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4. Religiosity Model The purpose of this essay is to develop a model of religiosity exclusively for Muslims.

In order to do this, this essay is divided into four sections. The first section attempts to provide an overview of previous models from Judeo-Christian religion. Furthermore, key differences and gaps in religiosity instrumentation are included. The second section is a review of religiosity instruments for Muslims, which includes these difference and gaps. The third section will discuss our own development of the religiosity model based on the previous three sections 4.1 Religiosity Models for Christians 4.1.1 Unidimensional Early religiosity models are Eurocentric in nature and mainly directed to Christian societies. Church membership or church denomination and church attendance, amongst others, are common measurements of religiosity. For instance, Lincoln at all (1999) and Taylor (1988) have used church attendance as one of the indicators of religiosity. This indicator is easily assessed by asking respondents how often they attend religious services. They have demonstrated that demographic variables including age, gender, education and marital status are able to predict church attendance. In addition demographic variables, church attendance can also predict social variables. For example, church attendance can predict, amongst other things, marital satisfaction (Wallin, Clark 1964a), sexual satisfaction (Judy G, Norma L 2005) and depression (M Chaaya et al. 2007) However, there are several shortcomings in using religious attendance as an indicator of religiosity especially when it is used as a single indicator. There are several reasons for this. The first and obvious reason is that not all church goers go to church for religious reasons. Other reasons for going to church include social reasons (Azzi, Ehrenberg 1975), consumption ( Ulbrich and Wallace 2006) , political ( Brown 2003) and even business (Azzi, Ehrenberg 1975). Another shortcoming is that the frequencies of church services vary according to denominations and the individual church itself. Commonly, church members are required to go to Church every Sunday. However, there are many activities organized by the church on days other than Sunday and it depends on the church. Some churches only open on Sundays and special days whilst others open every day. Moreover, the extent to which church members are obliged to attend religious services also varies by denominations. Church Membership can also be an indicator of religiosity. One way to indicate this variable is to ask whether the respondent is a church member. The next step is to ask respondents to indicate whether they are a member of any church and which religious denomination to which they belong. This variable can be a predictor variable and predictive of various social, political and economic variables besides demographic variables. For example, church membership can predict among others, authoritarian attitudes (Barton, Vaughan 1976), conservatism (McCann 1999), attitude towards abortion (Sullins 1999), and economic situation (McCann 1999)

(Hunsberger 1989) on the other hand reduced the scale to only six items retaining most of the psychometric strengths associated with the Fullerton (1982) scale. there are many other reasons besides religious reasons for going to church or being a member of a church. it is common to find members who do not believe. These sects of Christianity believe that Jesus is the messenger of God instead of the son of God. Therefore multidimensional religiosity measures are said to be able to take account of complex human behavior. (3) God created all things. (5) The virgin birth of Jesus. Furthermore. especially as a single indicator. Son and Holy Ghost. This is because these measures measure extrinsic religiosity rather than intrinsic religiosity (Gorsuch 1988).2 Multidimensional Multidimensional measures of religiosity are said to be a more comprehensive measure of religiosity (Finner 1970. A good example is to be found in American civil religion where most Americans are members of the church especially Republicans. Both measures of religiosity have been extensively used by sociologists in their writings. For instance. American civil religion has been explained previously by Thomas Luckmann where religion is culturized rather than sacralized. Fullerton (1982) used a ten item measurement. there are other different dogmas which are different between different denominations such as life after death.However. But it does have limitations. This was done by rewording all the items and deleting loaded items. The scale of orthodoxy is indeed comprehensive. In Christianity. in order to capture it social scientists use multiple items.religious belief. (1) Existence of God. in a country where religion is invoked in their political or monarchial system. let alone practice. Therefore. 4.1. For example. These measures indeed have their flaws and disadvantages. For example. the use of religious orthodoxy as a measurement can be complicated at times. church membership is not really an accurate measure especially as a single indicator for religiosity. one of the earliest multidimensional religiosity scales was developed by Faulkner and De Jong (1966). ritualistic behavior and religious knowledge and religious effects. (8) Jesus has left the earth but shall return.1. One of the most frequently used indicators of religiosity and is more intrinsic is religious belief/ orthodoxy. (2) Trinity of the Father. Each . Therefore. As explained before in 4. the next section will consider intrinsic religiosity. (4) Jesus of Nazareth was Divine.1. de Jong 1966). religious self-definitions. This is because unidimensional measures of religiosity such as church attendance and church membership are not able to extensively capture the essence of religiosity. These items were scaled using a Likert scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree . there are many denominations which have different beliefs and orthodoxy. there are several drawbacks to using church membership to indicate religiosity especially if it is a single indicator for obvious reasons. Therefore. They developed five dimensions of religiosity . Arians and Monarchians. One of Christian denomination s orthodoxy can be another Christian denomination s apostasy. First. original sin and the Day of Judgment. Although it is still a unidimensional measure of religiosity. (6) Jesus's mission was to save mankind. their religion. (9) God will judge men after their deaths. and (10) There is life after death. (7) Jesus died but came back to life. the concept of Trinity has been disputed by the non-Trinitarian sects of Christianity including Ebionites.

Muhammad Shahbaz . extrinsic religion. Some of these drawbacks have the same explanation as the drawbacks from the unidimensional measurement of religiosity. These dimensions however are just a basic example. more comprehensive items in each dimension were developed and at times. For instance. single item measurement of religiosity is considered obsolete. King and Hunt (1972) developed ten dimensions of religiosity which included six main dimensions along with a number of sub-dimensions within the main dimensions. financial support. Western biases may be ingrained in traditional measures of religiosity. different dimensions from different literatures were integrated ( Schroeder 1968. growth and striving. As noted before. Ateeq.whether multidimensional measurement of religiosity can be applied to Muslim societies despite its Eurocentric and Western bias. traditional Eurocentric measures of religiosity have been used to study Muslim religiosity.g. Multidimensional measures of religiosity also have their drawbacks.dimension has four to seven items offering Likert scale answers ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree . organizational activity. more dimensions were added. there are a many reasons for church attendance other than religious reasons. Indeed. church attendance. salience behavior and salience cognition.2.2 Religiosity Models for Muslims 4. devotionalism. religious knowledge. However. The drawbacks do not concern multidimensional religiosity as a whole but the specific dimensions and items. Multidimensional measurement of religiosity is said to be one way of taking account of complex human behavior in Christian societies. Therefore. An obvious example is church attendance as explained previously. As the study of multidimensional religiosity developed further. 2007. This leads to another issue . One other example is in religious knowledge dimension. This dimension has its drawback in the sense that a person may have the knowledge of the religion but not believe in it all. there are many studies which use traditional measurement of religiosity that are embedded in multi-items and multidimensional religiosity measurement for Muslims and these studies analyze religiosity with various socio-economic variables (M Chaaya et al. King & Hunt 1972) . Mosque attendance instead of church attendance and Mosque membership.g. it is possible that a person does not have the knowledge of the religion yet believes and practices that religion. 4. The dimensions are creedal assent. On the other hand. This may be because Muslim religiosity is a relatively new area of religiosity research when compared with Judeo-Christian religions. The essay will continue to discuss the applicability of traditional Christian measurements of religiosity to Muslim societies as well as looking at the applicability of Eurocentric measurement of religiosity to Muslim societies. However. it seems there are no studies which use single measures of traditional religiosity e. One particular issue is whether traditional Christian religiosity measurements can also be applied to Muslim society by simply changing the semantics e. heritage and customs. Mosque attendance or Mosque membership.1 Unidimensional Sociologists have acknowledged that there should be better measurements of religiosity in non-Christian cultures.

mobility and community size. to measure Muslim religiosity multidimensionally. 1683. Abu Dawud no. Although it is argued that Judeo-Christian items of measurement are confined to Christian Communities. items and dimensions from Christian religiosity can be removed or modified according to the complex Muslim culture. irrelevant questions. Shahbaz (2010) and Shah et al (2011) uses Mosque attendance as one of the items in their ritualistic dimension of religiosity to study new product adoption among consumers. the Islamic concept of religion is fundamentally different from other concepts of religion. authors continue to adapt these items for other religions. It was later adapted by (Tamney 1980) to measure Muslim religiosity in Indonesia with slight modifications to suit the Indonesian Muslim society with reference to variables such as education. there are authors who are quite skeptical about Judeo-Christian measurements of religiosity for obvious reasons. Another way of handling this problem is to simply drop this item as recommended by Genia (1993) because most studies which use church attendance or membership do not differentiate between men and women. For instance. Therefore. in addition to the different non-religious reasons for attending Mosques. Most literatures of religiosity are designed to analyze Christian societies.2.2010. However. separate analysis must be done between men and women (Gonzalez 2011). González (2011) uses Mosque attendance as one dimension of religiosity in constructing a multidimensional measurement of religiosity. González 2011). Furthermore. For example. 4. heritage and society.2 Multidimensional The main advantage of multidimensional measurement of religiosity is that it can be customized according to the needs of the researcher.2. 567. As well as Allport and Ross (1967) there are other multidimensional moulds of religiosity which can be shaped to suit the needs to of Muslim society. For instance items to measure religiosity by Allport & Ross (1967) are known for their flexibility and universality and are widely used to measure religiosity for other religions. Syed Shah. Therefore in order to accurately measure religiosity. Women are not required to attend1. (2007) uses Mosque attendance as one of the items in a multi-item unidimensional religiosity measure to assess depression among elderly Lebanese. Ibnu Khuzaimah no. 4. Furthermore. only men are required to attend Friday prayers. there are also differences in gender for Muslim religiosity. namely Islam. M Chaaya et al. On the other hand. Rohani Mohd & Badrul Hisham 2011. For example there is a secularization model (Roof 1976) which measures religiosity using five dimensions. For instance. Al-Hakim no.3 Non Judeo-Christian Multidimensional Models Nevertheless. Church attendance and mosque attendance have similar challenges in terms of the different nonreligious reasons for church attendance. ( Demerdash 1988) on the other hand adapted twenty items from Allport and Ross to develop an intrinsic and extrinsic scale of religiosity which totals thirty-four items. 1 HR. Ibrahim (2007) has modified nine items from Allport and Ross (1967) to measure their dimension of religious life inventory to analyze authoritarianism amongst Muslims. 755 . This is because the extent to which Muslims have to attend Mosque is different between genders.

some parts of the Muslim world are in constant political turmoil and uprising e. Tunisia and Yemen. Similarly. a Muslim may know the commandments in the Al-Quran and Al-Hadith but not believe in some of them let alone practise them. Joseph and the like 4 1) Shahada (Islamic Creed) 2) Five daily prayers 3) Fasting during Ramadhan 4) Almsgiving (Zakat) 5) Pilgrimage to Makah .g. On the other hand. As explained previously (González 2011). current Islamic issues. and sensitive products. Despite the flexibility of multidimensional religiosity models. United Arab Emirates. The first dimension is the Islamic worldview that consists of mainly six articles of faith2 (Rukun Iman) reflecting the Islamic tawhidic paradigm. Adam. The rationale behind selecting these dimensions is to include as many issues as possible so that the dimensions reflect the tenet that Islam is a complete way of life rather than being seen as a bundle of rituals in the narrow religious sense. Khraim (2010) developed a Multidimensional Religiosity scale which consists of four dimensions . For instance. There are two forms of expression in Krauss s Model. although Krauss s MRPI scale to a limited extent is temporally universal among Muslims. seeking religious education. believe and inwardly comprehend about God and religion as laid down by the Al Quran and Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad pbuh3. it is lacks contemporary issues which are surfacing in the global community e. the degree of importance in terms of Mosque attendance differs between men and women and the differences are not restricted just in terms of Mosque attendance. Qatar and Malaysia.Islamic financial services. Jesus. Egypt. Steven Eric Krauss developed Muslim Religiosity Personality Inventory Scale (MRPI) in accordance to the needs of Muslim society. The second dimension is religious personality which represents the manifestation or expression of a Muslim s religious worldview.g. The MRPI scale contains two main dimensions which were constructed in detail together with sub dimensions within the main dimensions. fasting and Hajj whilst not knowing where in the Al-Quran or Al-Hadith that they have to do so relying solely on parental upbringing or sayings from the Ulama. A Muslim may fulfill his prayers. Furthermore. new dimensions and items have to be created. Daniel. there are also challenges which are relatively similar to traditional measures of religiosity. As for the specially-designed Muslim religiosity scale.g.Therefore. Conversely another part of the Muslim world is experiencing prosperous economic development with the emergence of Islamic financial system and Halal products e. At present. a Muslim s political and economic view of Islam. Prophets include Moses. These scales are practical and suitable for Muslims in modern times. Krauss (2005) and Hamza (2010) also has some minor shortcomings. as with Christianity. the dimension of knowledge might not be correlated with other dimensions for similar reasons. Hamza (2010) managed to partially include this issue by including Islamic financial services and Islamic current affairs 2 3 Believe in 1)God 2)Angles 3)Messengers 4) Books of Revelation 5)Day of Judgement 6)Divine decree Peace be upon him is a common reference given to Prophets by Muslims. The six Islamic articles of faith are the most basic details that Muslims have to know. The first is the fulfillment of the five pillars of Islam4 and the second is living the Islamic lifestyle. including the MRPI scale Krauss (2005) and Khraim (2010) with their own measurement scale.

However.3 Malaysian Islamic Religiosity Model This paper presents constructs for measuring Islamic Religiosity in the context of Islamic countries and more specifically Malaysia. Christianity. Malaysia is a unique multi-religious and multi-cultural country which contains three main ethnicities that consists of the Bumiputras which includes the Malays. separate dimensions in his religiosity model. for instance sexuality. the dependent variable is Islamic religiosity. medicine and also fashion. Hinduism. Gay. All these races practise many forms of religion which includes Islam. Most recently. The influx of Western hedonistic ideas is seeping through the Malaysian society and jeopardizing Islamic values. there are more issues which should be included in the model. The sustained economic growth. indigenous and Peranakan5. Jainism and Buddhism. Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) movements such as Seksualiti Merdeka have been promoting values which are against Islamic religiosity. Malaysia is considered as an exemplary Muslim country which is rapidly developing in accordance with Islamic principles. Chinese and Indians. there are many cases of adultery and homosexuality reported by Malaysian religious authorities. However. Halal food. This includes mainly Sharia compliant financial products. age. Portuguese and Dutch . Taoism. reduction of poverty. 5 The decedents of the former colonials for example. This is because Islam prohibits Usury (riba). wealth. Malaysia has become a Halal hub in the Islamic world. gender and urban rural differences. The Islamic principles embedded in the economic development in Malaysia started in the Sixties when the Islamic Pilgrim s Fund was formed. 4. which consist of income. the development of Malaysia has its costs despite the Islamic revival. For this model. Non-Halal food and inappropriate clothing. For instance. The next section will focus on the dependent variable and its dimensions to be followed with the independent variable and its interactions (see figure 1). improved social and infrastructural facilities has been termed the Asian Miracle by the World Bank (Naveen 1997). Socio-economic variables will be the independent variables. The official religion of Malaysia is Islam and many of its followers are Malays. Lesbian.

this model will fully utilize the six articles of faith in Islam which represent the foundation of Islamic creed. this Model will follow closely the MRPI scale proposed by Krauss (2005). 4.3. From these articles of faith. namely belief in 1) God 2) Angels 3) Messengers 4) Books of Revelation 5) Day of Judgment. . sexuality and Islamic finance. and 6) Divine decree. Therefore.3.Indicators for Independent Variables (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Dependent Variable (DV) Dimensions Belief Subdimensdions for DV Income Education Economic Status (Pillars of Faith) Wealth Formal rituals (Pillars of Islam) Religiosity Practice Informal rituals (Muamalat) Food Married Diet Urban Personal Characteristics Age Personal Finance (Riba) Refrains Sex Drinks Pre-Marital Sex (Zina) Homosexuality Banking Insurance Gender Investments Figure 1 Islamic Religiosity Model 4.1 Islamic Religiosity Dimensions The dimensions introduced in this study are a fusion of a detailed Islamic belief and practices. the Islamic belief construct will be developed to ascertain a Muslim s level of agreement towards these six articles. Islamic practice. and the most contemporary issues of Islam in Malaysia.1. These dimensions are Islamic belief.1 Islamic belief For the dimension of belief.

1. 4=Rarely and 5=Never) 4. The items in this part will examine the most recent openness in the Malaysian sexuality scene regarding efforts in amending the Malaysian law to recognise homosexuality. The second part is Muslim s attitude towards homosexuals. 4.2 Islamic Practice This dimension of religiosity adapts the Religious Personality dimension from Krauss (2005). 2. most of it will be modified from (Simon Simon. as a religion that is deemed to be holistic. Strongly disagree). This includes behaviour towards family. The items relevant for this part will delve into the Malaysian culture of dating or coupling without sex and to be followed by coupling with sex.1. The first part is a Muslim s attitude towards premarital sex.3. The response format on these items will be on a 5 point Likert scale (1. 4. Undecided. 3. Somewhat Agree. as examples. 4. These items will focus on the extent towards respondents and their attitudes towards dating without sex with chauffeurs. Paxton 2004). The response format for these items will be on a 5 point Likert scale ( 1. The Quran and Sunnah6 have specific guidance on what to practice in the five pillars of Islam which are 1) Shahada (Islamic Creed) 2) Five daily prayers 3) Fasting during Ramadhan 4) Almsgiving (Zakat).3. For this dimension.3 Islamic Sexuality The third dimension of religiosity consists of two parts. The second part will be an adaptation of (Herek 1987)attitude (1987) towards gay and lesbian customs. Somewhat agree and 5. Undecided. Strongly disagree). there are twenty-three items adapted from Krauss s Islamic Personality construct representing formal Islamic rituals and informal Islamic practices.3. Therefore this dimension aims to evaluate the extent to which Muslims practice Islam in terms of formal rituals and the formal rituals. Somewhat agree and 5. Strongly agree. This dimension will include twelve items which reflects on the Muslim attitude towards sexuality. 2=Frequently. For the first part. The rational of including this dimension is that relying solely on belief is not enough to complete Islamic religiosity.4 Islamic Finance 6 Prophetic examples to live a life . 4. and 5) Pilgrimage to Makah. 3=Sometimes. Islam is more the belief in the six articles of faith and the fulfillment of the five pillars of Islam. Muslims have to complement their belief by practicing what they belief righteously. The response format for these items indicates the frequency of the ritual or practice with a five point Likert scale (1=Always. dating without sex without chauffeurs and dating with sex. human beings and the rest of God s creations. The daily activities of a Muslim also have a close attachment to Islam.1. Strongly agree. These practices are considered as informal practices. Furthermore.There are twenty-three items in this dimension . the fulfillment of these pillars should be considered as formal rituals. Therefore.all of them modified to suit the contemporary needs of Malaysian respondents. Somewhat Agree. 2. 3.

However. Albrecht (1984). 1295. Economic status is expected to have a negative effect on religiosity. The second part includes various Takaful products which cater for family. The Malaysian government has emphasized that Islamic financial institutions and products are one of the most important steps in the Islamic revival in the Malaysian economy. The most prevalent of all is usury (riba) which is strictly prohibited. 1041) . some 7 The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed alcohol and the one who drinks it. income. insurance and investment products. there is less need for religion to act as an opiate. For example. High income would entail high economic status. gambling (Al Maisir) and Usury (riba). Therefore. 4. leading to a decrease in religiosity. This is based on one of Marx s theories regarding religion as an expression of economic deprivation. This means that the institution in which a Muslim is investing is free of uncertainty.1 Income Income is widely used as an indicator of economic status (Scheepers et al 2002 and Stark 1988). In order to measure economic status. the one who consumes its price. The second part is Islamic insurance. Increase in economic status would entail a decrease in economic deprivation. Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. The third part includes Sharia approved unit trusts and shares. 4.2 Economic Status Economic status is an important exogenous variable in the explanation of religiosity. This is because rich people no longer need to pursue wealth and therefore have more time for religious purposes.2. which must be Sharia approved. usury.3. the one who squeezes out the juice and the one for whom it is squeezed out. Gaede (1977) and Stark (1999) have shown that there is a relationship between economic status and religiosity. which is fairly conventional with some differences. 2=Thinking about it.3. the one who buys it. The third consideration are investments in other financial institutions such as unit trusts. there are drawbacks in using income as indicator.The first part includes various Islamic banking products such as savings accounts (Al-Wadiah). eleven of which were adapted from Khraim (2010). There are people who are well-off economically but still hold on to their religion. This is because. high economic status would suggest a high level of secularization.This fourth dimension has three parts. this is not always the case. fixed accounts (AlMudharabah) and purchase financing. medical and house fire takaful. This is because financial transactions which contain usury oppress the poor. This dimension includes fifteen items of different Islamic banking. However. Islam has its own guidelines for financial transaction. the one who carries it. education level and occupation are used at a micro-level. car. bonds and shares. These include no elements of uncertainty (Al-Gharar). the one to whom it is carried. (narrated by al-Tirmidhi. the one who sells it. The first part is Islamic banking. free from dealing with alcohol or other substances which have the same effects as alcohol 7. education. once economic deprivation is reduced. 3=Already invested/opened an account). The response format on these items is on a three point rank scale (1=Not yet. This is to ensure that there is justice for the policy holder as well as the insurer rather than profit for the insurance provider. gambling.

Based on certain literatures (Azzi & Ahrenberg. Among common reasons for this is death anxiety (Chan 2005).3 Personal Characteristics Other than socio-economic variables.3. other indicators such as wealth and educational level need to be used. An older person is deemed to have accomplished what they want. Alternatively. several personal characteristics have to be taken into consideration in order to conceptualize secularization for Muslims. cars. Chatters.1975. This is because better-educated people have a better ability to properly digest and embrace the biblical knowledge provided by the Holy Scriptures.3.3. Ianacconne. Therefore. marital status and gender are used in conceptualizing religiosity as they may have some influence on a person s beliefs.5 million dollars. are the number of cars. for example.3. personal factors such as age. 4. An older person. 1999 and Hoge & Yang. However their obligations such as in mortgages. these indicators are easier to observe. 4. However. Amongst the indicators of wealth. which are commonly used in the literatures. a wealthy individual would be expected to be less religious than a less wealthy individual. there is less time for religion. Doctors. a wealthy individual doesn t have to be super rich but have a savings of 1. Both wealth and income is needed as an indicator because there are subtle differences in terms of their affect to religiosity between the two. 1984). They have to work hard to pay these things off. Marks et al. 4. Therefore. In order to be compared by income. no mortgages.2.2 Wealth Wealth is also commonly used as an indicator of economic status (Abby Córdova 2008. 2000). The reason provided by Albrecht and Heaton(1984) and Scheepers et al (2002) is that higher education enhances critical thinking and therefore questions the fundamental beliefs in religion.3 Educational Level The same applies to the educational level where a higher educational level would entail higher economic status and therefore increase secularization. among others. may be focusing on religion more than anything else. there are no more worldly goals besides being in good health.Age can influence a person s priorities in life. bills and maybe alimony makes it difficult to accumulate significant wealth.2.respondents might consider information about income as a private matter. 1990. Therefore. seeing the children .1994) postulates that there is a negative correlation between educational levels and secularization.3. Gary N. 1977. no luxury cars and retired from working in his late thirties would have ample time to be religious.1 Age This model predicts that age has a positive effect on religiosity . Lawyers and Professors. Therefore. 4. An individual may have high income for example. and Heaton. some evidence (Gaede. number of rooms in a house and the amount of air conditioning.

differences in rural/urban does affect religiosity or. . equal pay and in Malaysia s case. intrinsic religiosity is more accurate in the urban areas because there is no social pressure. the common assumption here is that household work is less demanding than having a profession. the International Islamic University of Malaysia is located in an urban area called Gombak in the state of Selangor and most of Malaysia s leading religious academics and researchers are concentrated in this 8 And marry those among you who are single . Therefore. "Our Lord. Some evidence (Tamney. In contrast to the rural areas. in relation to the education levels mentioned previously. positive and negative. we hypothesize that a marriage will have a positive effect towards religiosity. God will make them free from want out of His grace. This includes quotes from the Hadith Get married so you multiply.3. I shall indeed be proud of your multitude on the Day of Resurrection . cinemas and commercial activities which may prove an attraction for secular activities other than religious (Barro and McCleary 2002). the Quran prohibits adultery which is the main causes of all divorces.successful and having good social life with fellow elderlies. Moreover. 4. Consequently. .The feminist movement aims for gender equality. secularization.3.2 Marital Status In this model. Furthermore. In Malaysia for example. .3. for the purpose of our study.3.3. grant us in our wives and our offspring the joy of our eyes ." [Qur'an 25:74]. 4. However. [Qur'an 24:32]. This is because marriage is proscribed in almost any religion typically in Islam. .1975) postulates that people who live in urban areas are less religious. women have more time for religious activities at home whilst their husbands work. there is less social control in urban areas. There are two expectations for gender and secularization.4 Rural-Urban differences Regardless of what endogenous variables are. the emergence of the feminist movements had a major impact on the relationship between women and secularization(Callum 2009) and therefore closely related to the decline in religiosity . If they are needy.3 Gender Gender may also show some differences in the extent of secularization. And those who say. 4. for the purpose of this study. there is less extrinsic religiosity such as Mosque attendance and charity.3. the aforementioned personal factors can also be applied correctly to secularization. However in the Sixties. For instance there are many evidences in the Quran that encourages marriage8 and of course. Yokley (1971) and Finke and Stark (1988) argue that people living in urban areas have relatively better opportunities to practice religious activities because of their better access to facilities such as churches and clergymen. This is because. Therefore. less traditional and more individualistic than rural areas (Fischer 1975). most intellectuals are concentrated in the urban areas. urban areas have many worldly attractions such as museums.1980 and Fischer. Therefore. Evidence provided by Azzi & Ahrenberg (1975) suggested that women used to have lower market wages and therefore were more likely to stay at home being a housewife. The reason is that urban areas tend to be more liberal. generally. the right to choose between wearing the Muslim veil or not. women are more religious and men are reluctant to be believers.

By the age of 40. an educated person knows how to manage his wealth wisely so that he doesn t have to spend more time working. we expect a positive relationship with religiosity.2 because. This is because teachings of religion prohibit infidelity and adultery and encourage marital harmony between married couples.3 Education and Wealth For this interaction. For example. then the income from patent or copyright might have contributed to high income. This is because mid-thirties is a common age to get married and have family. pay off their Instead of being yuppies and spending extravagantly.2. .3. On the other hand it is possible that the element of education includes religious education and therefore interacted with age which brings the anxiety of death. Therefore. invest in low returns but safe and Halal investment and be very religious.2 Age and education For this interaction.4. it is possible that a person is wealthy and has high income because of the nature of his wealth. However. This is contrary to the explanation given for wealth variable in 4. A wealthy person with high income shows that. it is very difficult for us to hypothesize. in some countries urbanization might have a negative effect on secularization. This is because on one hand. they retire. a positive relationship between urbanization and secularization would be expected 4.4. Therefore. the person is a pure workaholic by choice and therefore would surely spend less time for religion.4. if a person owns a very useful patent or copyright.3. a person can be very religious. 4. Furthermore. 4.4 Wealth and Income We expect negative relationship between the interaction of wealth and income and religiosity for obvious reasons. For instance. First of all. This is because the effect of age may be indirect it may be related to other changing factors that affect religiosity. 4. as in a mid-thirties person are more religious because of family commitment.3. in a general sense. for the purpose of this study.1 Age and Marriage This model predicts that the interaction between age and marriage has positive relationship with religiosity. Wallin. There is a trend in Malaysia among educated high income Muslim professionals. they save money for early retirement. contrary to the general understanding between urbanization and secularization. Evidence provided by Argue et al (1999) indicates that older married people.3. However this may be an isolated case.3. an individual in his mid-thirties are likely to be more religious than a mid-twenties individual.3. Clark (1964b) postulates that religious married couples are associated with better marital satisfaction and even sexual satisfaction.4 Interactions 4.4. there is plenty of time to be closer to god. age is closely related to anxiety of death and education level is associated with a more secular and rational thinking. a wealthy person supposedly spend less time working and more time to religion. Nevertheless.

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