communication. The feedback given by audience may be written or oral. That’s one-way communication and doesn't qualify as engagement. Written communication can be either via snail mail. Not just a conversation. such as receiving in the mail an item. DIMENSION OF COMMUNICATION For decades. though it is always ineffective. or email. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation. consumers would simply watch a commercial or look at a print ad that advertisers produced. but connection to a purpose that transforms all in the process. and interact with a brand creates the engagement crucial to business and personal success. Two dimensional communication and engagement is where "both giver and receiver are listening to each other. pitch.  Feedback: After decoding the message the receiver responds in some way signals that response to the sender. The feedback enables the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of the message. It can also be an action. learning and growing from the process. share. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet.

It is an innovative activity of the mind. Face-to-face meetings and speeches were the main forms of communication in earlier times. visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of the meaning. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Oral communication includes discussion peeches. interpersonal communication and many other varieties. typically relies on both words. Verbal communication is further divided into four types:     Oral communication Written communication Audio-visual communication Computer based communication (a) Oral communication Oral communication. vocabulary used. In face to face communication the body language and voice tonality plays a significant role and may have a greater impact on the listener than the intended content of the spoken words. clarity and precision of language. development of different media has led to the communication process to take place by different means such as telephones. (b) Written communication Written communication has great significance in today’s business world.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 of written communication depends on the style of writing. their 141 . the so-called "7%-38%-55% rule". grammar. while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication. Understanding and incorporating different workplace communication skills has become important to succeed in today's professional life. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. presentations. 7% content of words". Speech came before writing. In today's world. Effective writing involves careful choice of words. teleconferences and video conferences. A widely cited and widely misinterpreted figure used to emphasize the importance of delivery states that "communication comprise 55% body language. 38% tone of voice.

• It is very formal and lacks personal touch. • It is an idealistic way of conveying long messages. The main advantages and disadvantages of written communication are as follows: Merits of written communication • It ensures transmission of information in uniform manner. • It provides a permanent record of communication for future reference. • It is rigid and doesn’t provide any scope for making changes for inaccuracies that might have crept in. • It boosts red-tapism and involves so many formalities. Demerits of written communication • It is costly and time consuming. (i) Language Layout Representation of language to communicate meaning to several techniques. obvious and accurate. • It is well suited to express messages to a large number of persons at the same time.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. • It becomes difficult to maintain privacy about written communication. Also. It is an audio or audio-visual installation   Used as an aid in modern language technology It is electrically connected to a number of rows of student booths 142 . But while speech is spontaneous. writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate. • It ensures little risk of unauthorized alteration in the message. • It may be represented in a different way by different people. • It tends to be comprehensive. • It can be quoted as legal evidence in case of any disputes. It is of different types. writing is more valid and reliable than speech.

or other typographic keyboard. They are not ends in themselves. It has become the standard carrier of technological innovation. digital television. high definition cinema. (ii) Keyboard Layout It is a specific mechanical. slides. It includes :   Undirected graphs – simply shows relations between objects Directed graphs – shows flowcharts and dependencies trees Attributes – relates with color.The arrangement of the key–meaning associations. modles and charts.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  Typically containing a student tape recorder and headset with a boom arm microphone. 143 . etc. overhead projection books. legends. Visual layout . Functional layout . satellite communications. or functional arrangement of the keys.. videos. shape and line styles (c) Audio Visual communication Audio-Visual aids are method of communicating with people.    Mechanical layout .The arrangement of the legends (labels. virtual reality. or key– meaning associations (respectively) of a computer. visual. of all the keys of a keyboard. The interaction of information technologies such as cell phones. are transforming the world and our concept of it.The placements and keys of a keyboard. typewriter. (iii) Dot Language It is a plain text graph description language. determined in software. Visual aids communicate facts and ideas through the eyes to the mind and emotions. photographs. markings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Visual aids include films. Audio aids communicate ideas through the ears to the mind. Internet.

While nonverbal 144 . and overall body movements.. Types of non verbal communication (a) Facial Expression Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Communication without the help of words known as non-verbal communication. it has also been applied to other forms of text-based interaction such as text messaging. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. the hand gestures. sketches and paintings.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (d) Computer based communication Computer based communication (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more networked computers. chat rooms). The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a person’s face say a lot about his/her mood. instant messages. Many recent studies involve Internet-based social networking supported by social software. which will include the body posture. or even photographs. Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking. signboards. a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. On the other hand gestures like a handshake. Non-verbal communication primarily expresses feelings.g.[2] Research on CMC focuses largely on the social effects of different computersupported communication technologies. Non-verbal communication is affected by culture. Characteristics of non-verbal communication     No one can avoid non-verbal communication Non-verbal behavior is not easy to understand.While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations. e-mails.

When said in a strong tone of voice. loudness. anger. and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions. including hostility. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. interest.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures. Common gestures include waving. (e) Proxemics People often refer to their need for “personal space. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest. the facial expressions for happiness. and level of familiarity. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms.” which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. Even postures indicate the nature of the person. personality characteristics. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture. 145 . sadness. (c) Paralinguistics Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. (b) Gestures Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. and attraction. When people encounter people or things that they like. and pitch. and fear are similar throughout the world. (d) Body Language and Posture The body language of a person can speak out volumes about the person. and using fingers to indicate number amounts. inflection. Postures such as arm crossing or leg crossing are often regarded as defensive postures. staring. Nonverbal body language can help in conveying feelings and demonstrating attitude. (f) Eye Gaze Looking. pointing. situational factors. the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. This includes factors such as tone of voice. listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm.

This uses modern way of transmissions e. internet etc. tone of voice. Touch can communicate many messages and show the basis for a friendship. video. images. When conveying emotion. Speaking in a new language in casual tones is the most appropriate way to bolster your confidence. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions. We can speak about our likes and generally express our dislikes in a neutral fashion. typography etc. signs.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (g) Haptics Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. Nodding to a stranger and the initial monosyllables can take the conversation to the next level. drawings. hairstyles. and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. 38% tone of voice. and interpretations. location and other common areas of interest or a general theme. television. (h) Appearance Our choice of color. It is stated that "communication comprise 55% body language. and words disagree. judgment. Radio. This type of communication can help in learning new skills and enquire about the 146 . This type of communication is typically aimed at a wide range of audience. 7% content of words". if body language. then body language and tone of voice will be believed more than words. VISUAL COMMUNICATION Visual communication is the use of visual media to convey our ideas and information and it involves audio. Casual interaction lays the foundation for great friendships.g. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can invoke different moods. You can engage in casual conversation about the person’s health. CASUAL COMMUNICATION The kind of interaction which is needed to creates a social circle for us is known as casual communication. clothing.

management gossip. Downward communication generally effective when upper levels management are highly motivated to make it work. (a) Downward communication The first type of vertical communication is downward communication. (c) Horizontal/ lateral communication It takes place between professional peer groups or people working on the same level of hierarchy. This type of communication is becoming more and more popular in organizations as traditional forms of communication are becoming less popular. and ceremony. written. conventions. teleconferencing. Conversing with others can help explore new ideas and learn new things in life. and is free of colloquial expressions. places people into separate ranks. radio messages. It mainly focuses on vertical (downward and upward) and horizontal communication. internal notes. FORMAL COMMUNICATION Formal communication can be defined as. under the shape of letters.” The formal communication can consist in verbal messages. nonverbal messages. Horizontal communication is less formal and structured than both downward communication and upward communication. 147 . which flows from upper management down to the employees at lower ranks. Even some gestures can consist in formal communication. “A presentation or written piece that strictly adheres to rules. The messages are transmitted by the authorized ones: on official channels.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 other person’s problems or help out casually as this will the base for your daily interaction. these arrive to the ones who need to react. telephone calls. to people or machines which need to know the content of these messages. routine meetings and so on. and may be carried our through informal discussions. telephone messages. printed. videoconferencing. memos. (b) Upward communication Upward Communication is the process of information flowing from the lower levels of a hierarchy to the upper levels. The more traditional organization types such as a hierarchy.

it is impossible to fix the responsibility for its origin or flow of information. It usually east to learn the formal network. informal communication has certain disadvantages. It is established around the societal affiliation of members of the organization. In addition. rumors and unclear data. The informal channels of communication may transmit completely imprecise information that may harm rather than help an organization. Informal communication also facilitates to ameliorate managerial decisions as more people are involved in the process of decision-making. Informal communication arises out of all those channels that fall outside the formal channels and it is also known as grapevine. whether human. Inspite on many advantages. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication contains facts. However. deceptions. INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION Interactive communication is an exchange of ideas where both participants. but employees have more control over the informal network than management does. This communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Management is more control over formal network than informal. machine or art form. It is a dynamic. The informal network is very strong in most organization. are active and can have an effect on one another. for the efficient working of any organization both formal and informal communications are required. Informal communication does not follow authority lines as in the case of formal communication. Being properly socialized assists an employee in gaining understanding about the informal system in the particular organization. It usually works much faster than the formal network. two-way flow of information. and often it work s more accuracy. 148 . but specific information regarding the infomal network may be elusive.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other.

These developing collaborative technologies. corals can communicate. the Internet. (b) Plants communication 149 . disciplines. like books and television. interactive television and movies.g. ambient intelligence. animal culture and learning. have rapidly increased the opportunities for interactive communication across mediums. photo and video manipulation. NON HUMAN COMMUNICATION Any type of information or signal exchange between living things can be considered a form of communication. and even time. and digital and mobile devices. or new media. video games. video sharing. cellular communication.g. and the study of animal cognition. New experiments in interaction design are evolving on a daily basis. called zoosemiotics has played an important part in the development of ethology. interactive fiction and storytelling. cell signaling. hypertext. augmented reality. interactive marketing and public relations. social classes. and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria. have become interactive with the rise of computers. social media. In nature very primitive creatures can do some kind communication e. Interactive communication forms include basic dialogue and nonverbal communication. Interactive communication is a modern term that encompasses these evolving forms of conversation. animal emotions. Nonhuman communication is of varied types e. and virtual reality. and even sexual conduct. user-generated content. gamebooks. Animal communication have revolutionized our understanding of the animal world. It is a primary characteristic of the present Information Age. sociobiology. cultures.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Many forms of communication previously thought one-way. such as our understandings related to personal symbolic name use. (a) Animal communication The study of animal communication. locations.

There are many examples of noise: (a) Environmental Noise Surrounding noise that does a physical disruption in communication. Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizome bacteria. such as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence.e. (b) Physiological-Impairment Noise Physical impairments which prevent effective communication. such as the noise from a construction site next to a classroom making it difficult to hear the professor. 150 . pragmatic and semantic rules. For example. (e) Organizational Noise Poorly structured communication can prevent the receiver from accurate interpretation. unclear and badly stated directions can make the receiver even more lost. These parallel sign-mediated interactions are governed by syntactic. with fungi and with insects in the soil. i. such as deafness or blindness preventing messages interpreted in the same context as they were intended. especially in the root zone. (d) Syntactical Noise Mistakes in grammatical usages can disrupt communication. COMMUNICATION NOISE Any type of interference in decoding the messages sent by an encoder is considered as noise in communication. between plants of the same or related species. (c) Semantic Noise Contextual interpretation of meaning of words changes the idea being communicated. and between plants and non-plant organisms. and are possible because of the decentralized "nervous system" of plants. The original meaning of the word "neuron" in Greek is "vegetable fiber" and recent research has shown that most of the intraorganismic plant communication processes are neuronal-like.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Communication is observed within the plant organism. within plant cells and between plant cells.

Unfortunately. try really listening to what your partner is saying. but are really thinking about what they’re going to say next when the other person stops talking. your feelings. Listen Carefully: People often think they’re listening. it’s easy to feel that they’re wrong. (g) Psychological Noise Certain attitudes can also make communication difficult. understanding one another and finding a solution. such as unintentionally offending a nonChristian person by wishing them a "Merry Christmas". great anger or sadness may cause someone to lose focus on the present moment. Also. that can be valuable information for you. 2. look for and admit to what’s yours. and makes the whole discussion more taxing and even confusing. not a weakness. Don’t interrupt. this often clouds the issue and makes finding mutual understanding and a solution to the current issue less likely. Effective communication involves admitting when you’re wrong. Don’t get defensive. and get defensive. Own What’s Yours: Realize that personal responsibility is a strength. Then you’ll understand them better and they’ll be more willing to listen to you. If you both share some responsibility in a conflict (which is usually the case). Just hear them and reflect back what they’re saying so they know you’ve heard. 4. it’s important to listen for the other person’s pain and respond with empathy for their feelings. Try not to bring up past hurts or other topics. and often exaggerated by the other person’s emotions.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 (f) Cultural Noise Stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings. While criticism is hard to hear. Respond to Criticism with Empathy: When someone comes at you with criticism. Stay Focused: Sometimes it’s tempting to bring up past seemingly related conflicts when dealing with current ones. 151 . Truly effective communication goes both ways. For instance. Stay focused on the present. While it might be difficult. 3. look for what’s true in what they’re saying. PRESCRIPTION FOR DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1.

this focus is much more effective than one person getting what they want at the other’s expense. Couples counselling or family therapy can provide help with altercations and teach skills to resolve future conflict.” It’s less accusatory. or showing some destructive communication patterns. and shows maturity. Sometimes good communication means knowing when to take a break. 7. 9. 8. look for solutions that meet everybody’s needs. you can make progress toward the goal of a resolution to the conflict. and helps the other person understand your point of view rather than feeling attacked. don’t give up on communication. mutual respect. like. If your partner doesn’t want to go. you might benefit from a few sessions with a therapist. If you both approach the situation with a constructive attitude. or if you’ve tried resolving conflict with your partner on your own and the situation just doesn’t seem to be improving. “You really messed up here. leading you both closer to mutual understanding and a solution. Ask For Help If You Need It: If one or both of you has trouble staying respectful during conflict. Either through compromise. sparks less defensiveness. “I feel frustrated when this happens. “TIPS” FOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS: 152 . always come back to it. It also often inspires the other person to respond in kind. Don’t Give Up: While taking a break from the discussion is sometimes a good idea. you can still often benefit from going alone. Take a Time-Out: Sometimes tempers get heated and it’s just too difficult to continue a discussion without it becoming an argument or a fight. If you feel yourself or your partner starting to get too angry to be constructive. 6. it’s okay to take a break from the discussion until you both cool off. Look for Compromise Instead of trying to ‘win’ the argument. Use “I” Messages: Rather than saying things like. or a new solution that gives you both what you want most. 5. Unless it’s time to give up on the relationship. sets a good example.” begin statements with “I”.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 It diffuses the situation. and a willingness to see the other’s point of view or at least find a solution. and make them about yourself and your feelings. Healthy communication involves finding a resolution that both sides can be happy with.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1. Invisible sound waves enter the ear canal and make the ear drum vibrate. stop listening. These vibrations then make the tiny bones in the ear vibrate too. even if you don’t like their actions. Another study showed that most employees in North America spend about 60% of their day listening to each other. This can remind you that you still care about each other and generally support one another. 2. Hearing happens every time sound waves strike the ear drum and nerves transmit the vibrations to the brain. Keep in mind that it’s important to remain respectful of the other person. but sometimes it helps to hold hands or stay physically connected as you talk. Listening happens after hearing and refers to the decoding of sound waves in the brain into meaningful words and messages. 3. As the chart below shows. 153 . Hearing and listening are quite different. It is an automatic thing that can’t really control. not ‘winning’ the argument or ‘being right’. The nerves in the ear send signals to the brain. This doesn’t work in every situation. One study showed that college students spent about 53% of their time listening and 16% speaking. It’s not just college students who spend large portions of their time listening either. The Importance of Listening Speaking and listening make up 69% of our total communicating time each day. LISTENING English has two words that describe this “receiving” activity: hearing and listening. listening makes up 53% of all communicating time. and often do. Remember that the goal of effective communication skills should be mutual understanding and finding a solution that pleases both parties. One can’t stop hearing something. but can. but only 14% writing and 17% reading.

For example. Because speakers use body language.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Listening has four stages (i) Attending The listening process begins with attending. so with practice you can teach your brain to attend “on command”. if someone has a surefire method of picking lottery numbers. You can and do choose which sounds you will attend to. a large part of attending involves paying attention to these as well. gestures. If. and facial expressions as well as words to make their meaning clear. Experts agree that you can often tell more about what a people mean from their actions as they speak than you can from the words they use. you are really hungry. but you will definitely hear the bell on the ice cream truck down the street. (ii) Understanding 154 . This simply means telling your brain to (1) make a commitment to listen and (2) pay attention to what it hears. you may not pay attention to the teacher’s lesson. on the other hand. you will probably pay close attention.

so they give up and part of the message goes unsent. If listeners slouch and look bored. gesturing. they show the speaker that they are not attending to the message or that they don’t care about it. Here are some of them: a) Is the message in a language you can understand? b) Do you understand the words (vocabulary)? c) Do you have a need for the information you are hearing? d) Is the message something you care about? e) Is the person speaking believable? f) Do you want to know what that person is saying? g) Do you agree with the person speaking? h) Do you have the same values as the person speaking? Understanding only happens when the message our brain creates is very similar to the message that the speaker intended to send. you are angry when a friend tells you that “John got a new car. (iii) Responding Responding is when we give feedback to the person who sent the message.”John owes you $500 and you think he should have paid you back before he went off and bought a brand new flashy sports car. How well you understand depends on a lot of factors. you discover that the “new car” was really his family’s old car. For example. It lets the speaker know that you are paying attention and whether you understand. These are the times when communications break down and misunderstandings 155 . speakers often become angry or impatient. which they gave to him. a good speaker will repeat or rephrase the message until their faces show understanding. Obviously your friend meant “new to John” not “new from the dealer”.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 The next step in the listening process is understanding. When listeners look puzzled. nodding. leaning forward as well as asking questions to show your level of interest and understanding. When this happens. Where did the misunderstanding come from? How could you (or the speaker) have avoided it? (The speaker could have chosen better words. Feedback includes smiling. Later. The listener could have asked questions).

In general. we can spend up to 5 hours listening to friends. The receiver must “work” to understand the message. but far too often it is a “bad” habit that people fall into without meaning to. and avoid misunderstandings. A friend could tell them the winning lottery numbers an hour before the draw. 156 . TYPES OF LISTENING In a normal day.      Non-listening Marginal Listening Attentive Listening Critical Listening Appreciative Listening (A) Non-listening Non-listening takes place when receivers consciously or unconsciously decide not to “hear” anything at all. even for good listeners (R. Their brains seem to simply stop processing sound waves and little or no meaning gets through. only about 35% of it is remember. a) The speaker is hard to understand. people remember only about half of what they have heard. He/she slurs. Here are some of the reasons why people “tune-out” when they should be listening. It happens when people stop listening for the wrong reasons.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 (particularly in relationships) begin. teachers. Effective listeners need to choose what type of listening is best for each situation. sales people. and it wouldn’t “register”. Nichols). (iv) Remembering The last piece of the listening process has to do with remembering the message so that it will remain useful to you over time. There is just too much information out there to pay full attention to all of it. it’s a bad idea. mumbles. Non-listening has its uses. Listening with full attention to all these sounds is not only impossible. or has a speech problem. and that amount drops to 25% after two months. Within eight hours of receiving a message. Another 3 and a half hours are often spent watching TV. even right after the message has been received. and others.G. listening to CDs or the radio.

do you hear every train or plane that passes? When you are listening to the radio. The speaker is not using the listener’s first language. The speaker uses too many unfamiliar or technical words.    The listener is narrow-minded. do you listen to all the commercials or all of the news items? As a parent. The listener is focused on him/ herself and isn’t interested in anything else. TVs roaring. or fire sirens blaring. d) The speaker’s words don’t meet the listener’s needs. Marginal listening means “keeping your ears open” for key words or sounds that will tell you when to start listening and paying attention. do you focus on every sound your children make. (B) Marginal Listening Marginal listening is a little like skim reading. if you live near a railway track or under an airport approach. For instance. or are you more likely to pay attention only to the silences. You may not hear 157 . although parents always hear their child crying. The speaker’s words threaten a personal opinion.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 b) The speaker is not believable. The listener is lazy or tired. e) The listener doesn’t understand the vocabulary. For example. c) The speaker is disorganized. Listeners pay only enough attention to the sounds around them to “tune-in” when the messages are important and “tune-out” when that aren’t. you need to block out distractions like children playing. You probably already do a lot of marginal listening without thinking about it. The listener has found the ideas hard to follow. but you may need to hear the phone ring so you can find out when to pick up your spouse. which usually signal that they are into something they should be doing? When you work in a busy office or when you are studying. Listening takes as much effort as physical activity. You need to “tune out” sounds that don’t affect you. The listener is afraid of what he/she may hear. tires squealing. they often only pay attention to crying that signals pain or fear. f) The listener doesn’t understand the language well.

(D) Critical Listening Critical listening is really a part of attentive listening. Perhaps you are at a lecture on how to use the Internet. classical music. or how 158 . (C) Attentive Listening Attentive listening means listening with a purpose. what is exaggerated. or maybe you are listening to a friend tell you how to get to someplace special. etc. Good listeners need to develop strategies to help them evaluate what they listen to. They always make sure that the messages they decide to ignore are only those that are not important to them. lectures. like history. and which details are not being presented. Critical listening skills are helpful many times during every day. you need to decide how much is true. It takes place when you are looking for correct and accurate information.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 what is on the radio until the station plays a particular tune or sounds to signal the start of news and/or weather reports. It takes place when you are listening to instructions. is boring or “stupid”? Good listeners (and learners) never tune out automatically. what is opinion. Effective listeners adapt these natural “filtering” skills until they are able to “filter” out what they don’t need and accurately identify what they want to attend to. This is the kind of listening to do when you have decided to pay attention because you need the information. directions. When someone is talking about a coworker or classmate. Not everything you hear or everyone you listen to provides accurate messages. you focus your attention fully on everything the speaker says and does. explanations. how much is wishful thinking. Attentive listening is really just concentrating on the what you hear and using all your energy to understand the message. or anything you need to remember. they know how to focus their attention and listen even when they don’t agree with the speaker’s opinion? They are tired? Hungry? Frustrated? Angry? Their personal problems overwhelm you? They think something will be too difficult for them? They encounter new ideas? They think a topic. As well. you need to decide how much of what the salesperson tells you is fact. Once you have decided that the message is important to you. When you are shopping for a new car. so the listener has to judge or evaluate both the speaker and the message before deciding to accept or reject it.

2. Motivational speakers try to get you to change the way you live or to buy into a “guaranteed” money-making scheme. it is your responsibility to evaluate the speaker’s truthfulness and motivation as well as understand and evaluate the accuracy of his/her message before you act.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 much is revenge or jealousy. DECIDING HOW TO LISTEN 159 . you should 1. 3. Commercials coax you to buy a new laundry detergent or try a particular brand of soft drink. Decide whether the speaker’s reasoning is accurate and logical. Decide whether the speaker is impartial. It involves both attentive and critical listening as well as open-mindedness. 5. or participate in a group activity. (E) Appreciative Listening The words appreciate means to grasp the quality or significance of something and are often used to mean the ability to understand. Decide if the speaker’s sources and facts are reliable. Friends present arguments to make you move to a different location. Decide whether there is enough information to make a good decision. 4. Often appreciative listening relates to music or literature. you are really cooperating with the person presenting the message and allowing their words (or music) to create a mood or image they have in their heads enter your mind. enjoy or admire the excellence of something. To be a critical listener. You need to listen critically so you can separate the facts from the persuasion. Persuasion is often the speaker’s goal. Does what you are hearing match what you have read/heard somewhere else? Does it seem realistic and sensible? Much of what you listen to every day is designed to persuade you to change your mind or act in a certain way. You even need to listen critically to the information you hear in class. When you are listening to appreciate something. Decide whether the speaker has the experience and knowledge to give the correct information. As a listener.

or at work. face to face listening means trying to understand how someone else with a personal problem feels. For example. It can be as simple as a quick “hello” or a few sentences at coffee break.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 A good listener decides beforehand how he/she will listens and controls the kind of listening he/she does. friends. (ii) The second type of listening is the face to face listening you do in a conversation. Almost one third of the listening you do every day is face to face with family. There are only two different situations for listening. it doesn’t require any feedback from the listener. that is. 160 . when you watch/listen to television or sit in a lecture. The kind of listening depends on the listener’s needs and circumstances. you have little opportunity to respond to the speaker.    (i) Mass listening is often passive. At other times. Mass listening Face to face listening 15 16 17 18 19 STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING 1 Have a positive attitude about what you are going to hear.

your body will be diverting energy to digestion and leaving little for concentration. make sure you are not hungry. If you try to listen right after a big meal. your brain will automatically pay less attention. boring. your brain will actually prevent you from absorbing and understanding. so you may fall asleep in class after a big meal with lots of sweets? On the other hand. Hunger will also distract you and keep you from paying full attention. your respiration speeds up. If you are tired. you must decide that you are going to listen carefully and focus on the speaker’s words. 2 Make a commitment to listen attentively. On the other hand. walking. 5 Eat Smart. If you have a negative attitude. Your brain is both your best ally and worst enemy. If you have even a whisper of a doubt in your mind about whether you are going to listen. you will find your mind wandering and you will end up doing marginal listening instead of paying full attention. No matter how hard you try to listen. however. 4 Be Alert. When there is something you want to know or learn. your brain will make sure you do listen and learn. or exercising. If. If you have a “yes.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 In general. and your temperature rises. or doesn’t relate to you. 3 Be physically fit. Listening is actually a physical activity just like running. 161 . your body simply doesn’t have the resources to listen and understand effectively. The first step to listening attentively is to talk yourself into a positive attitude before you start listening. or need. I can” attitude. Just as in other kinds of learning. Eat a little bit before you go into a listening session from which you need to get information. When you listen attentively your heart rate increases. if you are positive. make sure to get a good night’s sleep before you expose yourself to the information. After a big meal. your body naturally wants to sleep. you decide it will be too difficult. the information. You can increase your listening abilities by simply making sure that you are physically fit. your brain will help you listen with less effort and remembering will be easier. attentive listening is easy if you are interested in. listening attentively will be difficult.

Concentrating means listening to the whole message before you act. simply place a check mark on a piece of scrap paper every time you find your attention has wandered.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 6 Be comfortable. Sit up straight and even lean forward a little. will automatically put you back on track. Your brain can only use and store information that makes sense to you in your own words. Sit where you can hear well and see the speaker clearly. through practice. but you can work to increase your concentration. sit in the front of the room. Listen critically to everything the speaker says before making a decisions or taking any actions. all things that will distract your attention. Soon. your brain will catch itself daydreaming and. This is part of making a commitment to listen. count the number of check marks. It also makes the ideas your own. It also means that you are more likely to remember. When you are trying to follow oral 162 . 7 Be an active listener. etc. eat. 10 Concentrate Focus on the details you are hearing and work to keep your mind from wandering by simply telling yourself “listen to this”. The closer you are to the speaker. This helps you pay attention and concentrate. 9 Paraphrase As you listen. Concentrating 100% of the time is difficult for anyone. As you listen to something. Those people who sit in the back have usually already made a decision that they aren’t really interested and don’t intend to listen.. This makes sure that you understand what is being said. you are telling yourself and the speaker that you intend to listen. Make regular eye contact with the speaker. the more likely you are to pay attention because you feel that the speaker can see you and will notice if you fall asleep or if your attention wanders. If you can paraphrase what a speaker says it means you understand. In a classroom or lecture situation. 8 Listen to the Whole Message Before Making a Judgement Don’t jump to conclusions. Don’t be too warm or too cold. With this posture. Find a seat that is comfortable to sit in. At the end of the presentation. put the speaker’s ideas into your own words. It also gives the speaker the feedback he/she needs. They may talk. Just making a check mark acts as a reminder to listen and refocus on the message.

the telephone. 14 Listen for Main Ideas Well-prepared lectures. Remember these major headings as you listen. so that you don’t have to waste time and energy understanding the basics. The introduction should contain the main idea and purpose in a clear thesis statement. This rarely works because you have to shift your attention away from the words you are hearing to the activities you are trying to perform. 12 Learn to Block Out Distractions Some distractions can’t be removed. identify the thing that distracted your attention and do something about it. a pile of unfinished laundry. a wobbly desk. In a formal listening situation. it is often tempting to try to do each step as it is given. so you must learn to live with them. 11 Remove Distractions. lessons. When you find your attention wandering. you can learn to block out the unimportant sounds around you just as easily as you block out the sounds of heavy traffic or household noises. and mentally tick them off as the speaker deals with each one in turn. Small things can eat away at your ability to concentrate: a ticking clock. 13 Be Prepared. With practice and a commitment to listen. and oral presentations are designed to make listening easier. 15 Listen for major headings The introduction of an oral presentation will also probably include a “blueprint” statement which clearly outlines the major points the speaker will cover. Do as much as you can to learn specific vocabulary and concepts before you start to listen. The next group of listening strategies can make your mass listening experiences more effective. Listen to the whole set of instructions first.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 instructions. 163 . prepare yourself to listen by reading and thinking about the topic before you arrive. Use them when listening to lectures and classroom lessons.

When the speaker speaks slowly. The voice sends about 30% of the actual message. phrases. so they use strategies to help the listeners keep track of the information they are presenting. overheads. 18 Listen for transitions and other structural devices. or sections of their presentation. presenters add emotion to their speeches with pitch and tone. For this reason.” or “In conclusion”. the information is usually important. 17 Listen for repetition. One thing that makes listening more difficult than reading is the fact that the listener can’t go back and review or reread the material. They help you understand the main ideas and visualize the importance of details like statistics. Be aware that 164 . Transitions like “however”. “in addition”. Pauses allow the listeners to gather their thoughts and review what has been said. an investigation of some side issues is in order. graphs. props or anything you can see have an important place in oral presentations. 19 Pay attention to visuals. Visuals are included to help you understand. Listening for these repetitions not only helps you remember the major points. but also helps the listener keep track of where the speaker is in his/her overall speech. a good speaker includes lots of repetition of the main points and important details.” or “Before continuing.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 16. As well. Sections of an oral presentation can be highlighted with words like “Let’s review what we know so far. or “on the other hand” act like sign posts to show the listener where the speaker is going next. Charts. As well. 20 Pay attention to the speaker’s voice Speakers use their voices to underline important words. Listen for numbered lists Effective speakers understand that listening can be more challenging than reading. they can act as a mnemonic that will make it easier for you to remember. It is particularly important to pay attention to these when the presentation is persuasive. Be sure to make full use of them as you listen or speak.

and posture as you listen. for fear they may look “stupid”. particularly in a group situation. Evaluate the believability and accuracy of the message by thinking about the speaker’s experience. but they were just afraid to ask. Don’t give up until YOU do understand. supports. facial expressions. Pay attention to what is left out as well as what is included.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 the speaker may use his/her voice to get an emotional response from you and to make you more open to persuasion. and expertise. If you have a question. You will soon discover that in most cases. fatigue. Think of yourself first and ask for the information YOU need. 24 Make Notes 165 . and statistics of the content. Learn to watch for gestures. If you don’t understand. 22 Ask Questions To listen successfully. the listener needs to understand the message being sent clearly. Some people feel uncomfortable asking questions. and motives as well as the logic. so you will be doing everyone a service. 23 Listen critically Select what is important in any message. 21 Watch the speaker’s body language. In other words. facial expressions As much as 50% of any oral message is sent with body language. or even if you just feel “fuzzy”. Keep an open mind and don’t jump to conclusions or make a final judgement until you’ve listened to the whole presentation. Sometimes people are persuasive because they omit the negative details. enthusiasm. knowledge. ask the speaker for more information or clarification. Work to get rid of this notion! There is no such thing as a “stupid” question. Filter out your own (or the speaker’s) anger. it’s probably because the speaker didn’t meet your learning needs. They cannot only tell you a lot about the speaker’s truthfulness. “listen between the lines” to get the full meaning. but they can also act as a memory aid. hostility. many people had the same need for information or clarification that you did. gestures.

Speakers deliver words at about 120 words a minute. important supports. or lose it.” To be useful. Third. First. Because you are using short forms and abbreviations. but your brain works two or three times faster than that. review information regularly so all of it will be available when you want it. Record mostly main ideas. it takes advantage of your short term memory. never. so once you’re sure where the speaker is going with a thought.. Second. facts and explanations to your point form lists as soon as possible. then daily or weekly Listening is like any other form of learning: “Use it. For words that you write often create your own symbols like for paragraph. “bb” for big. Fourth. Here are some tips: (a) Don’t try to write every word. (c) Develop your own short hand symbols like $ for dollars or money. don’t. you can make a quick note. Ñ for not. Rewriting your notes in greater detail serves several purposes. dates.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Taking notes while someone is speaking is a skill that requires lots of practice because it is easy to get so involved in writing that you stop listening for minutes at a time. Rewrite them in longer form while your memory of the presentation is still clear. 25 Review what you’ve listened to within 2 to 3 hours. “ing” for ingredients. you may have missed some really important facts or concepts. Add details. it acts as a review and helps place the information in your long term memory. When you finally do tune-in again. (e) Rewrite your notes immediately after a presentation. (b) Use the “empty” moments to make your notes. and statistics. large. writing is an effective way for many people to learn new materials. If some of the material is familiar to you or you already grasp a concept well. major headings. È for with. use these moments for recording other important ideas. 166 . your notes may be next to meaningless if you leave them in this form too long. “ss” for small. Often you can predict what the speaker will say next. it ensures that your notes will be meaningful days or weeks later. Use short forms where possible and develop your own abbreviations like “imp” for (d) important.

coherent. You’ll learn how to use type intelligently and to set text so that it works for you. posters. Typography is sometimes seen as encompassing many separate fields from the type designer who creates letterforms to the graphic designer who selects typefaces and arranges them on the page. Even distribution of typeset 167 . The fact that it appears on a computer screen and not on a piece of paper is immaterial. Definition: The design and use of typefaces as a means of visual communication from calligraphy to the ever-developing use of digital type is the broad use of the term typography. — designers have to adapt their techniques to suit the medium. television. and sections) are accurately reflected in the final work." and "Typography in graphic design involves the selection of appropriate typefaces and their arrangement on the page. the art and practice of typography began with the invention of moveable type and the printing press. "The history of typography generally begins with Gutenberg and the development of moveable type.for they are the basis of type designs. and websites are all textual. The typographer’s job is to make things clear and to make things work—to make sure that the text is legible and that the underlying structures in the author’s manuscript (such as headings. it should still be pleasing to look at and easy to read. etc. In every situation where type is used — in publishing. text is composed to create a readable. Typography goes beyond the letters on screen or paper: It’s also concerned with the space around the text. and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly. the way it sits on a page or screen. In general usage typography is the practical and artistic arrangement of type and printing with type. but it has its roots in handwritten letterforms -. which covers a very wide range of things: books.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 TYPOGRAPHY It is about the design of text.whether transcribed with pen and ink or chiseled in stone -. without the awareness of the reader. packaging. In this chapter we’re sticking closely to the core typographic concerns for the Web. Good typography is just as important on a Web page as it is in any other medium. chapters." TEXT TYPOGRAPHY In traditional typography. and the size and proportions of those mediums. However. signage.

educational. phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. For example. Right Choice Choosing the right font is about readability and legibility   Readability—how easily words. religious. word frequencies. editorial. with a minimum of distractions and anomalies. For historic material established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion. phrases.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 material. and blocks of text can be read Always consider your audience when selecting typefaces for your publication Legibility—the ease with which individual letters can be distinguished Letter Forms • • • • • Baseline Descender x-height Caps height Ascender 24 168 .) in a sentence. word structures. nonfiction. morphology. while in English it is not. Typography is also subject to specific cultural conventions. spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements of appropriate typefaces and fonts. scientific. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics. with considerable overlap between historical periods. Choice of font(s) is the primary aspect of text typography—prosefiction. in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (. is aimed at producing clarity and transparency. which are closely based on traditional models. Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts.

sans serif for “headlines” Use 1-2 fonts/typefaces (3 max) Use of normal. f. l. q.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 TERMINOLOGY • • • • • Baseline-An imaginary horizontal line along which the base of a letter sets Descender. k. not including ascenders and descenders Caps Height-The height of capital letters from the baseline to the top of caps. italics. italics. d. I. p. specifically the lowercase x. y. j. capitals for large sections of text Use 1-3 point max Be careful of text to background color issues Size and Case  • • • Type sizes are not standard UPPER and lower case Avoid heavy use of all upper case Studies have found that mixed case promotes faster reading Letter spacing-Kerning 169 . etc. Arial. punctuation marks and other symbols that share a consistent design – Example: Times New Roman.The part of any character (g. H. Typeface-A family of alphabetic characters. etc. h.) Ascender-The part of a lowercase character (b. numbers. extended text. and sometimes J) that falls below the baseline. Font Guidelines • • • • • • Use serif for long. x-height-The height of lowercase letters. t) that extends above the x— height. bold Never use bold. most accurately measured on a character with a flat bottom (E.

“Who will read middle ages.” That being said.” it may be appropriate to use Blackletter. or middle of a page or box – – – – Center Justified (Full) Left (Ragged right) Right (Ragged left) Important Rules  Know Your Audience: what I am writing?” If the answer is “Someone who is living in the Think. Georgia. or Garamond. 170 . Don’t read me.1 2 3 4 • • • The space between TWO letters is kerning The space AMONG more than 2 letters is tracking Because of optical illusions. an article written in Curlz MT says “You don’t want to be taken seriously.” When was the last time you saw an article in The New York Times written in Blackletter? Choose fonts like Baskerville. spacing between letterforms are not fixed. An article written in Times New Roman might as well be saying “I’m Boring. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Alignment • Definition: lining up text or graphic elements to the top.  Be Consistent. sides.” Arial and Times New Roman are everywhere.  Don’t choose fonts that “blend in. but are adjusted according to the shapes of the two letters. which are called kern pairs. Adobe Caslon. bottom.

Stick with one typeface for your whole document. Fashion Illustration .Used to support an editorial article in a publication (newspapers. Don’t change from Arial to Comic Sans for no reason. 2 Technical Illustration • • • It is the use of illustration to visually communicate information of a technical nature. poem or newspaper article) by providing a visual representation graphically. or with one typeface for headings and one for content. and contains multiple illustrations throughout the book Book Jacket Illustration . it accompanies a children's story.Ranges from illustrating medical products to physical anatomy and microscopic organisms.Exaggerating features to create a comical representation of a person Children's Book Illustration .Exaggerated proportions to represent the sleek and slender style of a model/high fashion Portraits . photograph or other work of art that is created to elucidate or dictate sensual information (such as a story.Usually realistic representations of a person Caricatures . painting. etc) Medical Illustration . To generate expressive images that effectively convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer. 171 . magazines. 1 Effective Illustration • • • • • • • Editorial Illustration .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Don’t change fonts all of the sudden.Usually in a whimsical style. It can be the components of technical drawings or diagrams. ILLUSTRATIONS Definition: An illustration is a displayed visualization form presented as a drawing.Single image used on the cover of a book/novel to give potential readers a feel for the book's content and increase sales.

5 Cons of Illustration logos • • • • • Requires very experienced graphic designer with developed illustration skills. mascots). Is more difficult (costly) to animate and may not lend itself to 3D. Creating a illustrative logo is not just making a ‘pretty pictures. The visual image should be accurate in terms of dimensions and proportions. Is more effective for ‘fun’ establishments (bars. slapping on some font work and hoping for the best. Less likely to infringe on other copyright. if designed effectively. Text portion of logo. and/or be confused with other designs. clubs. characters in various poses). Runs risk of looking amateurish if not illustrated effectively. has a very high recognition factor (characters. The artwork should be visually ‘comfortable’ with appropriate text work and the typography featured. Is more difficult to recognize when reproduced at small sizes or from distances. Less risk of imitators. can stand alone as an icon design or text logo. 4 Pros of Illustration logos • • • • • • Easier to create ‘unique’ illustration.e. sports logos. 172 . 3 Illustration logos • • • • It’s not just the drawing itself that’s important. and should provide "an overall impression of what an object is so as to enhance the viewer’s interest and understanding.) Once established. etc. More difficult to trade mark the logo (unless a truly unique concept featured in illustration). restaurant logos. Lends itself to logo variations and situations (i.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 • • Technical illustrations generally have to describe and explain the subjects to a non technical audience. The illustration needs to be self-contained enough to be effective as a stand alone design.

However. It should include the research question. . the method and the main findings. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion. the rationale for the study. with a 173 . Descriptions of the method may include the design. (A) Title: It should be concise and descriptive. "An investigation of .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 CONTEXTS OF WRITING THESIS." could be omitted. its significance will become evident. Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship. submitted in the order listed. the phrase. However. If the research problem is framed in the context of a general. the hypothesis (if any). This paper focuses on proposal writing rather than on the development of research ideas. . rambling literature review. or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. procedures. because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables. if the same question is placed in the context of a very focused and current research area. The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether. the sample and any instruments that will be used. PAPER AND REPORT 1 General form of a Research Paper Journals require the sections. There are variations of course. but also predisposes him/her favourably towards the proposal. each section to start on a new page. How to frame the research problem is perhaps the biggest problem in proposal writing. if possible. (B) Abstract It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. The introduction typically begins with a general statement of the problem area. For example. then the research question may appear trivial and uninteresting. for example. An effective title not only pricks the reader's interest. (C) Introduction The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or context for your research problem. think of an informative but catchy title. except for the abstract.

However. h) Provide definitions of key concepts. you may not have any hypotheses. 174 . (Please do not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis. b) Provide the context and set the stage for your research question in such a way as to show its necessity and importance. b) Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research. Alternatively. c) Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem. (This is optional) (D) Literature Review Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introduction section. The literature review serves several important functions: a) Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel". f) State your hypothesis or theory. which allows a more thorough review of the literature. e) Identify the key independent and dependent variables of your experiment. The introduction generally covers the following elements: a) State the research problem. e) Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 focus on a specific research problem. d) Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question. most professors prefer a separate section. For exploratory or phenomenological research. f) Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature. if any. to be followed by the rational or justification for the proposed study. specify the phenomenon you want to study. which is often referred to as the purpose of the study.) g) Set the delimitation or boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus. c) Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing. d) Briefly describe the major issues and sub-problems to be addressed by your research.

(E) Methods The Method section is very important because it tells your Research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. you may devote several subsections on related issues as: theoretical models. Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study. unity and coherence Being repetitive and verbose Failing to cite influential papers Failing to keep up with recent developments Failing to critically evaluate cited papers Citing irrelevant or trivial references Depending too much on secondary sources There are different ways to organize your literature review.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 g) Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research. having established the importance of your research area and its current state of development. h) Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature (i. For example. cross-cultural and gender differences.e. resolving an important theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature). Most students' literature reviews suffer from the following problems:         Lacking organization and structure Lacking focus. measuring instruments.. etc. The guiding principle for writing the Method section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether methodology is sound. You need to demonstrate your knowledge of alternative methods and make the case that your approach is the most appropriate and most valid way to 175 . It will provide your work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project. Make use of subheadings to bring order and coherence to your review.

Who will take part in your study? What kind of sampling procedure do you use? c) Instruments .How do you plan to carry out your study? What activities are involved? How long does it take? (F) Results Obviously you do not have results at the proposal stage. 18. which may be justified by time and financial constraints as well as by the early developmental stage of your research area. More importantly. the method section typically consists of the following sections: a) Design -Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind of design do you choose? b) Subjects or participants .What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do you use? Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable? d) Procedure . b) Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research. You need to communicate a sense of enthusiasm and confidence without exaggerating the merits of your proposal. For quantitative studies. the data collection process in qualitative research has a far greater impact on the results as compared to quantitative research. 176 . Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing a) Failure to provide the proper context to frame the research question.7 Discussion It is important to convince your reader of the potential impact of your proposed research. However. c) Failure to cite landmark studies. That is another reason for greater care in describing how you will collect and analyse your data. That is why you also need to mention the limitations and weaknesses of the proposed research.1. you need to have some idea about what kind of data you will be collecting.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 address your research question. and what statistical procedures will be used in order to answer your research question or test you hypothesis.

You will want. If your topic is interesting and rich. f) Too much detail on minor issues.) h) Too many citation lapses and incorrect references. focus your 177 .  Understand the limitations of your particular situation. but not enough detail on major issues.going "all over the map" without a clear sense of direction. as any thesis writer will tell you. Sizing up your topic:Most thesis writers caution that topics are almost always initially too big and try to include too much.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 d) Failure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other researchers. g) Too much rambling -. and much of the advice that appears elsewhere in this site will be relevant to the thesis writer. if your project requires lab work. there are some important differences between writing a thesis and writing a course paper. in six months' time. i) Too long or too short 2 How to Write Thesis In some ways. to feel as if you know just about everything about your topic. writing a thesis is no different than writing other academic papers. new issues and new ideas will always emerge. For instance. yet narrow enough to address that issue thoroughly in the time allotted. Some tips to remember:  Make your topic broad enough to address an important issue. know how much you can reasonably expect to accomplish in the time you have. so.  Understand that your topic will only seem bigger once you get into your research. Still. e) Failure to stay focused on the research question. (The best proposals move forward with ease and grace like a seamless river.

Make your own internal outline including who is responsible for which sections. evaluation reports should be written in the past tense – only report what you actually did and what you found. bold. in simple terms.  Think about pertinent classes you have taken or may want to consider taking while you are working on your thesis. You can rely some on bullets and be limited in your transitions. but don’t leave out whole sections.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ideas tightly as soon as you are able. The action steps or Issues for Further Consideration sections can include references to future actions.  Formatting is your friend. about what you are trying to say. 178 . chances are others won’t be able to either. LABELS AND LEGENDS OR FOOTNOTES SO THAT THEY STAND ALONE. Feel free to be somewhat flexible with the order.  Be consistent in your use of language. Remember quotes should have quote marks around them and be attributed to the speaker or writer. side headings etc. ALL TABLES AND GRAPHS MUST HAVE TITLES.). Thesis are very time-consuming. capitalization. Be consistent about where and how they appear (centered. Use headers and sections to help your reader know what is happening in your report. If you are presenting field notes. Read your work – if you can’t understand it. Think. your topic is too big. Be sure that you leave time for stakeholders to help you with editing/making revision. and then write that. For the most part.  Use quotes from field notes to illustrate your findings. Use complete sentences and standard English grammar conventions. underlined. so you may appreciate being able to tie it into your other academic work (A) Most Important Things to Remember About Report Writing    Follow the report writing outline in your manual. If you can't summarize your argument in a single paragraph. punctuation etc. but be sure your reader can follow your logic.  Use tables and Graphs to help illustrate findings. be sure they are clearly identified.

1 2 3  Do not introduce totally new topics into your report in the final sections. 179 . Do not use the report to explain why you changed your design. and what should be happening with a program regardless of the findings presented in the report. what you didn’t do.

Introduction to program (mission. B. Response to evaluation questions (where feasible) C. Comparison of findings to targets (where feasible and appropriate) (D) Conclusions A. Why methods were chosen including clarification regarding use of participatory data collection. E. D. Report Organizer (optional and un-necessary if report is short) (B) Methods/Data Collection Strategies A. Summary of Key Findings B. and main activities) B. Final Analysis   How does the author understand the data How does the author believe the data will impact the work 180 . Description of targets for analysis (this can also be addressed in the findings section). Why they were selected and whether there is any missing data. Relationship between questions and data collection strategies (usually done as a table) C. goals. not what the evaluator set out to or attempted to do. group them into categories D. Purpose of evaluation C.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 3 Suggested Evaluation Report Outline (A) Introduction A. If there are several evaluation questions. Data collection challenges F. Evaluation Questions   Clear and concise questions that are in alignment with program mission and goals. Description of selected methods (in narrative or table form) B this describes what actually happened during data collection. Summaries of the results of data collection and analysis B. (C) Evaluation Findings A.

Issues for Further Consideration (any outstanding issues raised by the evaluation). sequential. touch. team members with similar thinking styles likely feel more positive about their participation with the team. They process information in an ordered. the chances that the person will have a more positive learning experience are improved. 181 . "reality consists of what they can detect through their physical sense of sight. the latter being measured by aptitude tests or so-called intelligence tests. To them. taste and smell. Thinking style differs from thinking level. sound. Likewise. perceive and remember information. Four types of thinking style Concrete sequential: Concrete sequential thinkers are based in reality. Unit IV Thinking levels and Styles Thinking style also called cognitive style is a term used to describe the way individuals think. If a person has a similar thinking style to his/her teacher. formulas and rules with ease. linear way.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  Strengths and weaknesses of the work as revealed by evaluation findings C. They notice and recall details easily and remember facts specific information. Concrete random: Concrete random thinkers are experimenters.

The 'real' world for abstract random learners is the world of feelings and emotions. They like to think in concepts and analyse information. 182 . Abstract sequential: Abstract sequential thinkers love the world of theory and abstract thought. They do the best they can. rational and intellectual. but are willing to take more of a trial-and-error approach. Their thinking processes are logical.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Like concrete sequentials. They have a strong need to find alternatives and do things in their own way. They feel constricted when they're subjected to a very structured environment. A favourite activity for abstract sequentials is reading Levels of Thinking Level 0: Reacting (Chaos) Level 0 is a pre-thinking stage. nor can we say that there is any real thinking. moving away from what is threatening. Change happens to them. and thrive in unstructured. such as key points and significant details. because people in this state of mind are just responding to stimuli. not the other way around. They make great philosophers and research scientists. information and impressions and organises them through reflection. people-oriented environments. “reacting. Abstract random: Abstract random thinkers organise information through reflection. Their mind absorbs ideas. They remember best if information is personalised. It's easy for them to zoom in on what's important. they often make the intuitive leaps necessary for true creative thought. Because of this. they're based in reality.” There is no model of change.

Level 1 Thinking: Decision-making Level 1 thinking is “decision-making”—evaluating options and selecting them according to a particular description of goodness. or sit quietly. Some young people operate from here as well. to rationally determine the “best” answers. depending on the dictates of the media and the mood of the situation. It is a step away from the idea that there is one right answer and a step toward carefully considering many ideas. to develop a company vision. This style of thinking assumes we can make decisions through codified procedures. when we’ve received bad news. play music. Just holding meetings and developing these statements. fashion a mission statement. where we recognize that the apparent problem may just be a symptom of some deeper issue. sometimes called “deliberative democracy. along with discussion and debate. It assumes a systems model of change.” begins by acknowledging unintended consequences and letting go of the idea that black and white answers will always work. Our environment is in control of us. Level 2 Thinking: Problem-solving The transition to Level 2 thinking. critical thinking skills. or formulate shared values. or when we just don’t know what is going on. “problem-solving. Level 2 is the logical. when we are not feeling well. reason-oriented mode of thinking in our system.” It is when we rely on evaluative. lurching from one position to another. discussing reasons for and against each one. Such thinkers often gather them together. It is mostly from this level that the voting public currently operates. and we seek to understand what is really happening. for example. 183 . All of us know this stage of development because it happens when we are placed in a new context. Level 3 Thinking: Creative Thinking Level 3 is “creative thinking. All of us open ourselves to Level 3 thinking when we dream. stand in the shower.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 toward what is pleasing.

etc. Thus "common sense" (in this view) equates to the knowledge and experience which most people already have.) are united and judged. The trick is to stay both caring and creative. sound for hearing.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 whether specific actions are taken or not. For example. if we carefully mix white and black powder the resulting 184 . Common sense. Some people use the phrase to refer to beliefs or propositions that — in their opinion — most people would consider prudent and of sound judgment. the common sense is an actual power of inner sensation (as opposed to the external five senses) whereby the various objects of the external senses (color for sight. The imagination and creativity required by a scientist to be able to devise meaningful experiments or insightful hypotheses may be limited by his/her common sense. Common sense and scientific thinking According to Aristotle. This logic frequently cannot be used to describe matter adequately at the microscopic or submicroscopic levels. but based upon what they see as knowledge held by people "in common". Common sense is usually the logic based on our observations in the macroscopic world of everyday objects. or which the person using the term believes that they do or should have. Then we open a door to the possibility of personal transformation. The scientific thinking or scientific method is the general name that is given to a collection of differing procedures that have been developed by humans to obtain knowledge from their observations. Common sense basically comes among the factors which limits the application of scientific thinking. consists of what people in common would agree on: that which they "sense" as their common natural understanding. even to the point of letting go of who we think we are. based on a strict construction of the term. without reliance onesoteric knowledge or study or research. help raise the organization’s level of capability for selforganizing change Level 4 Thinking: Choice-creating Level 4 is Choice-creating. Choice-creating can happen naturally when we care deeply about a problem that seems impossible to solve.

and then restate the problem in your own words. Gray is a useful and meaningful concept on the macroscopic level. On the microscopic level. Analysis Stage • Read the problem carefully at least twice. Jumping directly to “number-crunching” without thinking through the logic of the problem is counter-productive. however. However. If they are not. and then compute. Conversely. if necessary. the concept of gray has no meaning. What are some relationships within the information given? What does this particular problem have in common conceptually with course material or other questions that you have solved? • Draw pictures or graphs to help you sort through what’s really going on in the problem. analyzing a problem and then computing carelessly will not result in the right answer either. you will need to take this into consideration when setting up your approach. Any quantitative problem. • Write down all the information that you know in the problem and separate. the “givens” from the “constraints.reformulation or rephrasing Problem solving strategies Solving complex problems is a challenging task and warrants ongoing effort throughout your career. you would see only black particles and white particles side by side. be sure to check that the assumptions underlying the picture or graph you have drawn are the same as the assumptions made in the problem. requires a two-step approach: analyze. or engineering. science. These will help you recall related course material that will help you solve the problem. At this level. whether in economics. aloud if possible. Computing Stage 185 .” • Think about what can be done with the information that is given. Problem solving strategies.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 mixture is gray.

once you get an understanding of the concepts in the problem. Discussing various options for a problem can help you uncover both computational errors and errors in your thinking about the problem. Problems often look logical when someone else does them. small. you can try it afterwards and use it as a check of your logic. • Resist the temptation to consult the answer key before you have finished the problem. and think about approaching the problem in an entirely different way. substitute simple numbers and plan your approach. make sure that working with someone else is acceptable to your course instructor. Reformulation or rephrasing of the problem 186 . Then. but it will also help you in solving other problems that also focus on those concepts. Lectures. and exams are all intended to increase your knowledge of the subject. do the necessary calculations. return to the problem set the next day. • Throughout the computing stage. problem sets. take a break. does it fit the criteria given? Does your answer fit within the range of an estimate that you made prior to calculating the result? One especially effective way to check your results is to work with a study partner or group. • Check your results. that recognition does not require the same knowledge as solving the problem yourself. of course. Doing this will not only strengthen your understanding of the material. Research has shown that the brain works very productively on problems while we sleep—so plan your problem-solving sessions in such a way that you do a “first pass. pause periodically to be sure that you understand the intuition behind each concept in the problem. get a night’s rest. • Once you have a plan. • Ask yourself why this question is important.” Then. or abstract and seem to be getting in the way of your thinking. If you think of a simpler or more elegant approach. Thinking about the connection between a problem and the rest of the course material will strengthen your overall understanding. Before doing this. precepts.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 • If the actual numbers involved in the problem are too large. Does the answer make sense given the information you have and the concepts involved? Does the answer make sense in the real world? Are the units reasonable? Are the units the ones specified in the problem? If you substitute your answer for the unknown in the problem. you can go back to the numbers given. If you get stuck.

We then turn to an important use of reformulation based on our notion of generic types and discuss how this approach can be used to improve planner performance. might generalize to other problems 21 187 . but reformulation can allow the strategy to be applied more effectively. We also consider how generic types can be used to support alternative approaches to reformulation and. reformulation is the means by which a useful strategy can be brought to bear on a problem—the problem is reformulated in the canonical form in which that the particular strategy can be applied. The figure illustrates how reformulation of a problem can allow different elements (or strategies) within a problem-solving system to be brought to bear on a problem by reformulating it. The figure illustrates that reformulation of a problem can allow different problem solving strategies to be applied to it.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 The reformulation of a problem is intended to make the problem more amenable to efficient solution. In this case. examining several of the ways in which it has been exploited. While problems can usually be expressed in many ways. it is often the case that a particular problemsolving strategy is applicable only to problems expressed in a certain form. A special case is where reformulation can allow the same strategy to be applied but in a more efficient way. for applying reformulation to planning. In this paper we consider the role of reformulation in planning. Similar benefits can be obtained when the original problem expression is already in a form that can be tackled by a strategy. discuss how the strategy that we have identified. The figure also suggests an important point: a single problem might require multiple strategies to solve it and reformulation might change the combination of strategies that can be applied to solving the problem. Both of these situations can be seen as cases within the scenario depicted in figure 1. finally.

Initially the Sub-Problem generation and other subsequent processes are applied only to the visible problems having High & Major Seriousness levels. Sub-Problem listing is more difficult than the visible problem listing. Division of sub-problems The previous step generates a basic problem list that details the visible problems that are apparently clear because of the experience of the customer. Reformulation and redeployment: reformulating a problem can allow different problem solving strategies to be deployed to solve it.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Fig. The major advantage with TOPE is that it follows a two-phase approach for the entire problem solving: • Pilot Phase • Production Phase. There is a high probability that each of these listed visible problems might contain invisible sub-problems. 1. 188 . Using methods like "Creative Brain Storming" and "Problem Post-Mortem" by Functional Experts these Sub-Problems can be identified and listed out. The key to this process is identifying these inherent invisible sub-problems. The pasted Stick-It sheets are segregated as different groups after filtering for redundancy and each of this group becomes the software modules in the development phase. Even Seriousness can be associated to these sub-problems but it is not mandatory because TOPE is concerned more on the Seriousness measure of the Parent problem rather than the Sub-Problem.

This in effect can help the customer realize the intangible system to an initial level of working system Techniques of representation 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 2 • Semantic networks – nodes and links – stored as propositions 189 .1 2 3 4 5 This in effect will result in a Pilot system that can merge all the major operations that are required by the customer. The customer can then use this prototype for getting a feel for the problem solving software application.

Knowledge is organised in slots.linked lists are used to represent hierarchical knowledge 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Schemas . Frames .1 2 3 4 Fig 3 • Lists .may use deductive or inductive reasoning which contain: Fig 4 • Trees . Logic-based representations .Describe event rather than objects. Consist of stereotypically ordered causal or temporal chain of events. Frames are hierarchically organised. Consist of a cluster of nodes and links manipulated as a whole.Describe objects. Scripts . 1. 2.used to represent commonsense or stereotyped knowledge.graphs which represent hierarchical knowledge 190 .

may involve Certainty Factors (eg. 191 . • Problem approach (planning a general strategy for solving the problem). Rules of predicate calculus (allows use of additional information about objects in the proposition. and • self-reinforcing for correct performance or • using a coping statement for incorrect performance Order of Scale • • A type of order that comprises several limit orders at incrementally increasing or decreasing value. Rules of propositional logic (dealing with complete statements 3. • focusing attention. Measures of certainty .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1. A Rank Order scale gives the respondent a set of items and asks them to put the items in some form of order.. • selecting all answer. use of variables and functions of variables 4. If symptom then diagnosis) which could be derived from expert estimation or from statistical data Verbalization To use words to express or communicate meaning ether to your self or to others Verbal self directed statements provide a thinking strategy and serve as a guide through the process of problem solving: • Problem definition (i.e. Facts and premises 2. clarifying and understanding the exact requirements of the task at hand).

if you are driving in your car and it start 192 . importance. Inductive reasoning is the basic method of scientific investigation. The order is often a simple ordinal structure (A is higher than B).1 2 3 4 • • The measure of 'order' can include such as preference. It can also be done by relative position (A scores 10 whilst B scores 6). 150 years ago Gregor Mendel formed his theory of heredity based upon his observation of sweet pea plant characteristics. liking. but it is also a thinking skill we use throughout our life. For example. effectiveness and so on. There are two main ways in which this can be achieved: 1. Inductive reasoning : It is thinking skill that involves observing something and then forming a conclusion based on what has been observed. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Logical thinking In order to think rationally (Come to a conclusion based on facts rather than emotion) You need to think in a logical manner. For example. His conclusion was based on observation.

For example.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 making a noise. This can lead you to believe that if they are alike in one way.. you may come to a conclusion that something is wrong and so you decide to get it serviced. although there are many other types’ logical errors that can occur. and is therefore built upon a series of arguments that ultimately allows you to make some sort of prediction. Inductive reasoning = A thinking skill that forms a conclusion based on observation 2. he called this “predicate thinking” (also called paleological thought) and is something which is commonly used by preschool children. Deductive reasoning: It is thinking that involves forming a conclusion which follows from a premise. deductive reasoning would involve saying something like: “If this happens . For example.” than that will happen”. and so how they reacted to you were more out of frustration rather that anything personal towards you. which means the answer is…” Deductive reasoning is a thinking skill which involves a process of investigation.. they must be alike in other ways. Predicate thinking is one example of how logical thinking can be lead astray. and causes people to form incorrect conclusion based on incomplete information. A false analogy occurs when 193 . However this person may have just lost their job. Some logical errors are explained as bellow: Overgeneralisation: Overgeneralisation involves jumping to a conclusion without having all the facts to support it. if you are talking to someone and they appear rude and abrupt. False Analogy: An analogy is a comparison between two things that are similar in some way. you may come to the conlclusion that they do not like you. Predicate thinking: According to Freud there is a type of thinking that occurs at the unconscious level which is neither inductive nor deductive. Overgeneralisation is quite a common way in which logical errors can occur.

proper tools and techniques should be used for data 194 . Arguing in circles Arguing in circles involves making an argument that doesn’t contain any real meaning to it. Appeal to Authority An appeal to authority involves backing up a weak argument by making reference to an authority figure. In this type of circular argument no factual information is given to backup a statement. you didn’t realy have the facts to back up your argument. they say “why?” You say “because you are such a likable person”. In this example john’s argument has been discredited with a reference to his past. you tell your friend they should eat more green vegetables. For example. The false analogy leads us to believe that they are also similar in other ways. In this example two things have been compared which are similar in one way (liquid). even though his past actions have nothing to do with his speech Importance of graphical representation Data are basic inputs to any decision making process in research. you have chosen to back up your argument based on what someone else has said. In this rather than presenting factual information such as nutritional content of green vegetables. The processing of data gives important statistics to study. For example. Thus in such errors Attack on character An attack on character involves using something someone has done wrong in the past. to discredit them or their argument. John is in a debate and arguing his case. For example. so you can’t trust anything he says”. you say to your friend “I like you”.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 this comparison results in an incorrect conclusion. When they ask you why. you say because “nutritionist on TV said they were good for you”. Engine oil is also a liquid and must therefore be good to drink. water is a liquid and is good for you to drink. when in fact they are not. For example. After data are collected . They reply “why?” you say “because I really like you”. when his opponent counters by saying “John was caught stealing money at work two years ago. so you made an “appeal to authority”. In other words.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 analysis. cumulative frequency distribution. Bar chart: Is a graphical view of the given data such that the frequency of each category of the multiple data is shown as an adjacent vertical strip against that category in proportion to the heights of other such vertical strips within that multiple data at each point on X-axis and across different points on x-axis. They can be further classified in following different forms: 1. The tools of data classification are frequency distribution. 13 14 15 16 17 18 3. relative frequency distribution and charts. Pie chart: This is a chart in which area of a circles is divided in to different sectors representing different categories such that the angle of each sector is proportional to frequency of respectivecategory 8 9 10 11 12 2. Charts are the graphical representation of data. Stacked bar chart: It is the graphical view of multiple data such that the frequency of each category of multiple data is shown as an adjacent vertical strip against that category in proportion to the heights of other such vertical strips within that multiple data at point on x-axis and across multiple points on x-axis 195 .

1 2 3 4 5 4. Frequency polygon: is a line diagram connecting the mid points at the top of different vertical strips of the histogram of given problem 9 10 11 12 13 6. 196 . Ogive curve: is a cumulative frequency curve. For each such upper limit on xaxis the cumulative frequency of all class limit from first class interval to that class interval is taken on y-axis. Histogram: it is a graphical view of given data such that the frequency of each range of variable of intrest is shown as an adjacent vertical strip against that range of variable in proportion to the heights of other such vertical strips 6 7 8 5. In less than ogive curve the upper limit of each class interval is taken on X-acis in increasing order.

but don't act on them.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 CREATIVITY IN DAY TO DAY LIFE: Our day is filled with repetitive tasks.) that has some kind of value. Out of the creative act is born symbols and myths. and in order to save time and wear-and-tear on our already-stressed energy systems. What counts as "new" may be in reference to the individual creator. We are all busy people. or to the society or domain within which the novelty occurs. and associations. Creativity involves two processes: thinking. Innovation is the production or implementation of an idea. 197 . you are imaginative but not creative. concepts. If you have ideas.  "Creativity is the process of bringing something new into being creativity requires passion and commitment. and processes that are desirable and viable. The experience is one of heightened consciousness-ecstasy.  Creativity as the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. a work of art etc. we try to find better and more efficient ways of functioning by adding a little creativity to those day-to-day tasks CREATIVITY DEFINITION OF CREATIVITY:  Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new (a product. Innovation is the successful exploitation of new ideas: it is a profitable outcome of the creative process. services. It brings to our awareness what was previously hidden and points to new life. which involves generating and applying in a specific context products. then producing. procedures."  Creativity is the mental and social process—fuelled by conscious or unconscious insight—of generating ideas. a solution.

Or gather at a museum to spend some time. Many companies have restrictions on displaying personal photographs and family pictures. You can search on-line food sites and look for dishes containing ingredients you already have in your pantry.. This is achieved by pursuing following skills:- 198 . You can find treasures at garage or yard sales. Get a fantastic 2011 calendar with images of things you love. Decorate your workspace. For maximize your creativity in kitchen you can click one new recipe to try for yourself or your family and friends. and you can put that card in a simple frame or just magnet it to your fridge. just doing ordinary things and taking a photograph every day will actually force you to think creatively as you plan your shot. so do something a bit different. people with the gift of creativity tend to fall into the following preferred roles. With Friends and Family Instead of meeting friends for drinks or dinner. Dig out your camera and vow to take one photograph every day of your children. You will have new and inspiring conversations. It doesn’t have to cost much.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 At Home: Turn off your TV for an evening and pick up the book of your interest . As a result.It is the best way or technique to get maximum. At Work: Clear off your desk and complete all the work well in time. discarded on the sidewalk. When your desk is clean and you have space to work. Art can be found as a beautiful note card in your local card shop. try meeting for a hike or walk. It makes you more creative by getting interest in reading. The gift of creativity given by god can be shaped by the personality of the person who possesses the gift. Check your local markets for postcard depictions of art in their collection. CREATIVITY IS A GIFT OR SKILL: It is in God’s nature to be creative. There are calendars now for just about every interest and they are so easy to find. and it can actually be free or nearly free. Make room in your home for art. you will find that you can be more efficient as well as better able to come up with a new idea or two. growing in the nearby field.

People-skills. Such roles might include preaching and teaching. f. and truly see who we are and who God wants us to be. Woodcraft. but more importantly. Relational Arts: Relational Artists are skilled in the art of relationship-building. e. Relational Artists thrive at networking people with people.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 a. d. c. They are impeccable hosts. then it is no wonder that ministries are seeking to communicate more effectively through the integration of graphical arts into their ministries. The craftsman desires to become a virtuoso in their craft. painting. Performing Arts: Performing Arts are creative expressions that bring to life the issues and emotions of our everyday reality. If a picture is worth a thousand words. Communication Arts: Communication Arts includes oral and/or written communication skills. They like to work with their hands. Performing Artists are most effective when they hold a mirror up to our lives. they know how to make every participant at that party feel valued. Technical Arts: 199 . sewing and software programming are all hands-on arts that require expertise skill. as well as static brochure and website design. They know how to throw a party. oral communication skills are also required for “on air” and “on-line” radio and television broadcast. but may also include large-group leadership of children’s or student ministries. using their hands to create something from nothing. Graphic Arts: Graphical Arts (computer based) have become a necessity for the contemporary and postmodern ministry. appropriateness and tact are defining traits of the. manners. Graphic arts are utilized in multi-media video. sculpture. metalcraft. Macromedia Flash and PowerPoint. With today’s emerging technology. enable us to remove the mask from our own lives. Craftsmanship Arts: Craftsmanship Arts are typically found in “Artesian” personalities . b.

floral arranger.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Technical Arts like Sound. Inspiration: In which you generate a large number of ideas. With the advent of the internet and e-Te the Technical chnology. computer technology. Distillation. but that does not make the digging a waste of time. in amongst a huge pile of bad ones. Incubation. So you need occasionally to disengage from these obstacles and ask "what exactly am I trying to do?" iii. multimedia. lighting. Then you need to consider how the work could be improved. lighting director. Many people wonder where creative people find their good ideas. Our present culture acquires information through the eyes much more effectively than through the ears. Creativity is like mining for diamonds. Evaluation: This is a review phase in which you look back over your work in progress. CREATIVITY PROCESS: The Creative Process has six phases: Inspiration. by removing weaknesses but also by capitalizing on its strengths. The first letter of each phase spells 'ICEDIP' which may help you to remember the phases. This is the research or idea-generation phase. stage and set designer. Clarification. i. most of what you dig is thrown away. perhaps because you are too self-critical. etc. It is easy to lose your sense of direction while dealing with detailed difficulties in creative work. The Visual Artist may be an interior decorator. painting or photography. The aim here is to clarify the purpose or objective of the work. They may excel at drawing. If you cannot think of anything' you are having difficulty with this inspiration phase. Evaluation. The answer is. The Visual Artist is uniquely gifted to help pastoral teachers to communicate more effectively by integrating the visual arts into their messages and programs. ii.Artist will find more and more opportunities to unleash his or her skill and creativity. Then there will probably need to be another perspiration phase to respond positively to the suggestions for 200 . Perspiration . Clarification: In which you focus on your goals. g. Visual Arts: Visual Arts involve an “eye” for presentation. networking and internet-based are all areas that require this non-traditional creative artist. software. In the evaluation phase you examine your work for strengths and weaknesses. or expect good ideas to come too quickly.

leaving it 'on the surface of your mind'. or are combined into even better ideas. Actually this evaluation phase can be very rewarding. the ideas you have had are only ideas. v. It requires cool analysis and judgment rather than slap-happy spontaneity.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 improvement. Perspiration: 201 . If you are able to stop work on a project for a few days. They tinker with work that would make others gape in delight. Common mistakes are to choose ideas which are familiar and well worked out instead of those that will best achieve your intentions. Many people dislike the evaluation phase at first. Distillation: In which you decide which ideas to work on. though you still ponder about it occasionally. vi. highly creative people are nearly always confirmed revisers. and are content to let half-baked ideas. Many brilliant ideas have occurred in the bath. or in traffic jams. not complete solutions about where you want the ideas to take you. Creative people adapt to improve. perhaps to work on other things. and daring enough to take on original ideas. However. 'Incubation' is particularly useful after an 'inspiration' or a 'perspiration' phase. You need to be realistic but ready to take on challenges. This is a self-critical phase. Remember. However it should not be so critical as to inhibit productivity entirely. Creative people are often surprisingly patient and untidy. Incubation: In which you leave the work alone. or if a problem has been encountered. Here ideas from the inspiration phase are sifted through and evaluated usually in the light of the findings of a clarification phase. The best ideas are chosen for further development. iv. loose ends and inconsistencies brew away in their sub-conscious until 'something turns up'. and no work of real merit will be produced without it. Hardly anyone gets things perfect first time. Perspiration and evaluation phases often alternate to form a cycle. it will also distance you somewhat from your ideas so that you are better able to evaluate them. this will give your subconscious time to work on any problems encountered.

The end result is child like simple and paradoxically spontaneous looking. Matisse for example produced over 20 versions of his 'Pink Nude'. Very creative people often go over and over a piece until it is too their liking. Need to communicate ideas and values. varied. b. a work of art etc. concepts and links which involve generating and applying in a specific context products. d. services. c. Creativity required for turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. If you have ideas. Perspiration usually involves a number of drafts separated with clarification and evaluation phases. This is where the real work is done. it brings to our awareness what was previously hidden and points to new life. Uncreative people often accept the first draft as completion. It is surprising to people who do not understand the creative process that a talented person like Matisse should need so many 'drafts'. Creativity required for introducing something new (a product. REQUIREMENT OF CREATIVITY: Numerous studies have been conducted for requirement of creativity from these studies we can extract:- a. procedures.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 In which you work determinedly on your best ideas. and complex stimulation. but don't act on them. ROLE OF MOTIVATION IN CREATIVITY: Three reasons why people are motivated to be creative: 1. Creativity generate excitement and commitment. Need for novel. Creativity required for generating ideas.) that has some kind of value for society. this will usually involve further 'inspiration' 'distillation' and 'clarification' phases. You are involved in determined and persistent effort towards your goal. you are imaginative but not creative. 202 . But such strategies are common in very creative people. a solution. 2. Innovation is the production or implementation of an idea. and processes that are desirable and viable.

It is the motivation to engage in an activity primarily in order to meet some goal external to the work itself. Need to solve problems.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 3. Intrinsic motivation . payment). Through open minded consideration of these new ideas and thorough studies 203 . total absorption and devotion to their work.Role in sciecnce and technology: To make any advances in science and technology. challenged by their work. b. . to expand. There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. ii. Characteristics of intrinsically motivated people include commitment to work. interest and satisfaction in their work. to fly. Non-synergistic extrinsic motivation: Non-synergistic reward leads a person to feel controlled and is incompatible with intrinsic motivation. Open-minded means to be willing to consider new ideas. passionate involvement. Extrinsic motivation is itself split into two categories: i. a. and to see wholeness. to diverge. new ideas need to be presented constantly. It is often compared to a closed mind which will reject ideas without any consideration. OPEN MIND VS CLOSED MIND IN PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:a. such as attaining an expected reward. Synergistic extrinsic motivation: Synergistic extrinsic motivators provide information or enable the person to better complete the task and act in accordance with intrinsic motives. Open mind: Definition: An open mind is a mind that is receptive to new ideas and information.It is that where a task is completed for its own sake. winning a competition or meeting some requirement.g. Extrinsic motivation It is where a task is completed for an ulterior motive (e.

In a narrower sense. unwilling to consider alternatives to their own pet theory or hypothesis will not advance very far or contribute much to science. where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. as in the biological notion of analogy. induction. and abduction. more receptive. to focus. and to see details Role in sciecnce and technology A closed minded researcher. more hierarchical. b. to converge. more tunnel-vision. more rigid. Analogy plays a significant role in: 204 . which is often. a. closed mind which will reject ideas without any consideration. as opposed to deduction. Analogical Reasoning. to dig. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves. more democratic. though not necessarily. b. science can then wipe out the bad ideas and keep the good ones.The closed mode is the tighter. analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular. Analogical Reasoning: Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (source) to another particular subject (the target). Closed-minded means to be willing to consider a single idea. The open mode is more relaxed. REASONING There are various types of reasoning: a. a similarity. and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. more exploratory. more playful and more humorous. closed mind: Definition: A closed mind is not only closed to outside thoughts. it is often closed to itself as well. Analytical Reasoning. which wouldn't be possible without said open mindedness.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 of them.

The scores of the member correspondences are assigned at the time of retrieval. The global mapping with the highest score will be selected to be used for transferring the simplification knowledge. philosophy and the The analogical reasoned process consists of the eight phases: 1. Emotion. relations and attributes) they share. producing new objects. Creativity. Mapping of the source analog onto the problem: This phase will produce several “global mappings” that are consistent sets of correspondences between relevant elements in the source analog. The objects produced will be evaluated against the problem constraints and for the simplification condition. 5. 2. and elements in the problem. Retrieval of candidate source analogs: This phase selects from the set of known simplifications those that have the same point of view as the problem and which are “similar” to the problem. Perception Memory.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 6.g. explanation and communication. Similarity is measured in terms of the number and kind of elements (e. components. Selection of the best global mapping: Each of the global mappings obtained will be evaluated for quality by combining the scores of the member correspondences (e. Application and evaluation of candidate simplifications: All of the candidate simplifications are applied to the simplification problem. Transfer of simplification knowledge: The best global mapping will be used to produce several candidate simplifications by associating the unmapped elements in the source analog with elements in the problem. If an object 205 . Decision making. humanities.g. correspondences between relations will assigned higher scores than correspondences between attributes for analogical reasoning). This score is used to select the simplification that is closest to the problem..       Problem solving. 4. Selection of the source analog: Each candidate analog retrieved has associated with it a score which measures its similarity to the object to be simplified. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and but also in science. 3..

it is dropped. The house occupied by Tom is next to an end cottage. Between Anne and Jack's cottage there is just one vacant house. 1. Analytical reasoning must be a richly collaborative process and must adhere to principles and models for collaboration. 3. and action. 7. each one living in his or her own cottage. b. it will be added to the database of known simplifications. if a useful generalization over the new simplification and the source simplification can be built. which is at the end of the row. Collaborative analysis provides both the human scalability and the computational scalability necessary to support reasoning.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 produced does not satisfy the constraint or is not simpler than the object specified in the object. which satisfy the constraint and are simpler than the object to be simplified. 8. Eliza and Anne are unwilling to stay besides any occupied cottage. Peter and Jack) and three women (Eliza. prevention and response. Analytical Reasoning: The science of analytical reasoning provides the reasoning framework upon which one can build both strategic and tactical visual analytics technologies for threat analysis. There are no others staying in the same row of houses. They are to stay in a row of nine cottages. assessment. Tom and Jack do not want to stay in any cottage. will be reported as 206 . Example of analytical reasoning is: Three men (Tom. 6. 4. Also. Analytical reasoning is central to the analyst’s talk of applying human judgments to reach conclusions from a combinations of evidence and assumptions. Anne. 5. Generalization and learning: If the simplification that was applied is significantly different than the source analog it has been derived from. Karen is next to Peter and Jack. Selecting the solution: The object that has the minimal complexity from among those solution to the simplification problem. it will also be added to the database. None of the girls occupy adjacent cottages. 2. Anne and Karen) are spending a few months at a hillside.

• Creation of some knowledge product or direct action based on the knowledge insight. Sense-making provides a theoretical basis for understanding many of the analytical reasoning tasks that the analyst performs.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Which of the above statements can be said to have been derived from two other statements ? a. Statement 1 b. Statement 3 d. Many analytical reasoning tasks follow a process of: • Information gathering. Statement 6 Ans : (d) Various methods of analytical reasoning are: i. Statement 2 c. 18 207 . • Development of insight through the manipulation of this representation. • Re-representation of the information in a form that aids analysis. Sense-making Methods: Above we discussed the analytical reasoning process from the practitioner’s point of view and described the implications for visual analytics. Statement 5 e.

such as when information is organized in space by its time relationships. By providing a manipulable medium that. By reducing search. Information visualization itself forms part of the direct interface between user and machine. 4. unlike static diagrams. 7. By supporting the easy perceptual inference of relationships that are otherwise more difficult to induce. ii. 6. 4. By perceptual monitoring of a large number of potential events. to start unraveling the puzzle. It does this in six basic ways: 1. The Role of Visual Analytics in Sense-Making: Visual analytics seeks to many techniques from information visualization with techniques from computational transformation and analysis of data.8 Puzzle Solving in research methodology and problem solving The magnitude of the creative leap forms a continuum (variety). from minor problem solving to major creative insight to mystical experience. Its purpose is to amplify human cognitive capabilities. although there is the notion of an overall cycle. • Decide which thread to grasp.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Figure: The analytical reasoning process As illustrated in figure. these activities may be repeated and may come out of order. Some classic puzzle-solving techniques also promote both insight (approaching) and scientific problemsolving: • Redefine the problem by breaking it down into several components. 208 . such as by using a visual resource to expand human working memory. then attack one or more of these pieces individually. By enhancing the recognition of patterns. 5. By increasing cognitive resources. 3. enables the exploration of a space of parameter values. We call tasks that follow this sort of pattern sense-making tasks or sometimes knowledge crystallization tasks. 2. such as by representing a large amount of data in a small space.

That is. they should not merely read the letters popped in the usual order. then look at its implications for the problem. This process is an important topic in psychology. Perhaps a hobby of puzzle solving can improve our ability to recognize hidden scientific assumptions.  First. the solution seems to materialize unexpectedly. the solution often coincides with a specific subjective experience. It is a special form of problem solving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance. Third. Creativity requires newness or novelty as a characteristic of what is created. especially in fields such as music. individuals are usually unaware of the intervening processes. individuals must redirect their attention and cognition away from the dominant or typical inclinations. or invalid assumptions. can be enhanced by practice. CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING IN RESEARCH Creative problem solving is the mental process of creating a solution to a problem during research. poetry. to solve the problem. This ability. called an "aha" moment.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 • Analyze all assumptions and detect inappropriate. and art. Creative problem solving always involves creativity. when the solution does arrive. like other acquired skills. • Provisionally assume an answer. creativity often does not involve creative problem solving. but researchers have developed few valid and reliable problems to assess insight. but creativity does not necessarily imply that what is created has value or is appreciated by other people. 209 .   Second. In the previous example. The practice of puzzle solving improves the ability of the mind to see patterns and associations. overlooked. Researchers often want to examine the determinants of insight--the event in which the answer to some problem or puzzle suddenly materializes after individuals experience a period in which they cannot solve this puzzle. However.

2. The following formalized and well-known methods and processes combine various creativity and creative-problem-solving techniques: 1. was developed by Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues based on examining more than 200. substance." Some innovations also qualify as inventions. Creativity techniques designed to reframe the problem.000 patents. 210 . 3. Inventing is a special kind of creative problem solving in which the created solution qualifies as an invention because it is a useful new object. c. but not all creative solutions become innovations. Mind mapping is a creativity technique that both reframes the situation and fosters creativity. This method is designed to foster the creation and development of patentable inventions. TRIZ. b. Getting other people involved can help increase knowledge and understanding of the problem and help participants reframe the problem.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Iwhen a created solution becomes widely used in research. Brainstorming is a group activity designed to increase the quantity of fresh ideas. process. but is also useful for creating nonproduct solutions. A widespread and longlived innovation typically becomes a new tradition. Creative-problem-solving techniques can be categorized as follows: a. Creativity techniques designed to shift a person's mental state into one that fosters creativity. the solution becomes an innovation and the word innovation also refers to the process of creating that innovation.. "All innovations [begin] as creative solutions. Creativity techniques designed to increase the quantity of fresh ideas. which is also known as Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TIPS). Techniques and tools for problem solving: Many of the techniques and tools for creating an effective solution to a problem are described in creativity techniques and problem solving. d. Creative-problem-solving techniques designed to efficiently lead to a fresh perspective that causes a solution to become obvious. or other kind of marketable entity. software.

TRIZ researchers have developed a systematic method that problem solvers can use to identify contradictions and find ways to resolve them. 4. Principles for creativity in TRIZ: 1. Knowledge/Effects is a useful resource in TRIZ that can help problem solvers to generate creative ideas. Functionality: The idea of Functionality provides problem solvers an effective means to analyse a system and generate ideas to improve a system. With this way of thinking problem solvers become more creative when identifying improvement ideas. a. Function Modeling & Analysis and Knowledge/Effects. Resources: The Resources principle relates to the importance placed on the identification and utilization of anything that is available in and around the system to deliver a function. TRIZ can be used to boost creativity and systematic innovation on a number of levels. Ideality: The Ideality of a system is defined as its sum of useful functions over its sum of harmful functions. and start instead from what is described as ideal results. 2. and Trends of System Evolution.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 TRIZ: A TOOL FOR CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION: The theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is an approach that can increase a person’s ability to generate creative solutions and help almost every organization to develop innovative capabilities. Contradiction: A technical contradiction occurs when 2 different parameters are in conflict with each other. a method and a toolbox for creative solutions. 3. It provides an underlying philosophy. The related techniques are Ideal Final Result. Function Modeling and Analysis. The techniques that are related to the idea of Functionality are SubstanceField Model & Inventive Standards. The concept of Ideality shows problem solvers the principle direction for improving a system and also encourages them to break out from within the box when thinking for solutions. to counter a harmful function or to resolve a contradiction. 211 . Systematic Innovation is a complete problem-solving and creativity framework utilizing the best aspects of TRIZ.

London: Unwin Hyman. Berlin. Space.. The strongest solutions transform the unwanted or harmful elements of a system into useful resources. Die Hauptformen und -regeln der Analogieschl¨usse. J. Darrell Mann. b. 212 . Time and Interface: TRIZ researchers emphasize the importance of thinking about a problem and finding the solutions from all angles. Technology evolution trends are highly predictable. Educational Researcher. Key findings of TRIZ research: 1. In G. Goschke. The strongest solutions also actively seek out and destroy the conflicts and trade-offs most design practices assume to be fundamental. Firestone. 3. Psychological Science. 14. pages 307–360. Denis Bridoux. Alternative arguments for generalizing from data as applied to qualitative research. I. W. 9. editor. 4. Psychological Science. J. Emotion and intuition: Effects of positive and negative mood on implicit judgments of semantic coherence. Akademie-Verlag. 22(4). Bolte. Bowden. (1988). A. Ujomov. 5. Bryman. Quantity and quality in social research.. When applying TRIZ. References: 1. I. T. 4. (2002). 16-23. 2. Evolving TRIZ Using TRIZ and NLP/Neurosemantics. 435-440. Studien zur Logik der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis. & Kuhl.. A. The collection of TRIZ techniques can be broadly classified into two categories namely techniques used for analyzing a problem and techniques used for generating solution ideas.( 1967). All innovations emerge from a small number of inventive principles and strategies. (1993). 3.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 5. A. Getting the right idea: Semantic activation in the right hemisphere may help solve insight problems. First published by the Altshuller Institute for TRIZ Studies in the Proceedings of TRIZCON 2002. M. Ruzavin. (2003). a problem solver needs to understand the nature of the problem and select the appropriate the techniques to apply. 416-421. A. E. (1998). & Beeman. 6. 2. M.

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