RULES OF WORLD SINGLES SQUASH 2001

The Singles Rules for 2001 have been revised to reflect current Refereeing practises and to take into account
proposals of member nations. The general format of the previous Rules has been followed. The Rules are
followed by a set of Appendices which include Guidelines for the interpretation of the Rules. The Guidelines are
to be read in conjunction with the Rules.
An indication of the changes for 2001 is given below. As there are many changes a detailed summary would be
too long. Readers are referred to the full text where changes are underlined in bold type. An alternative version
without changes highlighted is available on request from WSE.
MA1OR CONCEPTUAL and RULE CHANGES
1. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.7.1. MINIMAL Interference added for which Referee`s decision is No
Let. Guideline G6 is expanded to include Minimal Interference.
2. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.7.2: A return to the pre 1997 wording. Players must '..make every effort
to get to and play the ball¨.
3. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.8.2: New wording legitimises the current practice that, if the opponent`s
position prevents a player`s reasonable swing, even after the opponent made every effort to clear, the
Referee shall award a stroke to the player. Guideline G7 is expanded to include application of this new
rule.
4. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.10: Stroke not awarded in the case of excessive swing.
5. Rule 9 - Ball hitting the opponent and a player turning. Rule completely rewritten. In particular:
5.1. Rule 9.1.2: New Rule. Referee`s decision changed. If the striker hits the opponent with the ball after
turning, the Referee awards a STROKE to the opponent - previously a let. (Striker can hold the shot
and ask for a let).
5.2. Rule 9.2.2: Interference on turning. Now the striker on turning can be allowed a let if the swing is
obstructed or awarded a stroke if the obstruction is deliberate.
5.3. Rule 9.2.3: Unnecessary turning. As used by the PSA.
6. Rule 10 - Eurther attempts. Re-formatted with new subsections. New 10.3 deals with interference on
further attempts.
7. Rule 13 - Lets. Additional wording added in the first paragraph emphasising that the Referee can ask a
player the reason for an appeal.
7.1. New Rule 13.1.3. adds a new provision that a stroke can be awarded if distraction interrupts a winning
return.
8. Rule 15 - Duties of the Players. New Rule which sets out players` responsibilities.
9. Rule 3 - The Warm-Up. Old 15.1 and 15.3 become new Rules 3.1 and 3.3. New subsection 3.2 dealing
with unfair warm-up and 3.4 dealing with warming up during or after an interval are added. Rule 3.1 no
longer allows players the option to remain on the same side after half time called.
10. Rule 16 - Bleeding, illness, disability and injury. Rule completely re-organised and rewritten.
11. Rule 19: Duties of the Marker. New Rule 19.2. Marker must call score without delay.
12. Rule 20: Duties of the Referee.
12.1. Addition to 20.1 emphasises that the Referee must speak loudly.
12.2. New Rule 20.2.3: Crowd control now included in Rule 20, previously part of G15.
13. Guidelines: Guidelines G4, G5, G6 and G7 rewritten in the light of new rules. New G14 on Bleeding,
Illness, Disability or Injury in line with the new Rule 16 and replacing old G2 and G15.
14. Appendix 2: New definitions for °crowding¨, °interval¨, °release¨, °reasonable swing¨, °service¨,
°shaping¨, °turning¨ and °warm-up¨.
REWORDING and REARRANGEMENTS
1. All rules converted to the active voice.
2. All Notes converted to Rule subsections.
3. New Rule 2 - THE SCORING - formed by merging old Rules 2 - The Score and 3 - Points.
4. Rule 4 - The Service. Rewritten in the positive sense.
5. Rule 11 - Appeals. New subsections 11.1.2.1, 11.1.2.2, 11.2.1.3, 11.2.2.1, 11.2.2.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5 and
11.6.
6. Old Guidelines G3 - 18 all renumbered G2 - G17.
7. New G18. - Marker`s Guidelines formed by merging old Guidelines G19 and G20.
8. New G19. - Referee`s Guidelines formed by merging old Guidelines G21 and G22.
9. New Appendix 6 - Protective Eyewear- renumbered old Appendix 10.
DELETIONS
1. All references to doubles Rules - Appendices 2.1.1, 2.2.1 and 6.1 deleted.
2. Old Appendix 9 - Clothing. Deleted - now included under new Rule 15.8.
3. Appendix 11 - Guidelines for Tournament Referees. Deleted - this is the subject of a separate WSE Rules
and Referees Committee booklet.
The WSE Rules Sub-committee of Graham Waters, Bruce Kettle and myself have been greatly assisted in this
review by the input of a number of people. All are sincerely thanked for their time, original ideas and reviews of
draft documents.
Don Ball
CONTENTS
RULES
Preface - Abbreviated Rules of Squash
1. The Game
2. The Scoring
2.1 Points
2.2 Games and matches
3. The Warm-up
3.1 Start of a match
3.2 Warming up fairly
3.3 Warming up the ball during an interval
3.4 Warming up the ball after an interval
4. The Service
4.1 Eirst server
4.2 Service box
4.3 Service action
4.4 Good service
4.4.1 Eoot fault
4.4.2 Not up
4.4.3 Eault or Down
4.4.4 Eault
4.4.5 Out
4.5 Service not good and Marker Calls
4.6 Calling the score
5. The Play
6. Good Return
6.1 Striking the ball correctly
6.2 Ball must strike front wall
6.3 Ball not out
7. Continuity Of Play
7.1 Suspending play
7.2 Interval between games and after warm-up
7.3 Change of equipment (G1)
7.4 Referee calls relating to time-intervals
7.5 Injury, illness or disability
7.6 Delaying play (G2)
7.7 Eallen object (G3)
7.7.1 Referee stops play
7.7.2 Player appeal
7.7.3 Player drops object
7.7.4 Object dropped by non-player
7.7.5 Winning return
7.7.6 Dropped object not noticed
7.8 Dropped racket
8. Winning A Rally
8.1 Service not good
8.2 Return not good
8.3 Ball touches non-striker (G4)
8.4 Referee awards stroke
9. Ball Hitting The Opponent And Player Turning
9.1 Striker hits ball - play ceases (G4)
9.1.1 Stroke to striker unless 9.1.2, 9.1.3
9.1.2 Turning - stroke to opponent
(G4, G5)
9.1.3 Eurther attempt - let (G5)
9.1.4 Side or back wall first - let unless
9.1.5
9.1.5 Winning return - stroke to striker
9.1.6 Return not good - stroke to
opponent
9.2 Turning
9.2.1 Eear of hitting opponent
9.2.1.1 Let
9.2.1.2 Good return not possible,
no let
9.2.2 Interference on turning
9.2.2.1 Let if striker obstructed
9.2.2.2 Stroke, interference not
avoided
9.2.2.3 Let not allowed - striker
unable to make good return
9.2.3 Unnecessary turning
10. Eurther Attempts To Hit The Ball
10.1 Ball touches opponent
10.1.1 Let - good return possible
10.1.2 Stroke to opponent - good return not
possible
10.2 Let if further attempt hits opponent
10.3 Interference on further attempt
10.3.1 Let provided good return possible
10.3.2 Stroke to striker - opponent
interference not avoided
10.3.3 No let if further attempt would not
be good
11. Appeals
11.1 On service
11.1.1 Server appeal
11.1.2 Marker non-call - receiver appeal
11.1.2.1 Service good - stroke to
server
11.1.2.2 Referee uncertain - let
11.2 On play other than service
11.2.1 Player appeal on Marker`s call
11.2.1.1 Let unless 11.2.1.2 or
11.2.1.3
11.2.1.2 Stroke to player if
Marker`s call interrupts
player`s winning return
11.2.1.3 Stroke to opponent if
Marker`s call interrupts
opponent`s winning return
11.2.2 Appeal for Marker failing to call
11.2.2.1 Return good - stroke to
striker
11.2.2.2 Referee uncertain - let
11.3 Appeal after service for prior occurrence
11.4 Multiple appeals
11.5 Service called, subsequently down or out
11.6 Subsequent shot down or out - Referee ruling
12. Interference
12.1 Player freedom from interference
12.2 Player freedoms defined
12.2.1 Direct access (G6)
12.2.2 Eair view
12.2.3 Ereedom to hit (G7)
12.2.4 Ereedom to play to the front wall
12.3 Interference defined
12.4 Excessive swing contributes to interference
12.5 Player appeal
12.5.1 Method of appeal 'let please¨ (G8)
12.5.2 Player appeal and timing (G9, G10)
12.6 Referee action
12.7 No let
12.7.1 No and minimal interference (G6)
12.7.2 Good return not possible or
insufficient effort (G6)
12.7.3 Played on past point of interference
12.7.4 Created interference (G11)
12.8 Stroke award
12.8.1 Interference, opponent effort
insufficient
12.8.2 Interference, opponent made every
effort but position prevents swing
12.8.3 Interference, opponent made every
effort, winning return prevented
(G7)
12.8.4 Interference, player refrains from
hitting the next return
12.9 Let allowed
12.10 Stroke not awarded if swing excessive
12.11 Let or stroke without appeal
12.12 Applying Rule 17 for interference
12.12.1 Physical contact (G12)
12.12.2 Dangerous excessive swing
13. Lets
13.1 Referee may allow let
13.1.1 Ball touches article on court
13.1.2 Shot held - fear of hitting opponent
(G7)
13.1.3 Distraction
13.1.4 Court conditions change
13.2 Referee shall allow let
13.2.1 Receiver not ready
13.2.2 Ball breaks in play
13.2.3 Referee uncertain of appeal
13.2.4 Good return lodges in court
13.3 Conditions for Referee allowing lets.
13.4 Conditions for allowing a let even if striker
attempts to hit
13.5 Appeal requirements
13.5.1 Player appeal necessary
13.5.2 Player appeal or Referee
intervention
14. The Ball
14.1 Substituting another ball
14.2 Ball breaks
14.3 Ball breaks without being noticed
14.3.1 Receiver appeals (G13)
14.4 Appeal on final rally of game
14.5 Player stops play to appeal
14.6 Ball remains on court
14.7 Warm-up after substitution
15. Duties Of The Players
15.1 Observe rules and spirit of the game
15.2 Ready to commence play
15.3 Not permitted placing articles within court
15.4 Not permitted leaving the court
15.5 Not permitted request change of officials
15.6 Deliberate distraction not allowed
15.7 Player`s method of appeal
15.8 Players complying with all regulations
16. Bleeding, Illness, Disability and Injury (G14)
16.1 Bleeding
16.1.1 Recurrence of bleeding
16.2 Illness or disability options
16.2.1 Resume play
16.2.2 Concede game
16.2.3 Concede match
16.3 Injury
16.3.1 Referee action
16.3.1.1 Self-inflicted
16.3.1.2 Contributed
16.3.1.3 Opponent-inflicted
16.3.2 Injury with bleeding Rule 16.1
applies
16.3.3 Decisions for injury without
bleeding
16.3.3.1 Self-inflicted
16.3.3.2 Contributed
16.3.3.3 Opponent-inflicted
16.4 Injured player resuming play early
16.5 Referee disallows claim of injury
16.6 Player conceding game
17. Conduct On Court
17.1 Referee required action
17.2 Offences (G15)
17.3 Referee applied penalties (G16)
17.3.1 Conduct Warning - let
17.3.2 Conduct Stroke
17.3.3 Conduct Stroke between rallies
17.3.4 Conduct Game
18. Control Of A Match
18.1 The Number of Officials (G17)
18.2 Officiating position
19. Duties Of A Marker
19.1 Calls (G18)
19.2 Calling the score without delay
19.3 After Marker calls, rally stops
19.4 Marker unsighted
19.5 Play stops without Marker calling
19.6 Marker keeps written record
20. Duties Of A Referee (G19)
20.1 Decide and announce all appeals
20.2 Referee control
20.2.1 Player appeals
20.2.2 Rules applied correctly
20.2.3 Crowd control
20.3 Referee intervention in calling the score
20.4 Referee intervention in calling the play
20.5 Time responsibility
20.6 Referee keeps a written record
20.7 Court condition responsibility
20.8 Awarding match player not present
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Official Guidelines
Introduction
G1 Change of Equipment
G2 Time-Wasting
G3 Eallen Object
G4 Player Hit by the Ball, including Turning and
Eurther Attempt
G5 Interference on Turning or Eurther Attempt
G6 Making Every Effort and Minimal
Interference
G7 Interference with the Swing and Reasonable
Eear of Hitting Opponent
G8 Method of Appeal
G9 Timing of Appeals
G10 Early Appeal
G11 Created Interference
G12 Significant or Deliberate Physical contact
G13 Broken Ball
G14 Bleeding, Illness, Disability or Injury
G15 Coaching
G16 Progression of Penalties
G17 Single Official
G18 Marker's Guidelines
G19 Referee`s Guidelines
Appendix 2 Definitions
Appendix 3 Standard Calls
Appendix 3.1 Marker`s Calls
Appendix 3.2 Referee`s Calls
Appendix 4 Elowcharts
Appendix 4.1 Referee`s Line of thinking
for Rule 12
Appendix 4.2 Referee`s decisions for
Rule 16
Appendix 5 Court and Equipment Specifications
Appendix 5.1 Court Dimensions
Appendix 5.2 Standard Ball
Appendix 5.3 Racket Dimensions
Appendix 6 Protective Eyewear
Appendix 7 Point-a-Rally Scoring
Appendix 8 Experimentation
Appendix 8.1 Officiating Systems
Appendix 8.2 Experimental Rules
PREFACE
ABBREVIATED RULES OF SQUASH
This ABBREVIATED VERSION of the World Singles Squash Rules is to help players to understand the basics.
All players should read the complete Rules. The Rule numbers in brackets in each heading refer to the
full Rules.
THE SCORING (Rule 2)
A match is the best of five games. Each game is to nine points, unless the score reaches eight-all. At eight-all the
receiver (non-server) has to choose to play either to nine points (known as "Set One") or to ten points (known as
"Set Two"). (There is no requirement that a player needs to be two points ahead to win a game).
Points are scored only by the server. When the server wins a rally he or she scores a point; when the receiver
wins a rally he or she becomes the server.
THE WARM-UP (Rule 3)
Before the start of a match, the two players are allowed up to 5 minutes (2½ minutes on each side) to 'warm-up¨
themselves and the ball on the match court.
When a ball has been changed during a match, or if the match has been resumed after some delay, the players
warm-up the ball to playing condition.
The ball may be warmed up by either player during any interval in the match.
THE SERVICE (Rule 4)
Play commences with a service. The player to serve first is decided by the spin of a racket. Thereafter, the server
continues serving until losing a rally, when the opponent becomes the server and the server becomes "hand out".
The player who wins the preceding game serves first in the next game.
At the beginning of each game and when the service changes from one player to the other, the server can serve
from either service box. After winning a rally the server then continues serving from the alternate box.
To serve a player stands with at least part of one foot on the floor within the service box. Eor a service to be
good, it is served directly onto the front wall above the service line and below the out line so that on its return,
unless volleyed, it reaches the floor within the back quarter of the court opposite to the server's box.
GOOD RETURN (Rule 6)
A return is good if the ball, before it has bounced twice on the floor, is returned correctly by the striker onto the
front wall above the tin and below the out line, without first touching the floor. The ball may hit the side walls
and/or the back wall before reaching the front wall.
A return is not good if it is 'NOT UP¨ (ball struck after bouncing more than once on the floor, or not struck
correctly, or a double hit); 'DOWN¨ (the ball after being struck, hits the floor before the front wall or hits the
tin) or 'OUT¨ (the ball hits a wall on or above the out line).
RALLIES (Rule 8)
After a good service has been delivered the players hit the ball in turn until one fails to make a good return.
A rally consists of a service and a number of good returns. A player wins a rally if the opponent fails to make a
good service or return of the ball or if, before the player has attempted to hit the ball, it touches the opponent
(including racket or clothing) when the opponent is the non-striker.
NOTE: AT ANY TIME DURING A RALLY A PLAYER SHOULD NOT STRIKE THE BALL IE THERE IS
A DANGER OE HITTING THE OPPONENT WITH THE BALL OR RACKET. IN SUCH CASES PLAY
STOPS AND THE RALLY IS EITHER PLAYED AGAIN ('A LET¨) OR THE OPPONENT IS PENALISED.
HITTING AN OPPONENT WITH THE BALL (Rule 9)
If a player strikes the ball, which, before reaching the front wall, hits the opponent, or the opponent`s racket or
clothing, play stops.
E If the return would have been good and the ball would have struck the front wall without first touching any
other wall, the striker wins the rally, provided the striker did not 'turn¨.
E If the ball either had struck, or would have struck, any other wall and the return would have been good, a let
is played.
E If the return would not have been good, the striker loses the rally.
TURNING (Rule 9)
If the striker has either followed the ball round, or allowed it to pass around him or her - in either case striking
the ball to the right of the body after the ball had passed to the left (or vice-versa) - then the striker has
'TURNED¨.
If the opponent is struck by the ball after the striker has turned, the rally is awarded to the opponent.
If the striker, while turning, stops play for fear of striking the opponent, then a let is played. This is the
recommended course of action in situations where a player wants to turn but is unsure of the opponent`s
position.
FURTHER ATTEMPTS (Rule 10)
A player, after attempting to strike the ball and missing, may make a further attempt to return the ball.
E If a further attempt would have resulted in a good return, but the ball hits the opponent, a let is played.
E If the return would not have been good, the striker loses the rally.
INTERFERENCE (Rule 12)
When it is his or her turn to play the ball, a player is entitled to freedom from interference by the opponent.
To avoid interference, the opponent must try to provide the player with unobstructed direct access to the ball, a
fair view of the ball, space to complete a swing at the ball and freedom to play the ball directly to any part of the
front wall.
A player, finding the opponent interfering with the play, can accept the interference and play on, or stop play. It
is preferable to stop play if there is a possibility of colliding with the opponent, or of hitting him or her with
racket or ball.
When play has stopped as a result of interference the general guidelines are:
E The player is entitled to a let if he or she could have returned the ball and the opponent has made every
effort to avoid the interference.
E The player is not entitled to a let (i.e. loses the rally) if he or she could not have returned the ball, or accepts
the interference and plays on, or the interference was so minimal that the player`s access to and strike at the
ball was not affected.
E The player is entitled to a stroke (i.e. wins the rally) if the opponent did not make every effort to avoid the
interference, or if the player would have hit a winning return, or if the player would have struck the
opponent with the ball going directly to the front wall.
LETS (Rule 13)
A let is an undecided rally. The rally does not count and the server serves again from the same box.
In addition to lets allowed as indicated in the paragraphs above, lets can be allowed in other circumstances. Eor
example, a let may be allowed if the ball in play touches any article lying on the floor, or if the striker refrains
from hitting the ball owing to a reasonable fear of injuring the opponent.
A let must be allowed if the receiver is not ready and does not attempt to return the service, or if the ball breaks
during play.
CONTINUITY OF PLAY (Rule 7)
Play is expected to be continuous in each game once a player has started serving. There should be no delay
between the end of one rally and the start of the next one.
In between all games an interval of 90 seconds is permitted.
Players are permitted to change items of clothing or equipment if necessary.
BLEEDING, IN1URY AND ILLNESS (Rule 16)
If an injury occurs which involves bleeding, the bleeding must be stopped before the player can continue. A
player is allowed a reasonable time to attend to a bleeding wound.
If the bleeding was caused solely by the opponent`s action, the injured player wins the match.
If the bleeding recurs no further delay is allowed, except that the player can concede a game, using the 90
second period between games to attend to the wound and stop the bleeding. If unable to stop it, the player must
concede the match.
Eor an injury not involving bleeding, it must be decided whether the injury was either caused by the opponent or
self inflicted or contributed to by both players.
E If caused by the opponent, the injured player wins the match if any recovery time is needed.
E If self-inflicted, the injured player is allowed 3 minutes to recover and must then play on, or concede a
game using the 90 second rest period between games to recover.
E If contributed by both players, the injured player is allowed an hour to recover.
A player who is ill must play on or can take a rest period by conceding a game and using the 90 second interval
to recover. Cramps, feeling sick and breathlessness (including asthma) are considered illnesses. If a player
vomits on court, the opponent wins the match.
DUTIES OF PLAYERS (Rule 15)
Rule 15 provides guidelines for players. Eor example 15.6 states that deliberate distraction is not allowed.
Players should read this rule in full.
Some of the 8 sub-sections deal with situations related to matches under the control of officials
(Referee/Marker). The use of officials is not covered in this abbreviated version.
CONDUCT ON COURT (Rule 17)
Offensive, disruptive or intimidating behaviour in squash is not acceptable.
Included in this category are: audible and visible obscenities, verbal and physical abuse, dissent, abuse of racket,
court or ball, unnecessary physical contact, excessive racket swing, unfair warm-up, time-wasting, late back on
court, deliberate or dangerous play or action and coaching (except between games).
1
WORLD SQUASH SINGLES RULES 2001
NOTE
The use of the word "shall" in the rules indicates compulsion and the lack of any alternative. The word "must"
indicates a required course of action with considerations to be taken into account if the action is not carried out.
The word "may" indicates the option of carrying out or not carrying out the action.
Words or terms in italics are used with a specific meaning as defined in Appendix 2.
1. THE GAME
The game of Singles Squash is played between two players, each using a racket, with a ball and in a
court, all three of which meet WSE specifications (see Appendix 5).
2. THE SCORING
2.1 Only the server scores points. The server, on winning a rally, scores a point; the receiver,
on winning a rally, becomes the server.
2.2 A match shall consist of the best of three or five games at the option of the organisers of the
competition. The player who scores nine points wins the game, except that on the score
reaching eight-all for the first time, the receiver shall choose, before the next service, to
continue that game either to nine points (known as "Set one") or to ten points (known as "Set
two"). In the latter case the player who scores two more points wins the game. The receiver
shall clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee and the opponent.
The Marker shall call "Set one" or "Set two" as applicable before play continues.
The Marker shall call "Game ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the
game in progress or "Match ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the
match.
3. THE WARM-UP (see definition in Appendix 2)
3.1 Immediately preceding the start of play both players shall be allowed onto the court of play
for a period of five minutes to warm-up together.
After two and a half minutes of the warm-up, the Referee shall call "Half time" and the
players shall change sides unless they have already done so. The Referee shall also advise
the players when the warm-up period is complete with the call of "Time".
3.2 In the warm-up both players must have equal opportunities of striking the ball. A player
retaining the strike for an unreasonable time is warming up unfairly. The Referee shall
decide when the warm-up is unfair and apply Rule 17.
3.3 Either player may warm the ball up during any interval.
3.4 The players may warm the ball up to playing condition after any interval at the
discretion of the Referee.
4. THE SERVICE
4.1 Play commences with a service and the spin of a racket decides the right to serve first.
Thereafter, the server continues to serve until losing a rally, whereupon the opponent
becomes the server and this procedure continues throughout the match. At the commencement
of the second and each subsequent game the winner of the previous game serves first.
4.2 At the beginning of each game and each hand the server shall choose from which box to
serve and thereafter shall serve from alternate boxes while remaining the server. However, if a
rally ends in a let, the server shall serve again from the same box.
2
If the server moves to the wrong box, or either player is uncertain of the correct box for
serving, the Marker shall announce the correct box. The Referee shall rule on the
correct box if the Marker is uncertain or incorrect, or there is a dispute.
4.3 To serve, a player shall release the ball from either a hand or the racket and then strike
it. Should the player make no attempt to strike it after that release, the player shall
release the ball again for that service.
4.4 A service is good if all the conditions in Rules 4.4.1 - 4.4.5 are met:
4.4.1 the server has part of one foot in contact with the floor within the service box
without any part of that foot touching the service box line (part of that foot may
project over this line if it does not touch the line) at the time of striking the ball;
4.4.2 the server, after releasing the ball for service, strikes it correctly on the first or
further attempt before the ball falls to the floor, touches a wall, or touches
anything the server wears;
4.4.3 the server strikes the ball directly onto the front wall between the service and
out lines;
4.4.4 unless volleyed by the receiver, the first bounce of the ball on the floor is in the
quarter court opposite the server's box without touching the short or half court
lines;
4.4.5 the server does not serve the ball out.
4.5 A service which does not meet the requirements of Rules 4.4.1 - 4.4.5 is not good and the
Marker shall make the appropriate call.
The calls are: °foot-fault¨ for Rule 4.4.1
°not up¨ for Rule 4.4.2
°fault¨ for Rule 4.4.3 if the ball strikes a side wall first or the front wall
on or below the service line but above the board
°down¨ for Rule 4.4.3 if the ball strikes on or below the board or on the
floor
°fault¨ for Rule 4.4.4
°out¨ for Rule 4.4.5
A service in which the ball is considered to have struck the front wall and a side wall
simultaneously is not good and is called °fault¨.
4.6 The server must not serve until the Marker has completed calling the score. The Marker
must call the score without delay. If the server serves or attempts to serve prior to the
Marker completing the calling of the score, the Referee shall stop play and require the
server to wait until the Marker has completed calling the score.
5. THE PLAY
After the server delivers a good service, the players return the ball alternately until one fails to make a
good return, the ball otherwise ceases to be in play in accordance with the rules, a player appeals, or
the Marker or Referee makes a call.
6. GOOD RETURN
A return is good if all the conditions in Rules 6.1 - 6.3 are met.
6.1 The striker returns the ball correctly before it has bounced twice on the floor.
6.2 The ball strikes the front wall above the board, either directly or via side wall(s) and/or the
back wall, without first touching the floor or any part of the striker's body or apparel, or the
opponent's racket, body or apparel.
6.3 The ball is not out.
3
7. CONTINUITY OF PLAY
After the server delivers the first service, play shall be continuous so far as is practical. However,
7.1 at any time the Referee may suspend play owing to bad light or other circumstances beyond
the control of the players and officials, for such period as the Referee shall decide. The score
shall stand. If another court is available and the original court remains unsuitable for play, the
Referee may transfer the match to it.
7.2 There shall be a 90 second interval between the end of the warm-up and the commencement
of the first game and between all games. Players may leave the court during these intervals
but must be ready to play prior to the expiry of the 90 second interval.
By mutual consent of the players, play may commence or resume prior to the expiry of the 90
second interval.
(G1) 7.3 If a player satisfies the Referee that a change of equipment, clothing or footwear is necessary,
the player may leave the court to effect the change as quickly as possible but must do so
within 90 seconds.
7.4 When 15 seconds of a permitted 90 second interval remain the Referee shall call "Eifteen
seconds" to advise the players to be ready to resume play. At the end of 90 seconds the
Referee shall call "Time".
It is the responsibility of the players to be in a position to hear the calls of "Eifteen seconds"
and "Time".
Should one or both players not be ready to resume play when °Time¨ is called, the
Referee shall apply Rule 17.
7.5 If a player is injured, ill or disabled the Referee shall apply Rule 16.
(G2) 7.6 The Referee, on deciding that a player has delayed play unreasonably, shall apply Rule
17.
(G3) 7.7 If an object, other than a player's racket, falls to the floor of the court while a rally is in
progress the requirements are:
7.7.1 the Referee, on becoming aware of a fallen object, shall stop play immediately;
7.7.2 a player becoming aware of a fallen object may stop play and appeal.
7.7.3 If the object falls from a player, that player shall lose the rally, unless Rule 7.7.5
applies or the cause is a collision with the opponent. In the latter case the Referee
shall allow a let, unless the player appeals for a let because of interference in which
case the Referee shall apply Rule 12.
7.7.4 If the object falls from a source other than a player, the Referee shall allow a let
unless Rule 7.7.5 applies.
7.7.5 If the player has already made a winning return when the object falls to the floor, that
player shall win the rally.
7.7.6 If a dropped object remains unnoticed until the end of the rally, the result of the rally
shall stand.
(G3) 7.8 If a player drops a racket, the Referee shall allow the rally to continue, unless interference
occurred (Rule 12), the ball touched the racket (Rule 13.1.1), distraction occurred (Rule
13.1.3), or the Referee applies a conduct penalty (Rule 17).
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8. WINNING A RALLY
A player wins a rally if:
8.1 the opponent fails to deliver a good service (Rule 4.4);
8.2 the opponent fails to make a good return (Rule 6), unless the Referee allows a let or awards a
stroke to the opponent;
(G4) 8.3 the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried), without interference, when
the opponent is the non-striker, except as is otherwise provided for in Rules 9 and 10. If
interference occurs then the provisions of Rule 12 apply. In all cases the Referee shall make
the decision;
8.4 the Referee awards a stroke to the player as provided for in the Rules.
9. BALL HITTING THE OPPONENT AND A PLAYER 1URAIAG
(G4) 9.1 If the striker hits the ball which, before reaching the front wall, hits the opponent
(including anything worn or carried), play shall cease. The Referee, in addition to
considering possible infringement of Rule 17, shall assess the ball`s trajectory and shall:
9.1.1 award a stroke to the striker if the return would have been good and the ball
would have struck the front wall without first touching any other wall, unless
Rule 9.1.2 or 9.1.3 applies;
(G4 & G5) 9.1.2 if the striker turned, award a stroke to the opponent, unless the opponent made
a deliberate movement to intercept the return, in which case the Referee shall
award the stroke to the striker;
(G5) 9.1.3 if the striker`s return is a further attempt, allow a let, provided that Rule 9.1.2
does not apply;
9.1.4 allow a let if the ball either had struck or would have struck any other wall
before the front wall and the return would have been good, unless Rule 9.1.5
applies;
9.1.5 if deciding the return would have been a winning return, award a stroke to the
striker;
9.1.6 award a stroke to the opponent if the return would not have been good.
(G5) 9.2 If the striker turns:
9.2.1 the striker may, before striking the ball, out of fear of hitting the opponent with
the ball, stop and appeal. The Referee shall:
9.2.1.1 allow a let, if deciding that there was a reasonable fear of the ball
hitting the opponent and the striker would have been able to make a
good return unless Rule 9.2.3 applies or
9.2.1.2 not allow a let, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good
return.
9.2.2. The striker may, because of interference, stop play and appeal. The Referee
shall:
9.2.2.1 allow a let, if deciding that the striker is unable to complete an attempt
to play the ball because of interference by the opponent or
9.2.2.2 award a stroke to the striker, if deciding that the opponent did not
make every effort to avoid the interference on turning, or
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9.2.2.3 not allow a let, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good
return regardless of the interference.
9.2.3 The Referee shall not allow a let if deciding that the act of turning was to create
the opportunity to appeal rather than an attempt to return the ball.
10. FURTHER ATTEMPTS TO HIT THE BALL
If the striker attempts to strike the ball and misses, the striker may make further attempts.
10.1 If, after being missed, the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried), the
Referee shall:
10.1.1 allow a let, if deciding that the striker could otherwise have made a good return, or
10.1.2 award a stroke to the opponent, if deciding that the striker could not have made a
good return.
10.2 The Referee shall allow a let if any such further attempt is successful but results in a
good return being prevented from reaching the front wall by hitting the opponent,
including anything worn or carried.
10.3 The striker may, because of interference on the further attempt, stop play and appeal.
The Referee shall:
10.3.1 allow a let, if the striker is unable to complete a further attempt to play the ball
provided a good return was possible; or
10.3.2 award a stroke to the striker, if deciding that the opponent did not make every
effort to avoid the interference on the further attempt; or
10.3.3 not allow a let, if deciding that the further attempt would not have resulted in a
good return.
11. APPEALS
The loser of a rally may appeal against any decision of the Marker affecting that rally.
A player should preface any appeal under Rule 11 by saying "Appeal please". Play ceases when a
player appeals. The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an
explanation.
If the Referee disallows an appeal under Rule 11, the Marker's decision shall stand. If uncertain, the
Referee shall allow a let, except where the provisions of Rules 11.2.1, 11.5 or 11.6 apply.
Appeals and Referee interventions in specific situations are dealt with below (see also Rule 20.4).
11.1 Appeals on Service.
11.1.1 If the Marker makes a call of "Foot-fault", "Fault", "Not up", "Down" or "Out"
to the service, the server may appeal. If the Referee upholds the appeal, the
Referee shall allow a let.
11.1.2 If, after the service, the Marker makes no call, the receiver may appeal, either
immediately or at the end of the rally. The Referee, if certain that the service was
not good, shall, without waiting for an appeal, stop play and award a stroke to
the opponent. In response to an appeal the Referee shall:
11.1.2.1 if certain the service was good, award a stroke to the server.
11.1.2.2 if uncertain, allow a let.
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11.2 Appeals on Play other than Service.
11.2.1 A player may appeal if the Marker calls "Not up", "Down" or "Out" following that
player's return. The Referee, if upholding the appeal or uncertain whether the
Marker`s call was correct, shall:
11.2.1.1 allow a let, unless Rule 11.2.1.2 or 11.2.1.3 apply;
11.2.1.2 award a stroke to the player, if the Marker's call interrupted that
player's winning return;
11.2.1.3 award a stroke to the opponent, if the Marker's call has interrupted
or prevented a winning return by the opponent.
11.2.2 If the Marker fails to call "Not up", "Down" or "Out" following a player's return, the
opponent may appeal either immediately or at the end of the rally. The Referee, if
certain that the return was not good, shall, without waiting for an appeal, stop
play and award a stroke to the opponent. In response to an appeal the Referee
shall:
11.2.2.1 if deciding the return was good, award a stroke to the player;
11.2.2.2 if uncertain, allow a let.
11.3 After the delivery of a service neither player may appeal for anything which occurred
before that service, except as Rule 14.3 provides.
11.4 When the loser makes more than one appeal concerning a rally, the Referee shall
consider each appeal.
11.5 If a player appeals the Marker's call of "Footfault", "Fault", "Not up", "Down" or
"Out" to a service but that same service subsequently is clearly a fault, not up, down or
out, the Referee shall rule only on the subsequent occurrence.
11.6 If a player appeals the Marker's call of "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to a return but that
same return subsequently is clearly down or out, the Referee shall rule only on the
subsequent occurrence.
12. INTERFERENCE
12.1 The player whose turn it is to play the ball is entitled to freedom from interference by the
opponent.
12.2 To avoid interference the opponent must make every effort to provide the player with:
(G6) 12.2.1 unobstructed direct access to the ball after completion of a reasonable follow-
through;
12.2.2 a fair view of the ball on its rebound from the front wall;
(G7) 12.2.3 freedom to hit the ball with a reasonable swing;
12.2.4 freedom to play the ball directly to any part of the front wall.
12.3 Interference occurs if the opponent fails to fulfil any of the requirements of Rule 12.2, even
though the opponent makes every effort to fulfil those requirements.
12.4 A player`s excessive swing can contribute to interference for the opponent when it
becomes the latter's turn to play the ball.
12.5 A player encountering possible interference has the choice of continuing to play or of stopping
and appealing to the Referee.
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(G8) 12.5.1 A player seeking a let or a stroke should appeal by saying °Let please¨.
(G9, G10) 12.5.2 Only the player whose turn it is to play the ball may appeal. The player must
appeal either immediately the interference occurs or, when clearly not
continuing play beyond the point of interference, without undue delay.
12.6 The Referee shall decide on the appeal and shall announce the decision with the words "No
let", "Stroke to (name of player or team)", or "Yes let" (see flowchart in Appendix 4.1).
The Referee alone makes all decisions, which are final. The Referee, if uncertain of the
reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.
12.7 The Referee shall not allow a let and the player shall lose the rally if the Referee decides:
(G6) 12.7.1 there was no interference or the interference was so minimal that the player`s fair
view of the ball and freedom to get to and play the ball were not affected;
(G6) 12.7.2 interference occurred but either the player would not have made a good return or the
player has not made every effort to get to and play the ball;
12.7.3 the player moved past the point of interference and played on;
(G11) 12.7.4 the player created the interference in moving to the ball.
12.8 The Referee shall award a stroke to the player if:
12.8.1 there was interference, which the opponent did not make every effort to avoid, and
the player would have made a good return;
(G7) 12.8.2 there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, but the
opponent`s position prevented the player`s reasonable swing and the player
would have been able to make a good return;
(G7) 12.8.3 there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, and the
player would have made a winning return;
12.8.4 the player refrained from hitting the ball which, if hit, would clearly have struck the
opponent going directly to the front wall; or to a side wall but in the latter case would
have been a winning return (unless in either case turning or further attempt applies).
12.9 The Referee shall allow a let if there was interference, which the opponent made every effort
to avoid, and the player would have made a good return.
12.10 The Referee shall not award a stroke to a player who causes interference with an
excessive swing.
12.11 The Referee may allow a let under Rule 12.9 or award a stroke under Rule 12.8 without an
appeal, if necessary stopping play to do so.
12.12 The Referee may also apply Rule 17 when interference occurs. The Referee shall, stopping
play if it has not already stopped, apply an appropriate penalty if:
(G12) 12.12.1 the player made significant or deliberate physical contact with the opponent;
12.12.2 the player endangered the opponent with an excessive swing.
13. LETS
In addition to lets allowed under other rules, the Referee may or shall allow lets in certain other cases.
A player should request a let by saying "Let please". The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for
an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.
13.1 The Referee may allow a let if:
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13.1.1 the ball in play touches any article lying on the floor (see Rule 15.3);
(G7) 13.1.2 the striker refrains from hitting the ball onto any of the walls including the back
wall owing to a reasonable fear of injuring the opponent;
13.1.3 the Referee determines that an occurrence on or off the court distracted either
player. A player appealing for distraction must do so immediately the distraction
occurs. Notwithstanding the above the Referee may award a stroke to a player who
has been distracted if that player could have played a winning return but for the
distraction;
13.1.4 the Referee determines that a change in court conditions affected the result of the
rally.
13.2 The Referee shall allow a let if:
13.2.1 the receiver is not ready and does not attempt to return the service;
13.2.2 the ball breaks during play;
13.2.3 the Referee is unable to decide an appeal;
13.2.4 a player makes an otherwise good return but either the ball lodges in any part of the
playing surface of the court, preventing it from bouncing more than once on the floor,
or the ball goes out after its first bounce.
13.3 If the striker appeals for a let under Rules 13.1.1 to 13.1.4, the Referee shall allow a let only
if the striker can make a good return. Eor a non-striker appeal under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3 and
13.1.4 this is not a requirement.
13.4 If the striker attempts to play the ball, the Referee may still allow a let under Rules 13.1.1,
13.1.3, 13.1.4 and 13.2.2.
13.5 The appeals requirements of Rule 13 are:
13.5.1 a player`s appeal is necessary for the Referee to allow a let under Rules 13.1.2
(striker only), 13.1.3, 13.2.1 (receiver only) and 13.2.3;
13.5.2 a player`s appeal or Referee intervention without appeal is applicable to Rules
13.1.1, 13.1.4, 13.2.2 and 13.2.4.
14. THE BALL
14.1 At any time, when the ball is not in actual play, either player or the Referee may examine
the ball. The Referee may substitute another ball by mutual consent of the players, or on
appeal by either player.
14.2 If a ball breaks during play, the Referee, after confirming it is broken, shall replace it
promptly with another ball.
14.3 If the ball breaks during play without being noticed during the rally, the Referee shall
allow a let for the rally in which the ball broke, if the server appeals prior to the next service
or if the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return that service.
(G13) 14.3.1 If the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return service and the Referee
decides the ball broke during that service, the Referee shall allow a let for that
rally only, but if uncertain shall allow a let for the previous rally.
14.4 The provisions of Rule 14.3 do not apply to the final rally of a game. In that case a player
must appeal immediately after the rally.
14.5 If a player stops during a rally to appeal that the ball is broken, only to find subsequently that
the ball is not broken, then that player shall lose the rally.
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14.6 The ball shall remain within the court at all times, unless the Referee permits its
removal.
14.7 When the Referee has substituted another ball or when the players resume a match after
some delay, the Referee shall allow the players to warm the ball to playing condition.
Play shall then resume on the direction of the Referee, or by mutual consent of the
players, whichever is earlier.
15. DUTIES OF THE PLAYERS
15.1 The players must observe all the Rules and the spirit of the game. Failure to do so could
bring the game into disrepute and Rule 17 may be applied.
15.2 Players must be ready to commence play at the announced starting time of the match.
15.3 Players are not permitted to place within the court any object(s), clothing or equipment.
15.4 Players are not permitted to leave the court during a game without the permission of the
Referee. If they do the Referee may apply Rule 17.
15.5 Players are not permitted to request a change of Marker or Referee.
15.6 A player must not deliberately distract the opponent. If this occurs the Referee shall
apply Rule 17.
15.7 Players should preface appeals by saying °Let please¨ or °Appeal please¨ according to
the circumstances. Pointing with the finger or racket, other gestures, raised eyebrows or
other eye activity are not universally recognised methods of appeal.
15.8 Players must comply with any additional competition regulations (e.g. the clothing
requirements of the tournament), as well as those contained in the Rules.
(G14) 16. BLEEDING, ILLNESS, DISABILITY AND IN1URY (see flowchart in Appendix 4.2)
16.1 Bleeding: The Referee shall immediately stop play when any player has visible bleeding,
an open wound or blood-stained clothing. Before allowing play to continue the Referee
shall require that the bleeding be stopped, the wound covered and any blood-stained
clothing changed, allowing such time as is reasonable and necessary and is available on
the tournament schedule.
If the bleeding was caused solely by the opponent, the Referee shall immediately award
the match to the player.
16.1.1 Recurrence of bleeding: If the bleeding recurs, for which recovery time has
already been allowed, the Referee shall allow no further recovery time except
that the player may concede the game in progress and use the 90 second interval
between games for recovery. If the visible bleeding continues at the end of this
90 second interval the player shall concede the match. A player may only
concede one game for one 90 second interval.
If the covering of the bleeding wound falls off or is removed during the match,
thereby exposing the wound, the Referee shall consider this to be a recurrence of
the bleeding, unless all sign of bleeding has ceased.
16.2 Illness or Disability: A player suffering illness or disability not involving bleeding has the
following options:
16.2.1 resuming play without delay;
16.2.2 conceding the game in progress, accepting the 90 second interval, or
16.2.3 conceding the match.
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Symptoms of tiredness, alleged illness, or disability not reasonably evident to the
Referee, or recurrence of pre-existing ailments, including injuries sustained earlier in the
match, shall be dealt with under this Rule 16.2. This includes cramps of any kind, actual
or impending nausea and breathlessness, including asthma. The Referee shall inform the
players of the decision and the requirements of the rules.
16.3 Injury:
16.3.1 If a player claims that an injury has occurred, the Referee must be satisfied that
the injury is genuine and, if so, decide the category of injury, informing the
players of the decision and of the requirements of the rules. The player is only
entitled to recovery time immediately after the injury occurred.
The categories are:
16.3.1.1 self-inflicted, where the opponent did not contribute to the injury;
16.3.1.2 contributed, where the opponent accidentally contributed to or
accidentally caused the injury. The Referee shall not interpret the
words "accidentally contributed to or accidentally caused by" to
include the situation where a player is crowding the opponent;
16.3.1.3 opponent-inflicted, where the opponent solely caused the injury.
16.3.2 If the injury involves bleeding, Rule 16.1 shall apply until the bleeding has
stopped. Subsequently Rule 16.3.3 applies.
16.3.3 If bleeding is not involved the following rules shall apply:
16.3.3.1 for a self-inflicted injury (Rule 16.3.1.1) the Referee shall allow 3
minutes for the injured player to recover. The Referee shall call
°Time¨ at the end of the 3 minute period after giving a 15 second
warning. If the player requests additional recovery time beyond 3
minutes, the Referee shall require the injured player to concede one
game, accept the 90 second time interval between games and then
resume play or concede the match. If the injured player has not
returned to the court when °Time¨ is called, the Referee shall award
the match to the opponent;
16.3.3.2 for a contributed injury (Rule 16.3.1.2) the Referee shall allow one
hour for the injured player to recover and such additional time as the
time-schedule of the competition permits. The Referee shall call
°Time¨ at the end of any recovery time allowed. The injured player
must, by the end of this period, resume play or concede the match. If
the injured player resumes play, the score at the conclusion of the
rally in which the injury occurred shall stand;
16.3.3.3 for an opponent-inflicted injury (Rule 16.3.1.3) the Referee shall apply
Rule 17 and if the injured player requires time to recover, the Referee
shall award the match to the injured player.
16.4 If an injured player, having been granted a period of recovery time, wishes to resume
play prior to the expiry of that time, the Referee shall permit the opponent sufficient
time to prepare to resume play.
16.5 If a player claims injury and the Referee is not satisfied that an injury has occurred, the
Referee shall require the player to resume play; or concede one game, accept the time
interval available and then either resume play or concede the match.
16.6 If conceding the game, the player shall retain any points already scored and at the
conclusion of the 90 second interval between games shall either resume play or concede
the match.
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17. CONDUCT ON COURT
17.1 If the Referee considers that a player`s behaviour is disruptive, intimidating or offensive to
the opponent, an official or a spectator, or could in any way bring the game into disrepute,
the Referee shall penalise the player.
(G15) 17.2 Offences with which the Referee shall deal under this rule include audible and visible
obscenities, verbal and physical abuse, dissent to Marker or Referee, abuse of racket, ball or
court and coaching, other than during the interval between games. Other offences include
significant or deliberate physical contact (Rule 12.12.1), excessive racket swing (Rule 12.4),
unfair warm-up (Rule 3.2), late back on court (Rule 7.4), dangerous play or action (Rule
16.3.1.3) and time-wasting (Rule 7.6).
(G16) 17.3 The Referee shall apply one of the following penalties for these and any other offences.
Warning (called a Conduct Warning).
Stroke awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Stroke).
Game awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Game).
Match awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Match).
17.3.1 If the Referee stops play to give a Conduct Warning, the Referee shall allow a
let.
17.3.2 During a rally, if an incident occurs warranting the award of a Conduct Stroke,
the Referee shall stop play, if it has not already ceased, and award a stroke.
Application of the Conduct Stroke becomes the result of the rally.
17.3.3 If the Referee awards a Conduct Stroke as a result of an incident between
rallies, the result of the completed rally stands and the Conduct Stroke award is
additional to the score but without further change of service box.
17.3.4 If the Referee awards a Conduct Game, that game shall be the one in progress
or the next game if one is not in progress. In the latter case the interval between
games shall not apply. The offending player shall retain any points already
scored in the game awarded.
18. CONTROL OF A MATCH
(G17) 18.1 A Referee, assisted by a Marker, normally controls a match. Although the Referee may
undertake the duties of the Marker as well, the WSF recommends that separate officials
carry out the two roles.
18.2 The correct location for the Referee and Marker is at the centre of the back wall, as close
to that wall as possible, above the out line on the back wall and preferably with seating.
19. DUTIES OF A MARKER
(G18) 19.1 The Marker shall call the play, followed by the score, with the server's score called first. The
Marker shall call services and returns which are not good using the recognised calls of
"Eault", "Eoot-fault", "Not up", "Down", "Out", "Hand-out" and "Stop" (see Appendix 3.1) as
appropriate and shall repeat the Referee's decisions.
19.2 At the end of the rally the Marker shall call the score without delay and after the Referee
has decided any appeals.
19.3 If the Marker makes a call, the rally shall cease.
19.4 The Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall make no call.
19.5 If play ceases without the Marker having made a call, the Marker, if unsighted or uncertain,
shall advise the players and the Referee shall make the relevant decision. If also uncertain, the
Referee shall allow a let.
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19.6 The Marker shall keep a written record of the score and the correct side for service.
(G19) 20. DUTIES OF A REFEREE
20.1 The Referee shall rule on all appeals, make decisions where the Rules call for them and
shall decide all appeals against the Marker's calls or lack of calls. The decision of the Referee
shall be final.
The Referee must announce all decisions to the players on the court and must make all
calls in a voice loud enough to be heard on the court and in the gallery.
20.2 The Referee shall exercise control:
20.2.1 when one of the players appeals, including an appeal against any specification;
20.2.2 to ensure that all relevant rules are applied correctly;
20.2.3 when the behaviour of any spectator, official, manager or coach is disruptive to
the play or offensive to the players, officials or spectators. The Referee shall
suspend play until the disruption has ceased and, if necessary, shall require the
offending person(s) to leave the court area.
20.3 The Referee shall not intervene in the Marker's calling of the score unless the Referee decides
that the Marker has called the score incorrectly. In that case the Referee shall correct
the score and the Marker shall repeat the corrected score.
20.4 The Referee shall not intervene in the Marker's calling of the play unless the Referee decides
that the Marker has made an error in stopping play or allowing play to continue, in which case
the Referee shall immediately rule accordingly.
20.5 The Referee shall enforce all Rules relating to time.
20.6 The Referee shall keep a written record of the score and the correct side for service.
20.7 The Referee is responsible for ensuring that court conditions are satisfactory for play.
20.8 The Referee may award a match to a player whose opponent is not present on court, ready to
play, within ten minutes after the announced time of play.
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APPENDIXES
APPENDIX 1 - GUIDELINES ON RULES INTERPRETATIONS
Guideline numbers are referenced in the rules
INTRODUCTION
The over-riding principle governing the Rules of Squash and their interpretation is to allow a fair result to each
match. This requires that the Referee implement the rules fairly for both players throughout the match.
The Guidelines should be read in conjunction with the Rules and have been approved by the World
Squash Federation.
G1. CHANGE OF EQUIPMENT
In order to prevent one player from gaining an unfair rest interval through a change of equipment, the
Referee, before allowing a player to leave the court to make the change, shall be satisfied that there has
indeed been a material deterioration of the equipment.
The preference for another racket, or a different pair of shoes where no physical deterioration is
evident, is not sufficient reason for the player to change that equipment. The player may leave the
court to effect the change as quickly as possible and must do so within 90 seconds.
If a player's glasses break or a player loses a contact lens, that player is permitted 90 seconds, after
which the player must resume play.
If a player is unable to resume play because of lack of alternative equipment, the Referee shall award
the match to the opponent.
G2. TIME-WASTING
Time-wasting is an attempt by one player to gain an unfair advantage over the opponent. Prolonged
discussion with the Referee and slow preparation to serve or receive service are examples. The Referee
shall apply Rule 17 when this occurs.
While excessive ball-bouncing prior to service is time-wasting, it does not constitute serving the
hand out.
Players should be aware that during the 90 second intervals, the Referee's call of "Eifteen seconds" is
advice for them to return to court. A player who is not ready to resume play on the call of "Time" is
gaining an unfair advantage and the Referee shall apply Rule 17.
G3. FALLEN OB1ECT
Rule 7.7 makes it clear that, if any object falls (or is thrown) to the floor of the court, play must cease.
Since an injury may occur if a player treads on any object of significant size or texture, the
Referee or Marker shall halt play with the word "Stop", or the player(s) may stop and appeal. If
the fallen object is unnoticed by players and Officials until the end of the rally and the Referee
judges there has been no effect on the outcome of the rally, the result of the rally shall stand
(Rule 7.7.6).
Players are responsible for retaining their equipment. As a general rule, a player who drops or
throws a piece of equipment will lose a stroke. Exceptions are equipment falling as a result of a
collision when the Referee may allow a let or award a stroke depending on whether the player
has hit a winning return. If the collision results in an appeal for interference, Rule 12 will take
precedence.
If a player drops a racket without colliding with the opponent, the Referee shall allow the rally to
continue under most circumstances. It is considered that the player is already at a significant
disadvantage, as the player must pick up the racket to remain in the rally.
14
The Referee shall deal with a player`s deliberate dropping or throwing of an object to the floor of
the court under Rule 17.
G4. PLAYER HIT BY THE BALL INCLUDING TURNING AND FURTHER ATTEMPT
If the ball hits the non-striker the Referee shall make a decision in all cases and the Marker's call is not
required until after the Referee has made this decision.
If the ball, coming from the front wall, hits the non-striker without interference occurring, the non-
striker loses a stroke unless further attempt applies (Rule 10). The definition of "Attempt" makes it
clear that even a fake swing of the racket or feint at the ball is an attempt, but racket preparation
comprising only backswing with no racket movement towards the ball is not an attempt.
Rules 9 and 10 cover the various situations in which the ball going to the front wall hits the non-
striker.
If the ball hits the striker (without interference) the striker loses the rally and the Marker shall call
"Not up", because the striker has not struck the ball correctly. The Referee need not make a
decision unless the Marker fails to make a call.
When the ball strikes either player and interference occurred, the Referee shall apply Rule 12.
In deciding to play the ball on turning, a player must ensure that the return will not hit the opponent. If
the player does hit the opponent with the ball after turning, the Referee shall award a stroke to the
opponent, unless the opponent made a deliberate movement to prevent a good return reaching the
front wall, in which case the Referee shall award a stroke to the striker.
G5. INTERFERENCE ON TURNING OR A FURTHER ATTEMPT
When a player turns or makes a further attempt to play the ball, the opponent still has an
obligation to make every effort to provide the player with freedom to sight the ball and to get to
and play the ball as provided for in Rule 12. However, the act of turning or of recovering for a
further attempt is often so quick that the opponent does not have a reasonable opportunity to
clear before the interference occurs. In such cases, the Referee shall allow a let. Conversely, if the
opponent had ample time to clear but made no effort to do so, or deliberately moved thereby
creating the interference, the Referee shall award a stroke to the player.
When a player shapes to play the ball on one side and then brings the racket across the body to take the
ball on the other side, it is neither turning nor making a further attempt and, if interference occurs,
Rule 12 applies. This position frequently occurs after the ball has hit the side wall and the front wall
simultaneously and then rebounds into the middle of the court.
G6. MAKING EVERY EFFORT AND MINIMAL INTERFERENCE
The opponent must make every effort to clear the ball after playing a return. The opponent`s route
should allow the player unobstructed direct access to the ball, provided the player has not moved in
to play the ball so quickly as to block the opponent`s exit. In the latter case the Referee shall allow a
let, unless the player could not have made a good return, in which case the Referee shall not
allow a let.
However, it is equally important for the player to make every effort to get to and play the ball. If the
player does not make every effort to get to and play the ball, that is a significant factor in the Referee's
assessment of whether or not that player could have reached the ball and made a good return.
The Referee shall decide the degree of effort that the player should make to demonstrate "making
every effort". This does not give the player the right to abuse the opponent physically and the
Referee shall penalise significant or deliberate physical contact under Rule 12 or Rule 17.
When a player appeals for a let, having encountered some interference, the Referee, when
deciding that the interference had no effect on that player`s sighting of the ball and freedom to
get to and play the ball, shall not allow a let. This is minimal interference and includes situations
in which: the opponent crossed the flight of the ball very early in its trajectory from the front
wall but still allowed the player time to sight the ball; the player brushed past the opponent on
15
the way to the ball without affecting the player`s direct access; and the racket swing brushed the
opponent, the opponent`s clothing or racket without affecting the racket`s swing.
However, when interference has occurred, the Referee shall not refuse a let in situations in which the
player was clearly making every effort (albeit short of physical contact with the opponent) to get to and
play the ball and had demonstrated to the Referee the ability to reach the ball.
G7. INTERFERENCE WITH THE STRIKER`S SWING AND REASONABLE FEAR OF
HITTING THE OPPONENT
Rule 12.2.3 allows the striker 'freedom to hit the ball with a reasonable swing¨. If the striker stops
play because of the opponent not granting this freedom and appeals, the Referee shall consider
following options:
1. If the opponent is too close and has prevented the striker`s reasonable swing and is hit or
would have been hit with the racket, the Referee shall award a stroke to the striker.
2. If the striker stops play as a result of slight racket contact with the opponent, who is
making every effort to clear, the Referee shall allow a let. This is different from the
minimal interference described in G6. The amount of contact must be sufficient to affect
the player`s swing, but insufficient to prevent it.
3. If the striker stops play for fear of hitting the opponent and the opponent, though close
to, does not prevent the striker`s reasonable swing, the Referee shall allow a let under
rule 13.1.2 - reasonable fear of injury. As long as the opponent does not prevent a
reasonable swing, a let is the appropriate decision.
4. If the striker stops play for fear of hitting the opponent and the opponent is well clear of
the reasonable swing, the Referee shall not allow a let, as the striker has judged the
opponent`s position incorrectly.
G8. METHOD OF APPEAL
The correct method of appeal when interference or Rule 13 instances have occurred is to say
"Let please" and for other occurrences under Rule 11 is to say "Appeal please".
Players sometimes use other forms of appeal including a raised hand or racket, especially when
communication between players and Referee is difficult. A Referee accepting any form of appeal other
than the standard "Let please¨ or 'Appeal please¨ must be satisfied that the player is actually making
an appeal.
G9. TIMING OF APPEALS
The timing of an appeal on interference is important.
In the case of an appeal concerning fair view and freedom to hit the ball directly to the front wall
(commonly known as "crossing the flight"), the Referee shall consider the situation at the time the
player could have hit the ball.
In the case of interference on backswing, the appeal must be immediate and before the player makes
any attempt to play the ball. Any attempt to hit the ball after backswing interference has occurred
indicates that the striker has accepted the interference and thus forfeits the right of appeal.
If there is interference in the act of playing the ball, which includes a reasonable backswing, hit
and reasonable follow-through, an appeal is justified. The Referee shall consider whether the
opponent was crowding and not allowing freedom to play the ball in deciding whether to allow a let
or to award a stroke.
If a player appeals for not being ready to receive service, the Referee shall allow a let, unless
deciding the player delayed play unnecessarily. In the latter case the Referee could apply Rule 17.
16
G10. EARLY APPEAL
If a player makes an appeal for interference before the result of the opponent`s return is known, this is
regarded as an early appeal. If a player makes an early appeal and the opponent`s return subsequently
goes down or out, the Referee shall allow the result of the rally to stand, the player winning the
rally.
When the opponent appeals for a let for interference before the player has completed a
reasonable follow through, this is also regarded as an early appeal. In this case the opponent has
no right of appeal and the Referee shall not award a let.
G11. CREATED INTERFERENCE
At all times an opponent must allow the player unobstructed direct access to play the ball.
However, sometimes the situation arises in which the opponent has caused no interference (i.e. the
opponent has clearly provided the required direct access) but the player takes an indirect route to the
ball which takes the player towards, or very close to, the opponent's position. The player then appeals
for a let because of being "obstructed" in access to the ball.
If there is no genuine reason for this indirect route, the player has created the interference where none
otherwise existed and, if the player appeals, the Referee shall not allow a let. Whether the player could
make a good return is not a consideration - in order to remain in the rally the player must get to and
play the ball.
This is different from two situations in which a player, in attempting to recover from a position of
disadvantage, does not have direct access to the ball. In the first situation the player is "wrong-
footed" and anticipates the opponent hitting the ball one way, starts moving that way, but having
guessed wrongly, changes direction to find the opponent in the way. In this situation the Referee shall
allow the player a let on appeal if the recovery is sufficient to demonstrate the player would have
made a good return. In fact, if the opponent prevents the incoming player from playing a winning
return, the Referee shall award a stroke to that player.
Secondly, if a player plays a poor return that gives the opponent a position of advantage, the Referee
shall allow the player a let only if, in taking the direct line to the ball for the next return, the Referee
determines that, but for the interference, that player would have been able to get to and play the ball.
G12. SIGNIFICANT OR DELIBERATEPHYSICAL CONTACT
Significant or deliberate physical contact is both detrimental to the game and potentially dangerous.
In blatant cases the Referee shall stop the rally and award the appropriate penalty. Where the player
"pushes off" the opponent and this has no significant effect on the opponent, the Referee shall allow
the rally to continue and give a warning to that player at the end of the rally. Where there is a
significant effect, the Referee shall stop play and apply Rule 17.
G13. BROKEN BALL
When the receiver, without attempting to return the service, appeals that the ball is broken, the
Referee will normally allow a let for that rally. However, if the Referee considers that the ball
broke in the previous rally, the Referee shall allow a let for the previous rally. This also applies if
the service is not good.
G14. BLEEDING, ILLNESS, DISABILITY or IN1URY
1. If a player has visible bleeding, the Referee shall require the player to leave the court
immediately. The Referee shall not permit play to resume while the bleeding is visible. The
Referee shall permit recovery time for bleeding according to Rule 16.1. A player, unable
to stop bleeding within the total time the Referee permits, shall either concede one game to
17
gain a further 90 seconds and then continue play without bleeding, or concede the match.
If a player's clothing has become blood-stained as a result of the injury, the player shall
change that clothing before resuming play.
If the bleeding recurs after recovery time has been allowed, the Referee shall allow no
further recovery time, except that the player may concede the game in progress and use
the interval between games to recover.
2. A player suffering illness or disability on court has the option, except where blood is visible,
of completing the game in progress or of conceding that game or the match.
A player who does not wish to concede the match, but who requires recovery time or who
needs to leave the court, shall concede the game. After informing the Referee, the player shall
take the 90 second interval between games for recovery, then be ready to play; or concede the
match. The player may concede only one game.
If a player vomits or otherwise makes the court unplayable, the Referee shall award the
match to the opponent, irrespective of whether the sick player is able to resume play (Rule
17.). The Referee's decision with regard to court conditions is final.
In the case of symptoms of tiredness, alleged injuries not reasonably evident to the Referee or
pre-existing ailments, the Referee shall not permit recovery time (except that the Referee
shall allow the player concerned the option of conceding one game to take the 90 second
interval between games and then resume play). Included in this category are cramps,
whether abdominal pains or muscle cramps, actual or impending nausea and breathlessness
including asthmatic conditions.
3. If a player is injured the Referee, after confirming that the injury is genuine, shall advise
the players of the requirements of the Rules, inform the players of the category of the
injury and shall ascertain the player's intentions regarding a resumption of play.
When a player suffers a self-inflicted injury, i.e. an injury which clearly does not involve the
opponent as described in Rule 16.3.1.1, the Referee shall allow the recovery time permitted
in Rule 16.3.3.1. Such an injury could be the result of a blow, especially to the face or head, as
a result of the player colliding with the walls or floor, or a possible muscle tear or sprained
joint causing the player to stop suddenly.
It is the responsibility of the injured player to be back at the court when the Referee calls
"Time", either to resume play, or to request an extension of recovery time, if required, in the
case of an injury which is still bleeding. If the player is not present when "Time" is called the
Referee shall award the match to the opponent.
The player shall make the decision to resume play. The Referee's role is to decide whether
an injury exists, to apply and monitor time-intervals and to apply the Rules when the total
allocated recovery time has elapsed.
G15. COACHING
Coaching of players is permitted only during the interval between games. Coaching does not include
brief comments of encouragement between rallies that clearly have no effect on the continuity of play.
The Referee shall decide whether comments are permissible encouragement or improper
coaching.
The use of external communication aids is prohibited.
The Referee may penalise coaching in any form during play by applying Rule 17 to the player being
coached.
G16. PROGRESSION OF PENALTIES
The penalties available to the Referee under Rule 17 are:
18
Warning (called a Conduct Warning).
Stroke awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Stroke).
Game awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Game).
Match awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Match).
The guidelines for applying the penalties are as follows:
When the Referee imposes the first penalty for a particular offence, it should be a warning, stroke,
game or match depending on the seriousness of the offence. However, any subsequent penalty for the
same type of offence for the same player should not be less severe than the previous penalty for that
offence. Thus the Referee may award more than one warning or stroke for the same type of offence if
the Referee decides that the offence does not warrant a more severe penalty.
When issuing penalties the Referee shall use the following terminology:
Conduct warning (player or team's name) for (Offence).
Conduct stroke (player or team's name) for (Offence), stroke to (opponent or opposing team's name).
Conduct game (player or team's name) for (Offence), game to (opponent or opposing team's name).
Conduct match (player or team's name) for (Offence), match to (opponent or opposing team's name).
The Marker shall repeat only that part of the Referee's decision that affects the score.
G17. SINGLE OFFICIAL
If it is not possible to have two Officials for a match, a single Official acts as Marker and Referee. The
Official calls the play and the score as Marker and answers appeals as Referee.
When there is a single Official, the decisions which the Referee normally makes directly - such as
when the ball strikes a player or answering appeals under Rule 12 - present no problems.
However, there are limitations in the appeals process related to the Marker`s decisions.
Specifically a Marker making an affirmative call (e.g. "Out") is unlikely, as Referee, to reverse
that decision on appeal. On the other hand, in the event of the Marker`s failure to call (e.g. a
suspected service fault) an appeal may be worthwhile because the Referee's response shall be
either "Good" or "Uncertain". In the latter case the Referee shall allow a let.
G18. MARKER'S GUIDELINES
The Marker shall call services and returns that are not good as soon as they occur using the
appropriate call, thereby stopping the rally.
The correct order of calls is:
1. Anything affecting the score.
2. The score with the server's score always called first.
3. Comments on the score:
Examples are:
"Not up, hand-out, 4-3."
"Down, 8-all, set one, game ball."
"Out, 8-all, set two."
"Yes let, 3-4."
"No let, hand-out, 5-7."
"Stroke to Jones, 8-2, match ball."
"Eoot fault, hand-out, love-all."
"Eault" (appeal by server, Referee uncertain). "Yes let, 8-3, game ball."
Match introduction:
"Smith serving, Jones receiving, best of 5 games, love-all."
End of a game:
"9-7, game to Smith. Smith leads one game to love."
"10-9, game to Smith. Smith leads two games to love."
"9-3, game to Jones. Smith leads two games to one."
"9-4, game to Jones, two games all."
"10-8, match to Smith, 9-7, 10-9, 3-9, 4-9, 10-8."
19
Start of subsequent game:
"Smith leads one game to love, love-all."
"Smith leads two games to one, 1ones to serve, Love-all"
"Two games all, Smith to serve, love-all."
After award of Conduct penalty:
"Stroke to Smith, 7-2".
"9-7, game to Jones, two games all".
G19. REFEREE`S GUIDELINES
Addressing the players: Officials should use the player`s surname/family name, rather than the
given name, when addressing players. This eliminates any appearance of
familiarity that players or spectators could interpret as favouritism.
Explanations: Eollowing an appeal by a player, the Referee normally gives the decision
and play resumes. However, on some occasions, it may be appropriate to
explain the decision to the players. In those cases the Referee may give a
concise explanation following the decision. It is helpful to the players if the
Referee uses the terminology of the appropriate rule when explaining a
decision.
20
APPENDIX 2 - DEFINITIONS
APPEAL A player's request for the Referee to make a ruling. "Appeal" is used in two
contexts: -
1) To request the Referee to allow a let, or award a stroke;
2) To request the Referee to review the Marker's decision.
The correct form of appeal by a player is "Appeal please" or "Let please".
ATTEMPT The movement of the racket from a backswing position towards the ball.
BOARD The lowest horizontal marking on the front wall, with the tin beneath it covering the
full width of the court.
BOX (SERVICE) A square area in each quarter court bounded by part of the short line, part of the side
wall and by two other lines and from within which the server serves.
COMPETITION A championship tournament, league or other competitive match.
CORRECTLY The ball being hit by the racket, held in the hand, not more than once and without
prolonged contact on the racket.
CROWDING The situation of an opponent standing too close to the striker and not allowing
freedom to play the ball.
DOWN The term used to indicate that an otherwise good service or return has struck the
floor before reaching the front wall, or has struck the board or tin before striking
the floor. ("Down" is also a Marker's call).
GAME Part of a match, commencing with a service and concluding when one player`s
score reaches nine or ten points in accordance with the rules.
GAME BALL The state of the score when the server requires one point to win the game in
progress. ("Game ball" is also used as a Marker's call).
HALF-COURT
LINE
A line on the floor parallel to the side walls, dividing that part of the court between
the short line and the back wall into two equal parts and meeting the short line at its
midpoint to form the "T".
HALF TIME The midpoint of the warm-up ("Half time" is also used as a Referee's call).
HAND The period from the time a player becomes server until becoming receiver.
HANDOUT Condition when a change of server occurs. ("Hand-out" is also used as a Marker's
call to indicate that a change of server has occurred).
INTERVAL A time-period prescribed by the Rules for a delay in play.
LET An undecided rally. If the Referee allows a let, neither player wins a stroke for
that rally and the server shall serve again from the same box.
MATCH The complete contest between two players, commencing with the warm-up and
concluding at the end of the final rally.
MATCH BALL The state of the score when the server requires one point to win the match. ("Match
ball" is also used as a Marker's call).
NOT UP The expression used to indicate that a player did not strike the ball in accordance
with the Rules. "Not up" applies when either the player did not strike the ball
correctly, or the ball bounced more than once on the floor before the striker hits it,
or the ball touched the striker or anything worn or carried other than the racket, or
the server made one or more attempts to strike the ball but failed to do so. ("Not up"
is also a Marker's call).
OFFICIALS The Marker and the Referee.
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OUT The term used to indicate that either the ball has struck the out line, or a wall above
the out line, or the ceiling, or any fitting attached to the ceiling and/or the wall above
the out line or the ball has passed through any fitting attached to the ceiling and/or
the wall above the out line. In addition, on courts which are not fully enclosed, the
ball has passed over the out line and out of the court without touching any wall or, if
no out line is provided, passed over any wall and out of the court. ("Out" is also a
Marker's call).
OUT LINE A continuous line comprising the front wall line, both side wall lines and the back
wall line and marking the top boundaries of the court.
Note: When a court is constructed without such a line, i.e. the walls comprise only
the area used for play, or without part of such a line (e.g. a glass back wall) and the
ball in play strikes part of the horizontal top surface of such a wall and deflects back
into court, the ball is out. The Marker shall make the decision in the normal manner,
subject to the player`s appeal to the Referee.
POINT A unit of the scoring system. The Marker adds one point to a player's score when
that player is the server and wins a rally or is awarded a stroke.
QUARTER
COURT
One of two equal parts of the court bounded by the short line, the back wall and the
half court line.
RALLY A service only, or a service and any number of returns of the ball, ending when a
player cannot make a good return, a player appeals, the Marker makes a call or
the Referee stops play.
RELEASE A player`s action to drop or throw the ball from a hand or a racket for service.
REASONABLE
BACKSWING
A player's action to move the racket away from the body to prepare for a swing
towards the ball. A backswing is reasonable if it is not excessive. An excessive
backswing is one in which the player's racket arm is extended towards a straight arm
position and/or the racket is extended with the shaft approximately horizontal. The
Referee shall decide whether a backswing is reasonable or excessive.
REASONABLE
FOLLOW-
THROUGH
A player's action continuing the movement of the racket after it has contacted the
ball. A follow-through is reasonable if it is not excessive. An excessive follow-
through is one in which the player's racket arm is extended towards a straight arm
position with the racket also extended with the shaft horizontal, particularly when the
extended position is maintained for other than a moment. An excessive follow-
through is also one in which the arm extended towards a straight position takes a
wider arc than the continued line of flight of the ball. The Referee shall decide
whether a follow-through is reasonable or excessive.
REASONABLE
SWING
This consists of a reasonable backswing, strike at the ball and reasonable
follow-through.
SERVICE A player`s action to put the ball into play at the commencement of a rally.
SERVICE LINE A line on the front wall between the board and the out line, extending the full
width of the court.
SHAPING The preparation of the racket prior to making an attempt.
SHORT LINE A line on the floor extending the full width of the court.
SPECIFIED The description given to balls, rackets and courts that meet existing WSE
specifications.
STRIKER The player whose turn it is to hit the ball after it has rebounded from the front wall,
or who is in the process of hitting the ball, or who - up to the point of the return
reaching the front wall - has just hit the ball.
STROKE An award by the Referee which results in the player winning the rally, thereby
scoring a point if serving or becoming the server if receiving.
22
TIN The area below the board, covering the full width of the court, which should be
constructed of a material that makes a distinctive sound when struck by the ball.
TURNING
(TURNS,
TURNED)
The action of the striker when the ball is followed around and the striker
physically turns, or the ball is allowed to pass around the striker who, in either
case, strikes the ball to the right of the body after the ball has passed to the left
(or vice-versa).
TOURNAMENT/
CHAMPIONSHIP
REFEREE
The person given overall responsibility for all marking and refereeing matters
throughout the tournament, including the appointment and replacement of Officials
to matches. (See WSF booklet 'Guidelines for Tournament Referees¨ for a full
description.)
WARM-UP The time allowed, immediately preceding the start of play, for the players to
prepare themselves on the match court and to warm the ball to playing
condition.
23
APPENDIX 3.1 - MARKER'S CALLS
The recognised Marker's calls are defined below.
Calls made by the Marker as referred to in Rule 19 DUTIES OF A MARKER
FAULT To indicate that the service is a fault. See Rules 4.4.3 and 4.4.4.
FOOT-FAULT To indicate that the service is a foot-fault. See Rule 4.4.1.
NOT UP To indicate that the player did not strike the ball in accordance with the Rules. (See
Definition in Appendix 2).
DOWN To indicate that an otherwise good service or return has struck the floor before
reaching the front wall or has struck the board or tin. (See Definition in Appendix 2).
OUT To indicate that an otherwise good service or return has gone out. (See Definition in
Appendix 2).
HAND OUT To indicate that the server has become the receiver, i.e. a change of server has
occurred. (See Definitions in Appendix 2).
STOP To stop play as appropriate when the Referee has failed to do so and other calls are not
relevant.
Calls made by the Marker as referred to in Rule 2 THE SCORING
4-3 An example of the score. The server's score is always called first, thus in this example
the server leads by four points to three. If points are equal the wording used is "all"
(e.g. "love-all").
SET ONE To indicate that the game in progress is to be played to nine points after the score has
reached 8-all (called once only in any game).
SET TWO To indicate that the game in progress is to be played to ten points after the score has
reached 8-all (called once only in any game).
GAME BALL To indicate each time it occurs that the server requires one point to win the game in
progress. See Definitions "GAME BALL".
MATCH BALL To indicate each time it occurs that the server requires one point to win the match. See
Definitions "MATCH BALL".
Calls made by the Marker as referred to in Rule 19 DUTIES OF A MARKER
(Repeating Referee Decisions).
YES LET, LET Repeating the Referee`s decision that a rally is to be replayed.
STROKE TO
(PLAYER or
TEAM NAME)
Repeating the Referee`s decision to award a stroke to that player or team.
NO LET Repeating the Referee`s decision that an appeal for a let is disallowed.
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APPENDIX 3.2 - REFEREE'S CALLS
The recognised Referee`s calls are defined below
STOP To stop play.
TIME To indicate that a period of time prescribed in the rules has elapsed.
HALF TIME To advise players of the midpoint of the warm-up period.
YES LET When allowing a let, following a player's appeal for a let.
NO LET When disallowing a player's appeal for a let.
STROKE TO
(PLAYER or
TEAM)
To advise that the player or team named is being awarded a stroke.
FIFTEEN
SECONDS
To advise the player(s) that fifteen seconds of a permitted interval remain.
LET To advise that a rally is to be replayed in circumstances where the wording "Yes let" is
not applicable. May be accompanied by an explanation.
CONDUCT
WARNING
To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee is
giving a warning.
CONDUCT
STROKE
To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee has
awarded a stroke to the opponent.
CONDUCT
GAME
To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee has
awarded a game to the opponent.
CONDUCT
MATCH
To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee has
awarded the match to the opponent.
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APPENDIX 4.1 - Flowchart: Referee`s line of thinking for Rule 12
INTEREERENCE
Decision Rule
Did interference occur?
¨
NO NO LET 12.7.1
WYES
Was the interference minimal?
¨
YES NO LET 12.7.1
WNO
Could the obstructed player have got to the ball
and made a good return and was that player
making every effort to do so?
¨
NO NO LET 12.7.2
WYES
Did the obstructed player move p ast the point of
interference and play on?
¨
YES NO LET 12.7.3
WNO
Did the obstructed player create the interference
in moving to the ball?
¨
YES NO LET 12.7.4
WNO
Did the opponent make every effort to avoid
interference?
¨
NO STROKE to
player
12.8.1
WYES
Did the interference prevent the player`s
reasonable swing?
¨
YES STROKE to
player
12.8.2
WNO
Could the obstructed player have made a
winning return?
¨
YES STROKE to
player
12.8.3
WNO
Would the obstructed player have struck the
opponent with the ball going directly to the front
wall or if going to a side wall would it have been
a winning return?
¨
YES
STROKE to
player
12.8.4
§ NO YES LET 12.9
26
APPENDIX 4.2 - Flowchart: Referee`s decisions under Rule 16
BLEEDING, ILLNESS, DISABILITY or IN1URY.
Incident Referee action
Recovery
time
Decision Rule
Bleeding
Stop play. Allow time to staunch bleeding, cover
wound or change clothing. Allow play to continue,
once bleeding stopped.
Referee
discretion
Allot time 16.1
Bleeding
recurrence
Stop play. Award game and allow 90 second interval
between games.
None Award game
to opponent.
16.1.1
W
Bleeding
unstoppable
If after 90 second interval between games bleeding
continues Referee awards the match.
None Award
match to
opponent.
16.1.1
Illness or
disability
Require the player to play on, concede the game,
taking the 90 second interval between games, or
concede the match
None
directly
Player
decides
16.2
Injury Confirm injury is genuine. Decide category of injury,
announcing this to players.
Decide
category
16.3
Either:
Self-inflicted Allow initial recovery time. 3 minutes Allow time 16.3.3.1
W
If additional recovery time is required, award that
game to the opponent and allow 90 second interval.
90 sec Award game 16.3.3.1
Or:
Contributed Allow recovery time. One hour Allot time 16.3.3.2
W
If additional time is required, consider tournament
schedule.
Referee
discretion
Allot time 16.3.3.2
Or:
Opponent
inflicted
Apply Rule 17. If player unable to continue award the
injured player the match.
None
Rule 17
penalty,
award match
16.3.3.3
27
APPENDIX 5.1 - DESCRIPTION AND DIMENSIONS OF A SINGLES COURT
DESCRIPTION
A Squash Court is a rectangular box with four vertical walls of varying height; being the Eront Wall, Side Walls
and Back Wall. It has a level floor and a clear height above the court area.
DIMENSIONS
Length of court between playing surfaces ...........................................................................9750 mm
Width of court between playing surfaces ............................................................................6400 mm
Diagonal ............................................................................................................................11665 mm
Height above floor to lower edge of Eront Wall Line .........................................................4570 mm
Height above floor to lower edge of Back Wall Line .........................................................2130 mm
Height above floor to lower edge of Service Line on Eront Wall .......................................1780 mm
Height above floor to upper edge of Board ...........................................................................480 mm
Distance to nearest edge of Short Line from Back Wall .....................................................4260 mm
Internal dimensions of Service Boxes .................................................................................1600 mm
Width of all lines and the Board .............................................................................................50 mm
Minimum clear height above the floor of the court .............................................................5640 mm
NOTES
1. The Side Wall Line is angled between the Eront Wall Line and the Back Wall Line.
2. The Service Box is a square formed by the Short Line, the Side Wall and two other lines marked on the
floor.
3. The length, width and diagonal of the court are measured at a height of 1000 mm above the floor.
4. It is recommended that the Eront Wall Line, Side Wall Line, Back Wall Line and Board are shaped so
as to deflect any ball that strikes them.
5. The Board shall not project from the Eront Wall by more than 45 mm.
6. It is recommended that the door to the court is in the centre of the Back Wall.
7. The general configuration of a Squash Court, its dimensions and its markings are illustrated on the
diagram.
CONSTRUCTION
A Squash Court may be constructed from a number of materials providing they have suitable ball rebound
characteristics and are safe for play; however, the WSE publishes a Squash Court Specification which contains
recommended standards. The standards must be met for competitive play as required by the appropriate
National Governing Body of Squash.
28
SQUASH COURT DIMENSIONS DIAGRAM
29
APPENDIX 5.2 - SPECIFICATIONS OF A STANDARD YELLOW DOT SQUASH BALL
The following specification is the standard for a yellow dot ball to be used under the Rules of Squash.
Diameter (millimetres) 40.0 ¹ or - 0.5
Weight (grams) 24.0 ¹ or - 1.0
Stiffness (N/mm) ¸ 23 degrees C. 3.2 ¹ or - 0.4
Seam Strength (N/mm) 6.0 minimum
Rebound Resilience - from 100 inches/254 centimetres
¸ 23 degrees C. 12% minimum
¸ 45 degrees C. 26% - 33%
NOTES
1. The full procedure for testing balls to the above specification is available from the WSE. The WSF
will arrange for testing of balls under standard procedures if requested.
2. No specifications are set for faster or slower speeds of ball, which may be used by players of greater or
lesser ability or in court conditions which are hotter or colder than those used to determine the yellow
dot specification. Where faster speeds of ball are produced they may vary from the diameter and weight
in the above specification of a standard yellow dot squash ball. It is recommended that balls bear a
permanent colour code or marking to indicate their speed or category of usage. It is also recommended
that balls for beginners and improvers conform generally to the rebound resilience figures below.
Beginner Rebound resilience ¡ 23 degrees C not less than 17º
Rebound resilience ¡ 45 degrees C 36º to 38º
Improver Rebound resilience ¡ 23 degrees C not less than 15º
Rebound resilience ¡ 45 degrees C 33º to 36º
Specifications for balls currently fulfilling these requirements can be obtained from the WSF on
request
The speed of balls may also be indicated as follows
Super slow - Yellow Dot
Slow - White Dot or Green Dot
Medium - Red Dot
East - Blue Dot
3. Yellow dot balls which are used at World Championships or at similar standards of play must meet the
above specifications but additional subjective testing will be carried out by the WSE with players of the
identified standard to determine the suitability of the nominated ball for Championship usage. The
slowest speed of balls intended for elite players and Championship usage may if required be
identified by a double yellow dot. Such balls will be deemed for the purposes of this specification
to be yellow dot squash balls.
4. From 1 May 2001, yellow dot balls of a larger diameter than 40.0mm specified above, but which
otherwise meet the specification, may be authorised for use in tournaments by the official
organising body.
30
APPENDIX 5.3 - DIMENSIONS OF A SQUASH RACKET
DIMENSIONS
Maximum length 686 mm
Maximum width, measured at right angles to the shaft 215 mm
Maximum length of strings 390 mm
Maximum strung area 500 sq. cm
Minimum width of any frame or any structural member (measured in plane of strings) 7 mm
Maximum depth of any frame or other structural member (measured at right angles to plane of strings) 26 mm
Minimum radius of outside curvature of frame at any point 50 mm
Minimum radius of curvature of any edge of frame or other structural member 2 mm
WEIGHT
Maximum weight 255 gm
CONSTRUCTION
a) The head of the racket is defined as that part of the racket containing or surrounding the strung area.
b) Strings and string ends must be recessed within the racket head or, in cases where such recessing is
impractical because of racket material, or design, must be protected by a securely attached bumper
strip.
c) The bumper strip must be made of a flexible material which cannot crease into sharp edges following
abrasive contact with the floor or walls.
d) The bumper strip shall be of a white, colourless or unpigmented material. Where for cosmetic reasons a
manufacturer chooses to use a coloured bumper strip, then the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the
satisfaction of the WSE that this does not leave a coloured deposit on the walls or floor of the court
after contact.
e) The frame of the racket shall be of a colour and/or material which will not mark the walls or floor
following an impact in normal play.
f) Strings shall be gut, nylon or a substitute material, provided metal is not used.
g) Only two layers of strings shall be allowed and these shall be alternately interlaced or bonded where
they cross and the string pattern shall be generally uniform and form a single plane over the racket
head.
h) Any grommets, string spacers or other devices attached to any part of the racket shall be used solely to
limit or prevent wear and tear or vibration and be reasonable in size and placement for such purpose.
They shall not be attached to any part of the strings within the hitting area (defined as the area formed
by overlapping strings).
i) There shall be no unstrung areas within the racket construction such that will allow the passage of a
sphere greater than 50mm in diameter.
j) The total racket construction including the head shall be symmetrical about the centre of the racket in a
line drawn vertically through the head and shaft and when viewed face on.
k) All changes to the racket specification will be subject to a notice period of two years before coming
into force.
The World Squash Eederation shall rule on the question of whether any racket or prototype complies with the
above specifications, or is otherwise approved or not approved for play and will issue guidelines to assist in the
interpretation of the above.
31
APPENDIX 6 - PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR
The WSF recommends that all Squash players should wear protective eye guards, manufactured to an
appropriate National Standard, properly over the eyes at all times during play. It is the responsibility of
the player to ensure that the quality of the product worn is satisfactory for the purpose.
As at October 2000 National Standards for Racket Sport Eye Protection are published by the Canadian
Standards Association, the United States ASTM, Standards Australia/New Zealand and British Standards
Institution.
APPENDIX 7 - POINT-A-RALLY SCORING
The standard scoring system described in Rule 2 The Scoring is the approved scoring system for singles
Squash. If Point-a-Rally scoring (PARS) is used, the following text replaces Rule 2.
2. THE SCORING
2.1 Either player may score points. The server, on winning a stroke, scores a point and
retains the service; the receiver, on winning a stroke, scores a point and becomes the
server.
2.2 A match shall consist of the best of three or five games and each game shall be played to nine
or fifteen points at the option of the organisers of the competition.
Where each game is to fifteen points, the player who scores fifteen points wins the game,
except that on the score reaching fourteen-all the receiver shall choose, before the server
delivers the next service, to continue that game either to fifteen points (known as "Set one")
or to seventeen points (known as "Set three") In the latter case the player who scores three
more points wins the game. The receiver shall in either case clearly indicate this choice to the
Marker, Referee and the opponent.
Where each game is to nine points, the player who scores nine points wins the game, except
that on the score reaching eight-all the receiver shall choose, before the server delivers the
next service to continue that game either to nine points (known as "Set one") or to eleven
points (known as "Set three"). In the latter case the player who scores three more points wins
the game. The receiver shall in either case clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee
and the opponent.
The Marker shall call "Set one" or "Set three" as applicable before play continues.
The Marker shall call "Game ball" to indicate that either player requires one point to win the
game in progress, "Match ball" to indicate that either player requires one point to win the
match, "Match ball, game ball" if the server requires one point to win the match and the
receiver requires one point to win the game in progress and °Game ball, match ball¨ if the
server requires one point to win the game in progress and the receiver requires one point
to win the match.
4. THE SERVICE
The spin of a racket decides the right to serve or to receive first.
Note: The Marker`s use of the terms "Game ball", "Match ball", and "Stroke" must be adjusted to
comply with the Point-a-Rally scoring system.
32
APPENDIX 8.1 - EXPERIMENTAL OFFICIATING SYSTEMS
The World Squash Eederation is evaluating an experimental officiating system to determine if it is a viable
alternative to the standard Marker/Referee system described in Rules 18, 19 and 20.
The evaluation will continue through the validity of the 2001 rules.
The system is known as the 2-Referee system. This Appendix provides a brief description of it. The full details
are available free of charge from the World Squash Eederation and WSE Member Nations.
Any organiser of competitive Squash wishing to try this system is urged to obtain the details from WSE and (if
possible) to forward a brief report to WSE Head Office on the effectiveness of the system.
The 2-Referee system uses two officials only, known as the Referee and Appeals Referee. The Referee performs
all the duties the Marker and Referee traditionally do in standard officiating. The Appeals Referee takes no
part in control of the match unless there is an appeal by one of the players against a decision of the Referee or
the Appeals Referee is certain the Referee has made an error in allowing play to continue. Either player
may appeal to the Appeals Referee against any decision of the Referee. The decision of the Appeals Referee is
final.
The Referee deals with all initial appeals on interference, player struck by ball and non-call of service or
return, but any appeal against a Referee call on play goes directly to the Appeals Referee because the decision of
the Referee is already known.
Both the Referee and the Appeals Referee can invoke Rule 17 Conduct on Court. The players cannot
appeal against Rule 17 decisions.
APPENDIX 8.2 - EXPERIMENTAL RULES
The World Squash Eederation may from time to time request or authorise its members to carry out certain rules
experiments.
Tournament organisers using experimental rules shall specify at the time of entry the manner in which any rules,
definitions or appendices differ from those of the WSE.

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