No. 4

Journal of Wuhan University of Technology - Mater. Sci. Ed.

Dec. 2002

An Improvement in Electrical Properties of Asphalt Concrete
WU Shao-peng MO Lian-tong SHUI Zhong-he XUAN Dong-xing XUE Yong-jie YANG Wen-feng Wuhan University of Technology
( Received: Jan. 28,2002)
Materials such as Koch A t t - 70, basalt aggregate, limestone powder and graphite particles were used to prepare conductive asphalt concrete, which is a new type of maltifanctional concrete. The mix propertion by weight was shown as follows. Fine aggregates (2.36 - 4.75 nun ) :fine aggregates ( < 2.36mm ) : limestone powder : asphalt = 120:240:14: 30. The content of added graphite particles ranged from 0% to 20% ( by the weight of asphalt concrete). A conductive asphalt concrete with a resistivity around 10-103O" m was obtained. Special attention was paid to the effects of graphite content, graphite physical-chemical properties, asphalt content and temperature on the resistivity. Furthermore, an attempt was made to develop an electrically conductive model for asphalt concrete. Keywords: conductiveasphalt concrete ; electrical properties ; resistivity; electrically conductive model


1 Introduction
Electrically conductive cement concrete is researched in the world for about ten years. Some remarkable achievements have been made in this field It-61 . It has been proved that conductive cement concrete is a multifunctional and smart material, which has an extensive application prospect. The self-sensing ability of strain danger and temperature could be used in structure vibration control, traffic monitoring, weight determination, building securing and so oni3'41; the thermoelectric behavior of conductive cement concrete can be used in deicing and building heating [5'63 . It is necessary to master the electrical properties of asphalt concrete due to its extensive applications. Compared with conductive cement concrete, conductive asphalt concrete is more complicated. The reason is that asphalt is a complex mixture of organic matters, whose resistivity ranges from 1011 to 1013~'m and the resistivity of asphalt concrete is as high as l07 to 109f2 9m. Hence both of them are electrical insulating materials. According to the basic theory of conductive polymer composite, conductive asphalt concrete with a resistivity around 10 - 103~2 9 m could be achieved by the addition of electrically conductive materials, such as graphite particles, carbon fibers, steel fibers [7- u l. Asphalt pavement has been extensively applied in expressway and runway of airfield. With the excellent electrical behavior, conductive asphalt concrete would have a profound effect on pavement deicing, damaged testing, highway traffic monitoring and so on. In this work, the electrical conduction behavior of asphalt cogcrete was studied with a focus on the effects of graphite WU Shao-peng(~~"~):Born in 1965;Prof. ;Key Laboratory for Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology,Wuhan 430070, China

content, graphite physico-chemical property, asphalt content and temperature on the resistivity. And the conductive mechanism was also exploited.

2 Experimental
2.1 Materials
(1) Graphite particles:crystallized graphite and microcrystalline graphite. The physico-chemical properties of graphite particles used are shown in Table 1. (2)Asphalt: heavy traffic asphalt A H - 70 made in Koch Asphalt Co. L t d ( H u b e i ) . Its major technical standards: penetration 65 ; ductility (5 ~ em) 167.3; soften point 51.5 ~ ( 3 ) Aggregate: basalt fine aggregate, max size is 4.75mm, devided into two type:between 2.36mm to 4.75ram and below 2.36mm. (4) Limestone powder: the primary chemistry compounds are 51.5 % CaO and 1.76 % SiO2 .
Table 1 The Physico-Chemical Property of Graphite Partides


Crystallized graphite 1.4 0.5 6.85 35 0.4

Microcrystalline graphite 1.11 0.21 8.35 60 1.2

Absorbingoil vahlef(ml' g-1)
S~facearearatia/(m2"g l) pH Diameter/~un Volatility/%

2.2 lows:

Methods (a) The mix proportion by weight is shown as fol-

Fine aggregates (2.36mm - 4.75mm) : fine aggregates ( < 2.36ram) : limestone powder: asphalt = 120:240 :14: 30. In order to make well-distributed graphite particles, the three-level mixing method was used for mixing of conductive asphalt concrete. The procedure is demonstrat-

70 Jottrn'. With 9% microerystalline graphite. (b) Resistivity determination : a r~istivity tester for insulating materials was used when the resistivity was over 10612.45 x 102~ 9 m.Mater.23~" m. the resistance was the product between the contact number in the direct current and the contact number resistance and the resistance is inversely proportional to the network number in the direct current.62 x 107~'m with 7% of microerystalline graphite particles. graphite particles should have a high-structured. Moreover crystallized graphite particles had a lower pH value than microcrystalline graphite particles. Beyond the critical content. When the graphite content in asphalt concrete increased to a critical content i. As an electrically conductive material. 2. Assuming in a cube. Formula (2) indicates that the main factors affecting the electrical conduction of asphalt concrete include diameter. By increasing crystallized graphite content to 3 %. The size of the specimen was O 50 x 45rrml. The resistivity with 5% crystallized gTaphite content was equal to that with 17% microcrystalline graphite content. it is seen that the resistivity of asphalt concrete with low graphite content was very high. the particles provide a high probability to contact each other and to form an electrically conductive network.J Crystallizedgraphitecontent/wt% Fig. adding adding laggregate~net~e"~ grap. contact resistance of graphite particles.31"I'm with 6% crystallized graphite content. So it has a less bad . beyond the critical content [5"9i .c ~ c a l property and graphite content on the resistivity The critical content of nficrocrystalline graphite particles was near 8%. the resistivity gradually decreased. l ~ " m. the resistivity reduced to 2.when it was below 106f2.h!teo p h a l t tact resistance between graphite particles governed the resistivity. 3 3. Increasing the content of graphite particles continuously.t ~ 8. Secondly. only to 6. With increasing the graphite content. having a larger special surface area and particle number per unit volume. which reduced to 5. H = height of the specimen . The results indicated that the most primary factor affecting the electrical conduction properties of asphalt concrete was the content of the graphite particles. Firstly. graphite content.0 ~ .a avometer can be used. R = resistance of conductive asphalt concrete.2 Effectof Graphite Content on 'lhe Resistivity Fig. S = ero~s section area of the specimen. (c) Reistivity calculation : The resistivity was calculated as follows: p= RS/H (1) where: p = resistivity of conductive asphalt concrete. specimen. Ed. The resistivity is 2.. large surface area ratio and an excellent surface chemistry -7-9. which showed that it has an excellent surface chemistry. the rate of resistivity varying with the graphite content became smooth. the absorbing oil volume of crystallized graphite particles was higher than that of miemerystalline graphite particles.~ graphite i 4.d of WtdaanUniversityof Technology.the resistivity declined rapidly. the resistivity could reach 1. Ro = Contact resistance between graphite particle. . the electrical network was already formed. Fig.~i. the electrical network[9'12~ was almost formed by aggregates. 2002 ed in Fig. 1. In asphalt concrete.96 x 107~ 9 m.3 L ) RoL a = (2) where: d = Diameter of graphite particle. l)ec. But the crystallized graphite particles were more effective on reducing the r~istivity. the resisitivity reached 1. When the crystallized graphite content reached 2 % . and then the con- The effect of the crystallized graphite particles on the resistivity was similar to the microcrystalline graphite particles. Vf = Volume percent of graphite particle.0 0.5% . +Microcrystalline graphite ~ --m--Crystallize. near the critical graphite content.. The resistivtity reduced slowly with the content of co'stallized graphite particles below 2%. the resistivity reduced to 3. 1 Results and Discussion Efl'ects of graphite p h y s i c o . the electrically conductive network of the graphite particles began to form. the resisitivity reduced obviously. When the content of graphite particles increased to 17%. the resistivity reduced to 5.2)( V f . the better the electrical conduction. for crystalline graphite content about 1. 1 E• procedure of conductiveasphalt concrete From Fig. L = Side of cube specimen. which showed that crystallized graphite [)'articles have a higher structure and a better opportunity to form an electrical network. 2 shows the effect of graphite content on the resistivity. So the electrical conductivity of asphalt concrete was calculated as follows: 4d 3(3L . e. When microcrystalline graphite content increases up to 8%. the resitivity of asphalt is higher than that of aggregate. Before the pemolation phenomenon appeared 75'6] .0 8 ' ~ ~.for micr~crystalline graphite content 7%.41 x 106~" m. and then the higher the graphite content. which was a narrowsudden-drop area.0 "~ 2.43 x 104~ 9 m.

.~/ 80~ --.. 11.4 Effectof temperatureon the resistivity .. The effect of temperature on the resistivity of conductive asphalt concrete containing micmerystalline graphite particles is shown in Fig. Moreover asphalt is a complex mixture of organic matters... High graphite content enhanced the thermal stability of the mixture. the conductive particles were not easy to move. a large number of electrically conductive passways was damaged. When the content of graphite particles increase.4 WU Shao-peng et al : Improvementof Electrical Properties of. 3. 17 No.. The conductive mechanism of asphalt concrete is explained mainly by the particles contact conductive theory and tunneling effectI~21. 4 ( a ) .. The test result of the resistivity with 4% graphite content at different asphalt contents is shown in Fig. the resistivity increased greatly to 257.. When the temperature increased continuously. 3.. ~ .3 71 effect on the electron transportation. the tuming-point did not appear up to 80~ In this ease.. the resistivity increased gently with the increase of asphalt content..2 Effect of asphalt content on the resistivity Asphalt content also was one of the primary factors affecting the resistivity of asphalt concrete.. 350.7 % asphalt content. A sudden change of the resistivity may appear when the expansion reaches to a certain extent. The resistivity is 4 .. When graphite content increases to some extent.0% '-~"'3. the gaps among the graphite particles reduce... and some of the particles contact together to form an electrical network.. A turning point appeared when temperature ascended to a certain degree. which would dramatically affect the resistivity. Hence... 300! a +10% ~-~.. which was 37 times of that with 5 % asphalt.. and the resistivity maintained an ascending tendency with the increase of temperature. Cl 3. which included some crystallized polymers.. some conductive pass-ways that had been dmnaged could be assembled again to form a new network. This effect become more obvious near the soften temperature of asphalt.-"r . and it was proportional to the temperature.Vol. the resistivity tended to reduce. When asphalt content was 8 %. graphite particles were easy to tranfer. The resistivity increased greatly. Accordingly..63 x 10212" m. ~ .4~2" m with 5 % and 7 % asphalt respectively.... the resistivity of the crystallized graphite asphalt concrete increased with temperature increase.. It is implied that the critical ratio of graphite particles to asphalt is about 1 : 2. 4 ~ " m . 00061 ~ .. ..r . Therefore. the resistivity of the asphalt concrete with 11% asphalt increased to 1. asphalt concrete shows a good conduction for the result that the electrical network of graphite particles formed. 3 Effectof asphalt content on the resistivity 100 . Of the two theories.11% -~:--12% A~ ~ . The volume expansion of asphalt may lead to the separation of the electrical network that already formed tight particle contact and then the resistivity increased with the temperature increase. the microerystalline graphite contents were much higher than that of the crystallized graphite.. By increasing asphalt content. the tunneling effect and the interface e n e r g y e f f e c t [7-9] . 0 q / / .. This phenomenon relates to the percolation effect..... graphite conductive asphalt concrete is perfect at first.. the turning-point were 25 ~ 35 ~ and 35 ~ respectively.4f2" m. 25oi 150 -20 0 20 40 Temperature/ "12 60 -20 0 ~ ' 0 . the conduction was mainly due to the tunneling effect. ~ "~ . the coefficient of thermal expansion of asphalt is 0..-.4 .. qtle resistivity of asphalt reduced with the temperature increasing firstly. From Fig. They have a larger coefficient of thermal expansion near the crystallization temperature.5% /AK~ Effect of temperature on the resistivity The resistivity of asphalt reduces with increasing temperature. When there are few graphite particles in asphalt concrete. the particles are separated by asphalt.. 4 (b).. Especially. 2OO 180 16o 140 120 too 80 60 40 2O I 5 6 7 8 9 l0 Asphalt contenl/wt% ll 12 Fig...1. For the asphalt concrete with 3 % . so the system is insulating. 3.5 % and 4 % crystallined graphite.. However. Within 5 % .. 3. When the gaps among graphite particles increased. 20 40 60 80 Temperature/'12 (a) Crystallizedgraphite (b) Microcrystallinegraphite Fig.

23 (6):366. The resistivity of microcrystalline graphite asphalt concrete continuously increased with the temperature. Plastics . 2 N Banthia. Cement and ConcreteResearch. The Study on the Electrical ConductivityModel of the Composite Conductive Fiber. ~ebeck Effect in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement. Re--Resistance of graphite particle.26(4) :529 . Polymer Materials Science & Engineering. Joarnal of Materials and Performance. Electrical Resistivityof Carbon and Steel Micro-fiber Reinforced Cement. Near critical graphite particle content.2001.. graphite particles acted as resistance bridges. 22 (5) :804 .30 Shui 7Jaonghe. m can be achieved by the addition of conductive materials such as graphite particles. However there was a turning point of resistivity with increase of temperature for crystallized graphite asphalt concrete. Cement and Concrete Research.d-cement Mortars.1625 S Wen and D D I. But crystallized graphite particles were more efficient in reducing resistivity. Electrical Conduction Behavior of Cement-matrix Composites. 5.814 S A Abo.204 S Wen and D D L Chung.25(6):1615. 1995.534 . ~ Chuangcheng. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology .29(1) :32 . 1999. Properties of Silicone Rubber Composite Filled With High-structured Conductive Carbon Black. Electrically conductive model of graphite asphalt concrete Dec. Electrical Conductivity of Concrete Containing Silica Fume.Mater. : ~. So the contact resistance of graphite particles determined the resistivity. d) The conductive mechanism of asphalt concrete mainly was explained by the particles contact conductive theory and tunneling effect. Northu~t Institute of Textile Sci.15(2) :231 . 1996. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 References 1 P J Tumi.1995. Therefore the resistivity and capacitance of gaps among graphite particles were the primary factors affecting the resistivity. Carbon Fiber-reinforced Cement as a Then'nistor.4 Journal of Wuhan Universityof Technology. The turning point appeared to be related to the content eft the crystallized graphite. we can conclude that a slight conductive effect ~curred in plain asphalt concrete (without graphite particles) by means of the aggregate network. 1998.Study on Conductive Plastics Filled by Cat.23(4):837 .19(10) :25 .15 (5):25-30 Zhen Kezheng. Chung.(~. -"-'. Cg--Capaci "tance of gap between graphite particles. Electrically conductive model of asphalt concrete is shown in Fig.72 3. b) The effect of crystallized graphite particles on the resistivity was similar to that of microcrystalline graphite particles. Below the critical content. a conductive network of graphite particles was formed. Beyond critical graphite particle content. Cement and Concrete Research. 2002 According to the test r~ults presented above. Cement and Concrete Research. Research on FFC Effect in Carbon/polymer Conducting Composites. 1992. which helped to reduee the contact resistance of aggregates.Materials Science Edition. temperature and content of asphalt can change the gaps and contacting states among graphite particles. c) The temperature had a remarkable effect on electrical conduction of the asphalt concretes. Sci.34 Yao Mu. nblack.2000. 1999. Electrical Conductivity of Portia'. Electric Properties of Carbon Black-Butadiene Nitrite Rubber Composites. Cement and ConcreteRa~_xtrch.2002. 29(6) :961 965 D D L Chung.215 Xuan Zhaolong. Study on The Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber-cement Comtx~site(CFCC). . Symha~/zeRubbet. 1999. Fxt. graphite particles were clo~ to each other and the tunneling effect formed. Content of graphite particles. 11(2): 194 . Rs--Resistivity of gap between graphite particles. 10(4) :38 41 4 Conclusions 3 4 a) Conductive asphalt concrete with the resistivity up to 10 ~2.2000.841 Wan Ying. and Tech.369.5 Electrically conductive model of graphite asphalt concrete Re--Contact resistance of graphite particles.Beyond critical graphite particle content I I ng Near critical graphite particle content Fig. Plastics.