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# Course 132

Technical Technical Introduction to CDMA Introduction to CDMA
IS-95, CDMA2000 and a glimpse of 1xEV

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

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Course Outline
Basic CDMA Principles • Coding • Forward and Reverse Channels CDMA Operational Details • Multiplexing, Forward and Power Control CDMA Network Architecture CDMA Messaging CDMA Handset Architecture CDMA Handoff Principles CDMA System Acquisition and Call Flow Examples Introduction to Optimization and Optimization Tools What’s New in CDMA2000? • 1xEV-DO, 1xEV-DV features and internal structure
February, 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 - 2

Section A

How Does CDMA Work? How Does CDMA Work? Introduction to Basic Principles Introduction to Basic Principles

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

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The Einstein of Information Theory
The core idea that makes CDMA possible was first explained by Claude Shannon, a Bell Labs research mathematician Shannon's work relates amount of information carried, channel bandwidth, signal-to-noise-ratio, and detection error probability • It shows the theoretical upper limit attainable
In 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmark paper on information theory, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. He observed that "the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point." His paper so clearly established the foundations of information theory that his framework and terminology are standard today. Shannon died Feb. 24, 2001, at age 84. February, 2008

Claude Shannon:

SHANNON’S CAPACITY EQUATION C = Bω log2 [
1+ S N

]

Bω = bandwidth in Hertz C = channel capacity in bits/second S = signal power N = noise power
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Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

CDMA: Using A New Dimension
All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -- but with a uniquely recoverable code CDMA

AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB. CDMA: -10 to -17 dB. CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.

(carrier/interference ratio)

Figure of Merit: C/I

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

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although used by the military User 3 User 4 User 1 unused User 2 User 1 User 4 User 3 User 2 unused unused User 1 User 2 User 4 User 3 Direct Sequence Frequency Direct Sequence CDMA Time Frequency User 1 + = February. applies user’s code.6 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .Two Types of CDMA Frequency Hopping CDMA User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 There are Two types of CDMA: Frequency-Hopping • Each user’s narrowband signal hops among discrete frequencies. and the receiver follows in sequence • Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) CDMA is NOT currently used in wireless systems. recovers users’ data • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) CDMA IS the method used in IS-95 commercial systems 132 . receiver knows. 2008 Code 1 Composite • narrowband input from a user is coded (“spread”) by a user-unique broadband code. then transmitted • broadband signal is received.

200 bits/second Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.200 bits/second just as originally sent February. 2008 Input B: Spreading Code Output: User’s Original Data 1 Drawn to actual scale and time alignment 132 .2288 Mcps Output: Spread spectrum signal 1 Input B: Spreading Code Gate Spread Spectrum Signal via air interface Input A: Received Signal Destination Site XOR Exclusive-OR Gate At Destination Site: Input A: Received spread spectrum signal Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.7 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .2288 Mcps Output: User’s Data @ 19.DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View Input A: User’s Data Originating Site XOR Exclusive-OR At Originating Site: Input A: User’s Data @ 19.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .8 .Spreading from a Frequency-Domain View TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband Slow Information Sent TX Signal RX Slow Information Recovered Traditional technologies try to squeeze signal into minimum required bandwidth CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX Fast Spreading Sequence Slow Information Recovered RX Fast Spreading Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain February.

which is 21 db. Regis. What happens if additional users are added? The CDMA Spread Spectrum Payoff: # Users Processing Gain 1 2 4 8 16 32 21 db 18 db 15 db 12 db 9 db 6 db 64…. The processing gain is 1.Uh.Would you like a lump-sum.9 .228. the signal-to-noise ratio becomes undesirable and the ultimate capacity of the sector is reached Practical CDMA systems restrict the number of users per sector to ensure processing gain remains at usable levels CDMA Spreading Gain Consider a user with a 9600 bps vocoder talking on a CDMA signal 1.. and go home now? February. can I just take the money I've already won. the processing gain is large .800 hz wide.800/9600 = 128. or monthly payments? Shannon's work suggests that a certain bit rate of information deserves a certain bandwidth If one CDMA user is carried alone by a CDMA signal. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .228.roughly 21 db for an 8k vocoder. • Each doubling of the number of users consumes 3 db of the processing gain • Somewhere above 32 users.

don’t disturb the bit decoding decision being made with the proper code pattern Coding and Spreading Building a CDMA Signal Chips February. in effect a from User’s Vocoder code channel To recover a bit. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . integrate a large number of chips interpreted by the user’s known code pattern Forward Error Correction Other users’ code patterns appear random and Symbols integrate in a random self-canceling fashion.10 .CDMA Uses Code Channels A CDMA signal uses many chips to convey just one bit of information Bits Each user has a unique chip pattern.

How a BTS Sector Serves Multiple Users QPSK RF Users Analog Σ Summing BTS Demodulated Received CDMA Signal Despreading Sequence (Locally Generated.11 . The actual coding process used in IS-95 CDMA includes a few additional layers. February. =0) Received energy: Correlation matches opposite 1 if 0 = if 1 = Decision: +10 -26 Σ Matches! (=0) 1 Opposite ( =1) -16 Time Integration This figure illustrates the basic technique of CDMA signal generation and recovery. as we’ll see in following slides. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

Spreading: What we do.12 . uses same spreading sequence to extract original data February. transmits spread data stream Receiver intercepts the stream. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . we can undo ORIGINATING SITE Spread Data Stream Input Data Recovered Data DESTINATION Spreading Sequence Spreading Sequence Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA Shipping Data Receiving FedEx FedEx Data Mailer Mailer Whether in shipping and receiving.13 . packaging is extremely important! Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing The shipper packs in a certain order. and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order CDMA “containers” are spreading codes February. or in CDMA.

we can undo” February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . robust channels The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link “What we do.14 .CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences ORIGINATING SITE X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B DESTINATION X+A Input Data X Recovered Data X Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence A B C Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence C B A CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique.

64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 In CDMA2000. February. See Course 332 for more details on CDMA2000 1xRTT fast data channels and additional Walsh codes. each 64 chips long Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes • it’s simple to generate the codes. and different lengths of walsh codes can exist.15 .One of the CDMA Spreading Sequences: Walsh Codes WALSH CODES 64 “Magic” Sequences. 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . user data comes at various speeds. or • they’re small enough to use from ROM Unique Properties: Mutual Orthogonality EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 Sum 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 Correlation Results: 32 1’s.

self-mutating sequence 2N-1 chips long (N=register length) • Such sequences match if compared in step (no-brainer. 2008 Sequence repeats every N chips.16 . Summing Shift Register Sequence repeats every 2N-1 chips. where N is number of cells in register A Tapped. where N is number of cells in register A Special Characteristic of Sequences Generated in Tapped Shift Registers Compared In-Step: Matches Itself Sequence: Self. any sequence matches itself) • Such sequences appear approximately orthogonal if compared with themselves not exactly matched in time • false correlation typically <2% February. in sync: Sum: Complete Correlation: All 0’s Compared Shifted: Little Correlation Sequence: Self. Shifted: Sum: Practically Orthogonal: Half 1’s.Other Sequences: Generation & Properties An Ordinary Shift Register Other CDMA sequences are generated in shift registers Plain shift register: no fun. Half 0’s Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . sequence = length of register Tapped shift register generates a wild.

I and Q.17 QPSK Output . used for Scrambling Original IS-95 CDMA PN Scrambling 32. (75 repetitions in 2 sec. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .768 chips long RF: • Generated in similar but cos ωt differently-tapped 15-bit shift I-sequence + registers user’s Σ Walsh symbols • the two sequences scramble Σ + the information on the I and Q Σ Different phase channels + Information Q-sequence on I and Q Figures to the right show how one sin ωt user’s channel is built at the bTS RF Complex Scrambling Serial to Parallel February.768 chips long 26-2/3 ms.) I-sequence Walsh user’s symbols Same information duplicated on I and Q Q-sequence Short PN Scrambling RF: cos ωt QPSKmodulated RF Output I Q Σ RF: sin ωt The short PN code consists of two PN Sequences.Another CDMA Spreading Sequence: The Short PN Code. each New CDMA2000 1x Complex Scrambling 32.

18 . all the Summer bits are added into a single-bit modulo-2 sum The shifted Long Code emerges.Generating the PN Long Code at a desired Timing Offset LONG CODE STATE REGISTER dynamic contents. but shifted to the user’s unique offset February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . zero timing shift MASK REGISTER unique steady contents cause unique timing shift SUMMER holds dynamic modulo-2 sum of LC State and Mask registers clock Each clock cycle. chip by chip! Every phone and every BTS channel element has a Long Code generator • Long Code State Register makes long code at system reference timing • A Mask Register holds a user-specific unique pattern of bits Each clock pulse drives the Long Code State Register to its next state • State register and Mask register contents are added in the Summer • Summer contents are modulo-2 added to produce just a single bit output The output bits are the Long Code.

and Pilot PN • The BTS transmits all of these parameters on the Paging Channel 132 . Paging Channel #.Different Masks Produce Different Long PN Offsets TRAFFIC CHANNEL – NORMAL USING THE PUBLIC LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER fixed PERMUTED ESN SUMMING REGISTER TRAFFIC CHANNEL – PRIVATE USING THE PRIVATE LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER calculated PRIVATE LONG CODE MASK SUMMING REGISTER ACCESS CHANNEL (IDLE MODE) USING THE ACCESS CHANNEL LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER fixed AC# PC# BASE_ID PILOT PN SUMMING REGISTER Ordinary mobiles use their ESNs and the Public Long Code Mask to produce their unique Long Code PN offsets • main ingredient: mobile ESN Mobiles needing greater privacy use the Private Long Code Mask • instead of 32-bit ESN. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . the mask value is produced from SSD Word B in a calculation similar to authentication Each BTS sector has an Access Channel where mobiles transmit for registration and call setup • the Access Channel Long Code Mask includes Access Channel #. BTS ID.19 February.

Section B IS-95 CDMA Forward and IS-95 CDMA Forward and Reverse Channels Reverse Channels February.20 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

+ Sector X x sin ωt ΣΣ I Walsh #27 A Forward Channel is identified by: its CDMA RF carrier Frequency Q the unique Short Code PN Offset of the sector the unique Walsh Code of the user February.How a BTS Builds the Forward Code Channels Switch BSC or Access Manager Pilot Sync Paging Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder more more BTS (1 sector) Walsh #0 FEC Walsh #32 FEC Walsh #1 FEC Walsh #12 FEC Walsh #23 FEC FEC Walsh #44 FEC more a Channel Element Short PN Code PN Offset 246 I Q cos ωt x Transmitter.21 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

They carry pages. system parameters information. and call setup orders TRAFFIC: any remaining WALSH codes • The traffic channels are assigned to individual users to carry call traffic.22 . subject to overall capacity limited by noise February. It is a timing source used in system acquisition and as a measurement device during handoffs SYNC: WALSH CODE 32 • This carries a data stream of system identification and parameter information used by mobiles during system acquisition PAGING: WALSH CODES 1 up to 7 • There can be from one to seven paging channels as determined by capacity needs.Functions of the CDMA Forward Channels Pilot Paging Walsh 0 Walsh 1 Walsh 6 Walsh 11 Walsh 19 Walsh 20 Sync Walsh 32 Walsh 37 Walsh 41 Walsh 42 Walsh 55 Walsh 56 Walsh 60 PILOT: WALSH CODE 0 • The Pilot is a “structural beacon” which does not contain a character stream. All remaining Walsh codes are available. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

Access Long Code Gen Manager Long Code Gen Vocoder Access Channels Channel Element A Reverse Channel is identified by: its CDMA RF carrier Frequency the unique Long Code PN Offset of the individual handset Long Code offset Receiver.23 . Sector X Long Code offset Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element a Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder more more Channel Element more Long Code offset Long Code offset Long Code offset Long Code offset February. BTS (1 sector) CBSC.Code Channels in the Reverse Direction Switch BSC. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . and each paging channel can have up to 32 access channels. call setup requests. page responses.24 . order responses. REG 1-800 242 4444 Although a sector can have up to seven paging channels. nearly all systems today use only one paging channel per sector and only one access channel per paging channel. and other signaling information • an access channel is really just a public long code offset unique to the BTS sector • Access channels are paired to Paging Channels. Each paging channel can have up to 32 access channels.Functions of the CDMA Reverse Channels There are two types of CDMA Reverse Channels: TRAFFIC CHANNELS are used by individual users during their actual calls to transmit traffic to the BTS • a reverse traffic channel is really just a user-specific public or private Long Code mask • there are as many reverse Traffic Channels as there are CDMA phones in the world! BTS ACCESS CHANNELS are used by mobiles not yet in a call to transmit registration requests.

25 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . but offers additional radio configurations and additional kinds of possible channels • These additional modes are called Radio Configurations • IS-95 Rate Set 1 and 2 are IS-2000 Radio Configurations 1 & 2 February.Summing Up Original IS-95 CDMA Channels FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS W0: PILOT W32: SYNC ACCESS BTS W1: PAGING Wn: TRAFFIC TRAFFIC Existing IS-95A/JStd-008 CDMA uses the channels above for call setup and traffic channels – all call processing transactions use these channels • traffic channels are 9600 bps (rate set 1) or 14400 bps (rate set 2) IS-2000 CDMA is backward-compatible with IS-95.

) Dedicated Control Channel Reverse Supplemental Channel Includes Power Control Subchannel Access Channel (IS-95B compatible) Enhanced Access Channel Common Control Channel F-Pilot F-Sync PAGING F-BCH F-QPCH F-CPCCH F-CACH F-CCCH F-TRAFFIC F-FCH F-DCCH R-Pilot 1 R-ACH or R-EACH 1 R-CCCH 0 or 1 R-TRAFFIC R-FCH 1 R-DCCH 0 or 1 R-SCH 0 to 2 BTS 0 to 7 0 to 7 Users: 0 to many 1 0 or 1 0 to 7 0 to 2 F-SCH IS-95B only Channels IS-95B only F-SCH Supplemental Channels RC3.5 CDMA2000 1xRTT has a rich variety of traffic channels for voice and fast date There are also optional additional control channels for more effective operation See Course 332 for more details. Backward compatible Broadcast Channel Quick Paging Channel Common Power Control Channel Common Assignment Channel Common Control Channels Forward Traffic Channels Fundamental Channel Dedicated Control Channel Supplemental Reverse Fundamental Channel (IS95B comp. Backward compatible Same coding as IS-95B.4. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Backward compatible Same coding as IS-95B.The Channels at Phase One 1xRTT Launch FORWARD CHANNELS How many 1 Possible: 1 1 to 7 0 to 8 0 to 3 0 to 4 REVERSE CHANNELS Same coding as IS-95B.26 February. 132 .

base rate 9600 RC6 ¼ or ½ convolutional or Turbo encoding. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . base rate 14400 Required. base rate 14400 February.2288 MCPS Compatible with IS-95B RS2 No CDMA2000 coding features Quarter-rate convolutional or Turbo Coding. base rate 9600 Half-rate convolutional or Turbo Coding.Spreading Rates & Radio Configurations Spreading Rate Forward Link Required. IS-95B Compatible No CDMA2000 coding features Compatible with IS-95B RS2 No CDMA2000 coding features Quarter rate convolutional or Turbo coding. 1/3 rate convolutional or Turbo coding. base rate 14400 SR3 3xRTT Fwd: 3 carriers 1. base rate 9600 Quarter rate convolutional or Turbo Coding. IS-95B Compatible No CDMA2000 coding features Radio Configuration Data Rates Data Rates Radio Configuration Reverse Link Required.6864 MCPS 1/6 rate convolutional or Turbo coding. base rate 9600 Quarter-rate convolutional or Turbo Coding. base rate 14400 ½ or 1/3 rate convolutional or Turbo encoder.27 . ¼ or 1/3 convolutional or Turbo coding. base rate 14400 RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 RC6 RC7 RC8 RC9 9600 14400 9600 153600 9600 307200 14400 230400 9600 307200 9600 614400 14400 460800 14400 1036800 9600 14400 9600 153600 307200 14400 230400 9600 307200 614400 14400 460800 1036800 RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 SR1 1xRTT 1 carrier 1. base rate 9600 Required. base rate 9600 ¼ or 1/3 rate convolutional or Turbo coding. Half rate convolutional or Turbo coding.2288 MCPS Rev: 3.

SR1.2 ksps Punc 800 bps Power Ctrl Decimator 1228.8 kcps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.600 bps F-FCH (IS-95-Compatible) Orthogonal Spreading Power Control Puncturing Data Bits 8.8 kcps Walsh 64 Generator Same symbols go on both I and Q! I Short Code 9.6 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Symbol Repetition Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC 19.2 ksps User Long Code Mask Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.6 kbps 19.28 .8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W Σ Q FIR LPF Q Q Short Code February. RC1 9. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .8 kcps 1228.

29 .4 kbps 28.8 kcps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.35 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Symbol Repetition Symbol Puncturing 14.2 ksps Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.8 ksps 19. RC2 14.400 bps F-FCH (IS-95-Compatible) Orthogonal Spreading Power Control Puncturing Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC 19. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .8 kcps 800 bps Power Ctrl Walsh 64 Decimator Generator Same symbols go on both I and Q! I Short Code 2 of 6 Data Bits 13.SR1.8 kcps User Long Code Mask 1228.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W Σ Q FIR LPF Q Q Short Code February.2 ksps Punc 1228.

8 kcps Q Short Code + + Power control information may be carried as shown or on the F-DCCH The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228. This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .8 kcps 9.8 kcps Walsh 64 Generator 1228. but still only 64 walsh codes February.2 ksps 1228. 2008 Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.8 kcps Doubled power efficiency.600 bps) Complex Scrambling Power Control Puncturing Full Rate Data Bits 8.4 ksps I Serial to Parallel 1228. RC3 F-FCH (9.30 .8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Q 19.SR1.8 kcps User Long Code Mask BTS Long Code Generator 1228.6 kbps 38.2 ksps Q 1228.4 ksps 800 bps Power Ctrl Decimator Orthogonal Spreading 19.6 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/4 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC Punc 38.

but no better power efficiency.6 ksps 1228.8 kcps 9. RC4 F-FCH (9.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.6 kbps 19.8 kbps Q 1228. February.31 .6 ksps Q 1228. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .2 ksps I 1228.SR1.600 bps) Complex Scrambling Power Control Puncturing Full Rate Data Bits 8.8 kcps Double the walsh codes. 2008 Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.8 kcps 9. This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal.6 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC Punc 19.8 kcps User Long Code Mask Serial to Walsh 128 Parallel Generator BTS Long Code Generator 1228.2 ksps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Power control information may be carried as shown or on the F-DCCH The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q 800 bps Power Ctrl Decimator Orthogonal Spreading 9.8 kcps Q Short Code + + Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228.

600 bps) Complex Scrambling Orthogonal Spreading 614.8 kcps 614.8 kcps 153. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .2 ksps 1228.6 kbps User Long Code Mask I Serial to Parallel 1228. February.4 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/4 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver 614.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Q 307.SR1.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228. RC3 F-SCH (153.8 kcps Walsh 4 Generator 1228.8 kcps The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.4 ksps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.32 .2 ksps Q 1228.4 ksps Payload Data Bits 152. This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal.4 ksps Gain 307.8 kcps Q Short Code + + Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.8 kcps Walsh 4 Generator 1228. February.8 kcps Q Short Code + + Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228.SR1.4 ksps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.2 ksps 1228.8 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver 614.8 kcps 614.2 kbps User Long Code Mask I Serial to Parallel 1228.4 ksps Payload Data Bits 304. RC4 F-SCH (307.2 ksps Q 1228.4 ksps Gain 307.200 bps) Complex Scrambling Orthogonal Spreading 614.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Q 307.8 kcps 307.8 kcps The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.33 . This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal.

32 0’s: Orthogonal!! # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 February.The Famous Walsh Codes from IS-95 Days WALSH CODES 64 “Magic” Sequences.34 . or • they’re small enough to use from ROM Unique Properties: Mutual Orthogonality EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 Sum 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 Correlation Results: 32 1’s. each 64 chips long Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes and their opposites too! • it’s simple to generate the codes.

35 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .IS-95 Busy Sector Snapshot of Walsh Usage February.

200 symbols/second DATA SYMBOLS WALSH CODE 1. but Chip Rates must stay the same! 3G 153.800 walsh chips/second 64 chips of Walsh Code Data Rates are different.36 February.200 symbols/second 4 Chips of Walsh Code 1.228.6 kb/s DATA One Symbol of Fast Data DATA SYMBOLS WALSH CODE 307.800 walsh chips/second 132 .228.Walsh Codes in 1xRTT 2G VOICE AND DATA One Symbol of Information 19. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .

32 chips long.” Walsh Level Mapping The Walsh Codes shown here are in logical state values 0 and 1.Families of the Walsh Codes WALSH # 1-Chip 0 0 WALSH # 2-Chips 0 00 1 01 WALSH # 0 1 2 3 4-Chips 0000 0101 0011 0110 WALSH # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-Chips 00000000 01010101 00110011 01100110 00001111 01011010 00111100 01101001 WALSH # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ---.64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 2x2 4x4 8x8 16x16 Walsh Code Names W1232 = “Walsh Code #12. Walsh Codes also can exist as physical bipolar signals.37 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Logical zero is the signal value +1 and Logical 1 is the signal value -1.32-Chip Sequence ------------00000000000000000000000000000000 01010101010101010101010101010101 00110011001100110011001100110011 01100110011001100110011001100110 00001111000011110000111100001111 01011010010110100101101001011010 00111100001111000011110000111100 01101001011010010110100101101001 00000000111111110000000011111111 01010101101010100101010110101010 00110011110011000011001111001100 01100110100110010110011010011001 00001111111100000000111111110000 01011010101001010101101010100101 00111100110000110011110011000011 01101001100101100110100110010110 00000000000000001111111111111111 01010101010101011010101010101010 00110011001100111100110011001100 01100110011001101001100110011001 00001111000011111111000011110000 01011010010110101010010110100101 00111100001111001100001111000011 01101001011010011001011010010110 00000000111111111111111100000000 01010101101010101010101001010101 00110011110011001100110000110011 01100110100110011001100101100110 00001111111100001111000000001111 01011010101001011010010101011010 00111100110000111100001100111100 01101001100101101001011001101001 WALSH CODES # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. 2008 64x64 132 . -1 Physical 32x32 All Walsh codes can be built to any size from a single zero by replicating and inverting All Walsh matrixes are square -.16-Chips ------0000000000000000 0101010101010101 0011001100110011 0110011001100110 0000111100001111 0101101001011010 0011110000111100 0110100101101001 0000000011111111 0101010110101010 0011001111001100 0110011010011001 0000111111110000 0101101010100101 0011110011000011 0110100110010110 WALSH CODES # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 ----------.1 > +1. Mapping: Logical 0.same number of codes and number of chips per code February.

38 .Walsh Code Trees and Interdependencies W316 0110 0110 0110 0110 W3 8 W332 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 W1932 0110 0110 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 W1132 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 W11 W34 0110 16 0110 0110 1001 1001 W2732 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 0110 0110 W732 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 W2332 0110 1001 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 W1532 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 W364 W3564 W1964 W5164 W1164 W4364 W2764 W5964 W764 W3964 W2364 W5564 W1564 W4764 W3164 W6364 W716 0110 1001 0110 1001 W7 8 0110 1001 W15 16 0110 1001 1001 0110 W3132 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 0110 1001 Entire Walsh matrices can be built by replicating and inverting -. that walsh code and all its replicative descendants are compromised and cannot be reused to carry other signals Therefore. the supply of available Walsh codes on a sector diminishes greatly while a fast data channel is being transmitted! CDMA2000 Base stations can dip into a supply of quasi-orthogonal codes if needed to permit additional channels during times of heavy loading February. CDMA adds each symbol of information to one complete Walsh code Faster symbol rates therefore require shorter Walsh codes If a short Walsh code is chosen to carry a fast data channel.Individual Walsh codes can also be expanded in the same way. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

Walsh Code Families and Exclusions
Consider a forward link supplemental channel being transmitted with a data W34 rate of 307,200 symbols/second • Each symbol will occupy 4 chips at the 1x rate of 1,228,800 c/s. • A 4-chip walsh code will be used for this channel If Walsh Code #3 (4 chips) is chosen for this channel: • Use of W34 will preclude other usage of the following 64-chip walsh codes: • 3, 35, 19, 51, 11, 43, 27, 59, 7, 39, 23, 55, 15, 47, 31, 63 -- all forbidden! • 16 codes are tied up since the data is being sent at 16 times the rate of conventional 64-chip walsh codes The BTS controller managing this sector must track the precluded walsh codes and ensure they aren’t assigned
WALSH CODES 0110
# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------- 64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110

Which Walsh Codes get tied up by another? Wxxyyties up every YYth Walsh Code starting with #XX.
February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 39

153,600 sps

307200 sps

76,800 sps

38,400 sps

19,200 sps

Code#

Code#

Code#

31 Code#

Code#

76.8 ksps

15

38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

This way of arranging Walsh codes is called “bit reversal order”. It shows each Walsh code’s parents and children. Remember, we cannot use any Walsh code if another Walsh code directly above it or below it is in use.

F-SCH 307.2 ksps

76.8 ksps

Forward Link Walsh Codes in 1xRTT

3

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

11

3

76.8 ksps

3

19

11

27

7

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

14

38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

10

38.4k 10 38.4k 18 76.8 ksps 38.4k

38.4k 28 2 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 12 38.4k 12 38.4k

4

76.8 ksps

38.4k 4 38.4k 4

76.8 ksps

38.4k 8 38.4k 0 8 0 16

QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot

Code# 0

Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips

Code#

128 chips

February, 2008
0 24 20

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter
F-SCH 153.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 13 5 76.8 ksps 5 76.8 ksps 9 1 1 6 76.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3

1

F-SCH 307.2 ksps

2

132 - 40

38.4k

63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 7 7 23 15

19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 7 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 3 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 5 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k PCH 6 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k PCH 2 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k PCH 4 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k

127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0

Code#

9,600 4,800 2,400 sps

153,600 sps

307200 sps

76,800 sps

38,400 sps

19,200 sps

Code#

Code#

Code#

31 Code#

Code#

???????
QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot

76.8 ksps

15

But if the users are highly mobile, forward power may exhaust at typically 30-40 users. In fixed-wireless or “stadium” type applications, all walsh codes may be usable.

38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

F-SCH 307.2 ksps

76.8 ksps

Pilot, Paging Sync, up to 61 Voice Users

3

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

11

3

IS-95 Today Typical Usage:

76.8 ksps

3

19

11

27

7

76.8 ksps

38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

10

38.4k 10 38.4k 18 76.8 ksps 38.4k

38.4k 28 2 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 12 38.4k 12 38.4k

4

Traffic Channels Voice or Data 9.6k/14.4k

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

14

38.4k

76.8 ksps

38.4k 4 38.4k 4

76.8 ksps

38.4k 8 38.4k 0 16 8 38.4k 0 Code# 0

Code#

Code#

Code#

Code#

4 chips

8 chips

16 chips

32 chips

64 chips

Code#

128 chips

February, 2008
0 24 20

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter
F-SCH 153.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 13 5 76.8 ksps 5 76.8 ksps 9 1 1 6 76.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3

1

F-SCH 307.2 ksps

2

132 - 41

38.4k

63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 7 7 23 15

19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Sync Pilot

127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0

Code#

9,600 4,800 2,400 sps

153,600 sps

307200 sps

76,800 sps

38,400 sps

19,200 sps

Code#

Code#

Code#

31 Code#

Code#

Mixed IS-95 / 1xRTT RC3 Voice Typical Usage:

FCHs of 1xRTT RC3 users consume less power, so more total users are possible than in IS-95. The BTS will probably have enough forward power to carry calls on all 61 walsh codes!

??
QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot

76.8 ksps

15

38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

F-SCH 307.2 ksps

76.8 ksps

3

Pilot, Paging Sync, up to 61 Voice Users

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

11

3

76.8 ksps

3

19

11

27

7

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

14

38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

F-SCH 153.6 ksps

76.8 ksps

10

38.4k 10 38.4k 18 76.8 ksps 38.4k

38.4k 28 2 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 12 38.4k 12 38.4k

4

76.8 ksps

38.4k 4 38.4k 4

76.8 ksps

38.4k 8 38.4k 0 0 16 8

Code# 0

Code#

Code#

Code#

Code#

4 chips

8 chips

16 chips

32 chips

64 chips

Code#

128 chips

February, 2008
0 24 20

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter
F-SCH 153.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 13 5 76.8 ksps 5 76.8 ksps 9 1 1 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3

1

F-FCHs mixed

RC1,2,3 Voice

6

F-SCH 307.2 ksps

76.8 ksps

6

2

2

2

26

6

22

14

132 - 42

38.4k

63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 7 7 23 15

19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Sync Pilot

127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0

Code#

9,600 4,800 2,400 sps

1 F-SCH, 27 Voice IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Users, 16 Active Data Users
The data users can rapidly share the one F-SCH for 153 kb/s peak, ~9Kb/s avg. user rates. But so many active data users F-FCHs consume a lot of capacity, reduce number of voice users!
Code# 4 chips Code# 8 chips Code# 16 chips Code# 0 32 chips Code# 64 chips Code# 128 chips Sync Pilot
QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot

A Not-too-Desirable 1xRTT RC3 State:

0

2 F-SCH 307.2 ksps

1

3

Code# 307200 sps Code# 153,600 sps Code# 76,800 sps

F-SCH 153K RC3
F-SCH 307.2 ksps 6 1 5 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 1 9 76.8 ksps 5 76.8 ksps 13 76.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 3 76.8 ksps 11 76.8 ksps 7 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 7 76.8 ksps 7 38.4k 23 38.4k 15 76.8 ksps 15 38.4k

0

4 F-SCH 153.6 ksps

2 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 2 76.8 ksps 10 76.8 ksps

F-SCH 153.6 ksps 6 76.8 ksps 14 76.8 ksps

0

8 76.8 ksps

4 76.8 ksps

12 76.8 ksps

Wasteful, since many of these users are not actively sending or receiving data
16 8 24 4 20 12 28 2 18 10 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 19 11 27 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k

31 Code# 38.4k 38,400 sps Code# 19,200 sps Code# 9,600 4,800 2,400 sps

F-FCHs 9.6k RC3 Voice

February, 2008

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

38.4k

F-FCHs 9.6k RC3 Voice

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

F-FCHs 9.6k RC3 Data

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

38.4k

63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k

127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0

132 - 43

4k 8 38.8 ksps 9 1 1 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 1 F-FCHs 9.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.4k 38.2 ksps 76. but latency will be high. F-SCH 307.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 132 .6k 6 2 RC3 Voice F-SCH 307.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.8 ksps 13 5 76.4k 38.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 38.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips February.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 18 76.2k 19.400 sps . ~9 kb/s average.2k 19.2k 19.44 38.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.600 4.8 ksps 11 3 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 3 19 11 27 7 F-SCH 153. 39 IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Voice Users.4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 12 38.800 2.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice 4 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.6 ksps 5 F-FCHs Data F-FCHs 9.4k 4 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps A Better 1xRTT RC3 BTS Dynamic State: 3 F-SCH 153.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. 2008 0 24 20 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19. 4 Active+12 Dormant Data Users But it takes seconds to move various data users from Dormant to Active! Data users will get 153 kb/s peak.4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.4k 1 F-SCH.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.400 sps 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k Paging 19.2k 19.153.4k 38.6 ksps 76.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 10 38.2 ksps 76.2k 19.8 ksps 15 F-SCH 153K RC3 38.8 ksps 38.8 ksps 12 38.8 ksps 38.4k 28 2 76.600 sps 307200 sps 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 10 38.6 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.4k 38.6k RC3 Voice 76.4k 38.2k 19.800 sps 38.2k 19.

2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 10 38.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38. Data users will get 153 kb/s peak.4k 38.8 ksps 38.2k 19. F-SCH 307.2k 19.8 ksps 15 F-SCH 153K RC3 Slightly Improved 1xRTT RC3 BTS Dynamic State: 1 F-SCH.6 ksps 76.2k 19. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold Data Users 38.8 ksps 9 1 1 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 1 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 76.6k F-FCHs Data F-DCCHs RC3 Voice 38.2k 19.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 5 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38. good latency. 37 IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Voice Users.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice 4 76.800 sps 38.2k Paging 19.6 ksps 12 38.8 ksps 10 38.2k 19.6 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.45 38.4k 38.4k 28 2 76.400 sps 19.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2 ksps 76.2k 19.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.6k 6 2 RC3 Voice F-SCH 307.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.8 ksps 13 5 76.2k 19.8 ksps 12 38.4k 8 38.800 2.600 4.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips February.2k 19.8 ksps 3 19 11 27 7 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.4k 38.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 132 .2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.400 sps .4k Instead of sending 16 data users to Dormant State.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.600 sps 307200 sps 76.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.4k F-SCH 153.4k 38.4k 18 76.4k F-SCH 153. ~9 kb/s average.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19. let them time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state.4k 38.4k 4 38.4k 38. Not yet available or implemented.8 ksps 11 3 76.2k 19.2k 19. 2008 0 24 20 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.4k 38.

8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 1 F-SCH 307.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.8 ksps 5 F-FCHs 9.4k 38. 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 19.153.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19. Data users get 38.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19. But only 21 voice users! F-SCH 307.800 2.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 4 38.400 sps .4k 28 2 76.4k 8 38.8 ksps 38.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.400 sps 19.600 sps 307200 sps 76.2k 19.8 ksps 38. 21 IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Voice Users.600 4.4k F-SCH 153K RC3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.6 ksps 12 38. 2008 0 24 20 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.2k 19.46 38.2k 19. ~19 kb/s average.2k 19.4k 18 76.6k F-FCHs Data F-DCCHs RC3 Voice 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.2k 19.8 ksps 11 3 76.6 kb/s peak.6 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.4k 38.8 ksps 12 38.4k 10 38.6 ksps 76.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 15 F-SCH 153K RC3 38.2 ksps 76.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.8 ksps 9 1 1 6 76.2k 19. or 153.4k 38. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold Data Users Heavy Data 1xRTT RC3 BTS Dynamic State: 16 data users time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.2k 19.8 ksps 3 19 11 27 7 F-SCH 153.4k 38.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.800 sps 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4.4.2k 19.2k 19.4k 2 F-SCH.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice 4 76.2 ksps 2 132 .8 ksps 13 5 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips February.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. good latency.8 ksps 14 38.

47 .1xRTT Busy Sector Walsh Code Usage February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2k 19.4k 10 38.2 ksps 76.400 sps .8 ksps 76.153.2k 19. F-SCH 307. 2008 0 24 20 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.4k 38.8 ksps 9 1 1 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 1 F-FCHs 9.6 ksps 7 7 23 15 19. ~9 kb/s average.4k 28 2 76.2k 19.8 ksps 13 5 76.8 ksps 38.8 ksps 12 38.2k 19.4.2k 19.2k 19. good latency.2k 19. or 153.2k 19.2k 19.6 RC3 76K ksps 3 76.4k 38.2k 19. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold RC3 Data Users 1xRTT RC3 BTS with Different User Data Rates: 16 data users time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19. 37 IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Voice Users.4k 4 38.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.2 ksps 3 F-SCH 38K F-SCH 38K 76.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips February.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.6k RC3 Voice 4 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.6 ksps 12 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 76.4k 38. Data users get 38.4k 76.48 38.2k 19.8 ksps 11 11 27 7 F-SCH F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.800 2.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.6 ksps 76.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 132 .8 ksps 3 19 F-SCH 153.600 sps 307200 sps 76.8 ksps 38.600 4.4k 8 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 15 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 3 F-SCH.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.2k 19.6k 6 2 RC3 Voice F-SCH 307.4.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.6k F-FCHs Data F-DCCHs RC3 Voice 38.6 kb/s peak.800 sps 38.4k 38.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.4k 38.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.4k 38.4k 38.4k 18 76. 76.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.400 sps 19.8 ksps 5 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.

200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# ??????? F-FCHs 9.8 ksps 38.4k F-SCH 307.8 ksps 13 13 29 3 19 11 27 7 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.49 38.4k 38.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice 38.4k 38.2k 19. up to 118 Voice Users 3 F-SCH 153.8 ksps 38.2 ksps 2 2 6 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19. Paging Sync.800 2.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.2k 19.4k 10 38.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.800 sps 38.8 ksps 3 1xRTT RC4 Voice Only: F-SCH 153.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice 76.2k 19.4k 14 F-SCH 153.4k 0 8 0 16 Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips Code# 64 chips F-FCHs 9.4k 18 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 28 2 76.2k 19.4k 1 30 1 17 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter Code# 76.8 ksps F-SCH 153.2k Paging 19.6 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.4k 38.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 6 26 6 22 128 chips F-SCH 307.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.8 ksps 38.400 sps 19.2k 19.4k 12 38.4k 38.2 ksps 76.8 ksps 9 1 9 25 5 21 132 .6k RC4 Voice February.2k 19.4k 38.600 4.4k 5 5 1 76.8 ksps Pilot.2k 19.6 ksps 76.4k 76.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 2 38.2k 19.4k 8 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.153. 38.4k 4 38.6 ksps 76.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.400 sps .8 ksps 10 38.8 ksps 14 38.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 11 3 76.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice 4 0 24 20 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot F-FCHs 9.8 ksps 15 Wow! 118 users! But RC4 users F-FCHs consume as much power as old IS-95 calls.600 sps 307200 sps 76.2k 19. BTS may run out of forward power before the all walsh codes are used.6 ksps 12 38.2k 19.

2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 0 24 4 76.8 ksps 38.2k 19.4k 38.4k Code# 4 chips Code# 8 chips 128 chips February.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot F-FCHs 9. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold RC4 Data Users 38.2k 19.6 ksps 12 38.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.4k F-SCH 307.4.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 3 19 11 27 7 1xRTT RC4 Voice and Data: 76.2k 19.2k 19.2 ksps 2 2 6 14 30 F-FCHs 9.4k 4 38.8 ksps 10 38.8 ksps 38.2k 19.4k 18 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19. good latency.2k 19.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.6 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.4k 28 2 76.400 sps 19.4k 38.8 ksps 11 3 76. But fwd power may exhaust! 1 F-SCH.2 kb/s peak.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 12 38.4k 10 38.2k 19.2k 19.800 2.2k 19.2k 19.800 sps 38.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 8 38.4k 38.2 ksps 76.6k RC4 Voice 4 20 76.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.4k 38.6 ksps 76.2k 19.600 4.2k 19.2k 19.6 or 307.2k 19. ~19 kb/s average.8 ksps 38.8 ksps 13 5 5 1 76.2k 19.8 ksps 9 1 9 25 5 21 13 29 132 .2k 19.8 ksps 15 F-SCH 307K RC4 16 data users time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state. 80 1xRTT RC4 Voice Users.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice 76.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.153. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 3 ???? F-SCH 153. Data users will get 38. 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.4k 1 1 17 F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.4.8 ksps 14 38.4k 38.400 sps . 153.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 2 38.6 ksps 76.8 ksps F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 6 26 6 22 Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips F-FCHs F-DCCHs F-SCH 307.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.50 38.6k RC4 Voice Code# 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.600 sps 307200 sps 76.

2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 11 bi m Co 0 8 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k ns io 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-FCHs 9.6k RC4 Voice F-FCHs 9.Mature 1xRTT Mixed-Mode Voice and Data: 1 RC3/RC4 Shared F-SCH.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. 3 Active+12 Control-Hold RC3 and RC4 Data Users 16 data users time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state.51 .2k 19.4k 24 38.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.2k 19.4k 10 76.2k Sync Pilot F-FCHs F-DCCHs F-FCHs 9.4k 12 76.8 ksps 15 0 4 F-SCH 153.4k 5 76.2k 19.4k 29 38.2k 19.4k 31 Code# 38.4k 18 38.4k 25 38.4k 19 38.2k 19.8 ksps 13 38.2k 19.4k 22 38. 76.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice F-FCHs 9.4k 21 38.4k 28 38.8 ksps 76.2k 19.4k 20 38.8 ksps 6 38.600 4. 38 RC4 Voice Users.2k 19. good latency.4k 26 38.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice F-FCHs 9.2k 19.4k 30 38.600 sps Code# 76.4k 76.2k 19.4k Or F-SCH 153.2k 19.8 ksps 12 38.2k 19.8 ksps 23 t na 7 38.2 ksps F-SCH 307K RC4 6 1 5 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 February.4k 38.2 kb/s peak.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice 19.2k 19.2k Paging 19.6k RC4 Voice ???? F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. 20 RC3 Voice Users.2k 19.200 sps Code# 9.2k 19.4k 9 38.8 ksps 3 38.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.2k 19.8 ksps 16 8 38.2k 19. 153.2k 19.4k 4 76.400 sps 38.2k 19.4.6 or 307.2k 19.800 2.2k 19.6 ksps 2 76.2k 19.4k 14 76.8 ksps 5 38.6 ksps 7 15 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. Fwd power tight! Code# 4 chips Code# 8 chips Code# 16 chips Code# 0 32 chips Code# 64 chips Code# 128 chips QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot 0 2 F-SCH 307.2 ksps 1 3 Code# 307200 sps Code# 153.4k 13 76.6 ksps 1 9 76.2k 19.800 sps F-SCH 153K RC3 F-SCH or 307.4k 3 76.4k F-SCH 153.4k 38.6 ksps 6 76.6 ksps 2 F-SCH 153. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .4.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 11 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 1 17 38.2k 19.8 ksps 2 38. Data users will get 38.2k 19.8 ksps 4 38.4k 3 7 F-SCH 153.4k 27 38. ~9 or 19 kb/s average.2k 19.2k 19.400 sps Code# 19.

Multiplexing. Power Control Operational Details Operational Details February.Section C Vocoding. Multiplexing.52 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Power Control Vocoding.

etc) February. greatly increasing capacity Filter CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Codebook Vocoder FeedCoded Result back Formant • full rate during speech Filter • low rates in speech pauses • increased capacity bits Frame Sizes • more natural sound 192/288 Full Rate Frame Voice.Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing DSP QCELP VOCODER 20ms Sample Vocoders compress speech. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . signaling. reduce bit Pitch rate. 24/36 1/8 Frame Contents: can be a mixture of Primary Signaling Secondary Traffic (System (On-Air (Voice or data) Messaging) activation. and user secondary 96/144 1/2 Rate Frame data may be mixed in CDMA frames 48/72 1/4 Rt.53 .

systems = +76 for 1900 MHz. systems Subscriber Handset BTS DUP Receiver>> LNA x TXPO x PA LO ∼ LO I ≈ Rake R R R S Σ Viterbi Decoder IF ~ Open Loop Long PN x Orth Mod Closed Loop Pwr Ctrl x Vocoder IF IF Mod x FEC Q <<Transmitter Typical TXPO: +23 dBm in a coverage hole 0 dBm near middle of cell -50 dBm up close to BTS 0 dB -10 dB -20 dB Typical Transmit Gain Adjust TXGA Transmit Gain Adjust • Sum of all closed-loop power control commands from the BTS since the beginning of this call February.Details of Reverse Link Power Control TXPO Handset Transmit Power • Actual RF power output of the handset transmitter.55 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Seconds 132 . 2008 Time. +23 dBm) TXPO = -(RXdbm) -C + TXGA C = +73 for 800 MHz. including combined effects of open loop power control from receiver AGC and closed loop power control by BTS • can’t exceed handset’s maximum (typ.

CDMA Network Architecture CDMA Network Architecture February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .56 .

57 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Structure of a Typical CDMA System HLR Home Location Register (subscriber database) SUPPORT FUNCTIONS BASE STATIONS Voice Mail System SWITCH BASE STATION CONTROLLER PSTN Local Carriers Long Distance Carriers Mobile Telephone Switching Office ATM Link to other CDMA Networks (Future) February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .58 .Voice Call Path through the CDMA Network MTX SLM CM GPS GPSR BSC-BSM BSM BTS GPS GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch. Selector CDSU Chips Σβ Σχ Σα Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C Channel Element RF PSTN February. Card ACC TFU DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 Packets CDSU CDSU CDSU DS0 in T1 DTCs SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Vocoder.

Card ACC TFU DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 Packets CDSU CDSU CDSU DTCs SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Selector CDSU Chips Σβ Σχ Σα Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C PSTN Interface Internet VPNs February. SCH) RF PDSN Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .59 . 2008 R-P Channel Elements (FCH.1x Data Call Path through the CDMA Network MTX SLM CM GPS GPSR BSC-BSM BSM BTS GPS GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch.

60 .Section D CDMA Messages and Call Processing CDMA Messages and Call Processing February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . regardless of the channel on which they are sent February.61 . continuously all of the time Some CDMA channels exist just to carry user traffic • Forward Traffic Channel • Reverse Traffic Channel • On these channels. most of the time is filled with traffic and messages are sent only when there is something to do All CDMA messages have very similar structure.Messages in CDMA In CDMA. most call processing events are driven by messages Some CDMA channels exist for the sole purpose of carrying messages. there are only messages. they never carry user’s voice traffic • Sync Channel (a forward channel) • Paging Channel (a forward channel) • Access Channel (a reverse channel) • On these channels.

the sender may release the call Field data processing tools capture and display the messages for study February. 2008 EXAMPLE: A POWER MEASUREMENT REPORT MESSAGE Field MSG_TYPE (‘00000110’) ACK_SEQ MSG_SEQ ACK_REQ ENCRYPTION ERRORS_DETECTED POWER_MEAS_FRAMES LAST_HDM_SEQ NUM_PILOTS Length (in bits) 8 3 3 1 2 5 10 2 4 NUM_PILOTS occurrences of this field: PILOT_STRENGTH RESERVED (‘0’s) 6 0-7 132 . If not acknowledged. all CDMA messages bear serial numbers and important messages contain a bit requesting acknowledgment Messages not promptly acknowledged are retransmitted several times.How CDMA Messages are Sent CDMA messages on both forward and reverse traffic channels are normally sent via dim-and-burst Messages include many fields of binary data The first byte of each message identifies message type: this allows the recipient to parse the contents To ensure no messages are missed.62 t Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .

•Base Station Acknowledgment •Lock until Power-Cycled • Maintenance required many others…. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .63 ..Message Vocabulary: Acquisition & Idle States Pilot Channel No Messages Sync Channel Sync Channel Msg BTS Paging Channel Access Parameters Msg System Parameters Msg CDMA Channel List Msg Extended System Parameters Msg Extended Neighbor List Msg Global Service Redirection Msg Service Redirection Msg SSD Update Msg Null Msg General Page Msg Order Msg Access Channel Registration Msg Order Msg • Mobile Station Acknowldgment • Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation many others….. Channel Assignment Msg Feature Notification Msg Authentication Challenge Msg Status Request Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Data Burst Msg Origination Msg Page Response Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg Status Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Data Burst Msg February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .64 .Message Vocabulary: Conversation State Forward Traffic Channel Order Msg • Base Station Acknowledgment • Base Station Challenge Confirmation • Message Encryption Mode Alert With Information Msg Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Msg Service Option Control Msg Status Request Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Msg Extended Handoff Direction Msg Neighbor List Update Msg In-Traffic System Parameters Msg Reverse Traffic Channel Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Completion Message Service Option Control Message Status Response Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Message Pilot Strength Measurement Msg Handoff Completion Msg Origination Continuation Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Send Burst DTMF Msg Parameters Response Message Power Measurement Report Msg Order Message • Mobile Sta. Retrieve Parameters Msg Analog Handoff Direction Msg SSD Update Msg Mobile Station Registered Msg February. Acknowledgment •Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation • Connect Authentication Challenge Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Send Burst DTMF Msg Set Parameters Msg Power Control Parameters Msg.

65 .Section E CDMA Handset Architecture CDMA Handset Architecture CDMA Handoffs CDMA Handoffs February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

Decoder. Demultiplexer Packets Messages Audio Vocoder Audio CPU Transmit Gain Adjust Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter Messages Transmitter RF Section February. Convl.66 .What’s In a Handset? How does it work? summing time-aligned Chips control Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Receiver RF Section IF. Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0 bits Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Δt Σ Symbols power Viterbi Decoder. 2008 132 .

67 . Data. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 Every frame. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlators (“rake fingers”) Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath reflections. or even on different BTSs Searcher continuously checks pilots February.The Rake Receiver Handset RF BTS BTS Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice.

no muting! Each end of the link chooses what works best.CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics Switch BSC Sel. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset • Handset continuously checks available pilots • Handset tells system pilots it currently sees • System assigns sectors (up to 6 max. tells handset • Handset assigns its fingers accordingly • All messages sent by dim-and-burst.). Data.68 . BTS BTS Handset RF Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . on a frame-by-frame basis! • Users are totally unaware of handoff February.

The Complete Rules of Soft Handoff The Handset considers pilots in sets • Active: pilots of sectors actually in use • Candidates: pilots mobile requested. but not yet set up & transmitting by system • Neighbors: pilots told to mobile by system. Members Req’d. as nearby sectors to check • Remaining: any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets (div. and the messages involved. By Std. or it may apply special manufacturer-specific screening criteria and only authorize some February. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . 132 . 2008 PILOT SETS Active 6 Candidate 5 Neighbor 20 Remaining HANDOFF PARAMETERS T_ADD T_TDROP T_DROP T_COMP Exercise: How does a pilot in one set migrate into another set. for all cases? Identify the trigger. by PILOT_INC) Handset sends Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the system whenever: • It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD • An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time • A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP The System may set up all requested handoffs.69 Min.

70 . this is called Softer Handoff Handset can’t tell the difference. Data.Softer Handoff Switch BSC Sel. but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 Each BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilot Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset. BTS Handset RF Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice.

RX Level being picked up by the mobile (from AGC) Why can’t the mobile just measure the signal strength of a sector directly with its receiver? • all sectors are on the same frequency • the measurable signal strength on that frequency is just the sum of all the individual signal powers • to distinguish them individually CDMA decoding must be used Each sector dedicates 10-15% of its power to a steady test signal called the “pilot”. Mobiles can easily measure the pilot of a sector. MHz.What is Ec/Io? Ec/Io is the measurement mobiles use to gauge strengths of the various Handset Receiver nearby sectors they encounter Rake LNA IF R • Ec means the energy per chip of x R ≈ ≈ the pilot of the observed sector R BW BW ~30 LO 1. determining its strength as a percentage of total received power February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .25 • Io means the total power currently S MHz.71 .

which is -7 db. the sum of: • pilot. Paging Sync Pilot 1. sync.5w 2w Paging Sync Pilot EC February.5w 0. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Ec/Io is typically about 50%. Ec/Io = (2/4) = 50% = -3 db.5w 2w EC I0 Heavily Loaded Traffic Channels Ec/Io = (2/10) = 20% = -7 db. Ec/Io is typically about 20%.72 . 6w I0 1.How Ec/Io Varies with Traffic Loading Light Traffic Loading Each sector transmits a certain amount of power. and paging • any traffic channels in use at that moment Ec/Io is the ratio of pilot power to total power • On a sector with nobody talking.5w 0. which is -3 db • On a sector with maximum traffic.

2008 Traffic Channels Io = -90 dbm Ec = -96 dbm Ec/Io = -6 db 4w 1.5w 0.73 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . too many sectors overlap and the mobile hears a “soup” made up of all their signals • Io is the power sum of all the signals reaching the mobile • Ec is the energy of a single sector’s pilot • The large Io overrides the weak Ec. one sector is dominant and the mobile enjoys an Ec/Io just as good as it was when transmitted In “pilot pollution”. Ec/Io is low! February.How Ec/Io varies with RF Environment One Sector Dominant In a “clean situation”. Nobody Dominant Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging BTS10 BTS9 BTS8 BTS7 BTS6 BTS5 BTS4 BTS3 BTS2 Io = 10 signals each -90 dbm = -80 dbm Ec of any one sector = -96 Ec/Io = -16 db I0 BTS1 Pilot EC 132 .5w 2w Paging Sync Pilot I0 EC Many Sectors.

Section F CDMA Call Processing CDMA Call Processing February.74 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .75 .Example 1 Let’s Acquire the System! Let’s Acquire the System! February.

835 845 849 Forward Link Frequencies (Base Station Transmit) 870 880 890 894 800 MHz. NO CDMA?! Go to AMPS. 1910MHz. or to a power-saving standby mode February. data voice A D B E F C 1990 MHz. depending on model) History List Preferred Roaming List until a CDMA signal is found. Mobile scans forward link frequencies: (Cellular or PCS. etc.5 1900 MHz. unlic. 1930MHz. 869 A B 891. 2008 FREQUENCY LISTS: HISTORY LIST/MRU Last-used: Freq Freq Freq Freq Freq etc. Cellular Spectrum A 825 B 846. PCS Spectrum A 1850MHz. PREFERRED ROAMING LIST/PRL System1 System2 System3 System4 System5 etc.5 Paging. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Find a Frequency with a CDMA RF Signal Reverse Link Frequencies (Mobile Transmit) 824 MHz. D B E F C unlic. ESMR.76 .

Idle mobiles use proprietary algorithms to find the initial CDMA carrier intended for them to use Within that CDMA signal.77 .How Idle Mobiles Choose CDMA Carriers At turnon. two types of paging channel messages could cause the idle mobile to choose another frequency: CDMA Channel List Message and GSRM Start MRU Preferred Only Bit 0 PRL Is better SID available? Acq Idx Yes Go to last Strongest Is SID frequency PN. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . read permitted? from MRU Sync No Signal Denied SID No Read Paging Channel CDMA Ch List Message Global Svc Redir Msg HASH using IMSI my ACCOLC? redirect F3 F2 F1 Config Messages: remain Legend Steps from the CDMA standards Steps from proprietary SDAs Proprietary SDA databases to another CDMA frequency or system to Analog Typical Mobile System Determination Algorithm February.

and read Sync Channel Message Active Pilot Handset ≈ Rake Receiver F1 PN168 W32 F2 PN168 W32 F3 PN168 W32 Srch PN??? W0 Rake Fingers RF x ≈ LO Reference PN February.817 [SCH] MSG_LENGTH = 208 bits MSG_TYPE = Sync Channel Message P_REV = 3 MIN_P_REV = 2 SID = 179 NID = 0 PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index LC_STATE = 0x0348D60E013 SYS_TIME = 98/05/24 23:14:10. Read Sync Channel Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets 1.160 LP_SEC = 12 LTM_OFF = -300 minutes DAYLT = 0 PRAT = 9600 bps RESERVED = 1 -20 Chips 0 PN 0 2.Find Strongest Pilot.78 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Put Rake finger(s) on strongest available PN. Pilot Searcher Scans the Entire Range of PNs 32K 512 SYNC CHANNEL MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:09. decode Walsh 32.

which it now monitors constantly Before it is allowed to transmit or operate on this system.all configuration messages are repeated on the paging channel every 1.79 . the mobile is now capable of reading the Paging Channel.28 seconds The configuration messages contain sequence numbers so the mobile can recognize if any of the messages have been freshly updated as it continues to monitor the paging channel • Access parameters message sequence number • Configuration message sequence number • If a mobile notices a changed sequence number. the mobile must collect a complete set of configuration messages Collection is a short process -. or if 600 seconds passes since the last time these messages were read.The Configuration Messages After reading the Sync Channel. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . the mobile reads all of them again February.

and monitor the Paging Channel Active Pilot Handset ≈ Rake Receiver F1 PN168 W01 F2 PN168 W01 F3 PN168 W01 Srch PN??? W0 Rake Fingers RF x ≈ LO Reference PN February.) 32K 512 Keep Rake finger(s) on strongest available PN.80 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .Go to Paging Channel. decode Walsh 1.) (Extended*) Neighbor List Msg Global Service Redirection Msg (*opt. Get Configured Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 PN 0 Read the Configuration Messages Access Parameters Msg System Parameters Msg CDMA Channel List Msg Extended System Parameters Msg (*opt. 2008 Now we’re ready to operate!! 132 .

Two Very Important Configuration Messages SYSTEM PARAMETERS MESSAGE ACCESS PARAMETERS MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:10. Max # Probe Seq for Requests = 2 Sequences Max # Probe Seq for Responses = 2 Sequences Authentication Mode = 1 Random Challenge Value = Field Omitted Reserved Bits = 99 98/05/24 23:14:11.81 .00N BASE_LONG = 000D00'00.08 sec BASE_LAT = 00D00'00.0 Db T_DROP = -15. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .00E REG_DIST = 0 SRCH_WIN_A = 40 PN chips SRCH_WIN_N = 80 PN chips SRCH_WIN_R = 4 PN chips NGHBR_MAX_AGE = 0 PWR_REP_THRESH = 2 frames PWR_REP_FRAMES = 56 frames PWR_THRESH_ENABLE = 1 PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE = 0 PWR_REP_DELAY = 20 frames RESCAN = 0 T_ADD = -13.5 dB T_TDROP = 4 sec EXT_SYS_PARAMETER = 1 RESERVED = 0 GLOBAL_REDIRECT = 0 February.0 dB T_COMP = 2.126 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 264 bits MSG_TYPE = System Parameters Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 SID = 179 NID = 0 REG_ZONE = 0 TOTAL_ZONES = 0 ZONE_TIMER = 60 min MULT_SIDS = 0 MULT_NID = 0 BASE_ID = 8710 BASE_CLASS = Public Macrocellular PAGE_CHAN = 1 channel MAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX = 0 HOME_REG = 0 FOR_SID_REG = 0 FOR_NID_REG = 1 POWER_UP_REG = 0 POWER_DOWN_REG = 0 PARAMETER_REG = 1 REG_PRD = 0.427 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 184 bits MSG_TYPE = Access Parameters Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index ACC_MSG_SEQ = 27 ACC_CHAN = 1 channel NOM_PWR = 0 dB INIT_PWR = 0 dB PWR_STEP = 4 dB NUM_STEP = 5 Access Probes Maximum MAX_CAP_SZ = 4 Access Channel Frames Maximum PAM_SZ = 3 Access Channel Frames Persist Val for Acc Overload Classes 0-9 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 10 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 11 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 12 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 13 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 14 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 15 = 0 Persistance Modifier for Msg Tx = 1 Persistance Modifier for Reg = 1 Probe Randomization = 15 PN chips Acknowledgement Timeout = 320 ms Probe Backoff Range = 4 Slots Maximum Probe Sequence Backoff Range = 4 Slots Max.

MSG_TYPE: 96. CONFIG_MSG_SEQ: 0 Redirected access overload classes: { 0. DELETE_TMSI: 0.82 .566 Paging Channel: Global Service Redirection PILOT_PN: 168.946 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 104 bits MSG_TYPE = Extended System Parameters Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 RESERVED = 0 PREF_MSID_TYPE = IMSI and ESN MCC = 000 IMSI_11_12 = 00 RESERVED_LEN = 8 bits RESERVED_OCTETS = 0x00 BCAST_INDEX = 0 RESERVED = 0 NEIGHBOR LIST 98/05/24 23:14:11.486 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 216 bits MSG_TYPE = Neighbor List Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 PILOT_INC = 4 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 220 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 52 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 500 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 8 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 176 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 304 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 136 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 384 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 216 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 68 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 328 Offset Index NGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 112 Offset Index RESERVED = 0 GLOBAL SERVICE REDIRECTION 98/05/17 24:21.786 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 72 bits MSG_TYPE = CDMA Channel List Message PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 CDMA_FREQ = 283 RESERVED = Field Omitted EXTENDED SYSTEM PARAMETERS 98/05/24 23:14:10. RETURN_IF_FAIL: 0. Redirection to an analog system: EXPECTED_SID = 0 Do not ignore CDMA Available indicator on the redirected analog system Attempt service on either System A or B with the custom system selection process February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . 1 }.Four Additional Configuration Messages CDMA CHANNEL LIST MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:10.

83 .Example 2 Let’s do an Let’s do an Idle Mode Handoff! Idle Mode Handoff! February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .84 . always enjoying the best available signal The mobile’s pilot searcher is constantly checking neighbor pilots If the searcher notices a better signal. NBC. if the mobile learns that registration is required. it re-registers on the new sector February. the mobile must switch quickly. it isn’t possible to do soft handoff and listen to multiple sectors or base stations at the same time -.just like ABC.Idle Mode Handoff An idle mobile always demodulates the best available signal • In idle mode. and CNN TV news programs aren’t in word-sync for simultaneous viewing • Since a mobile can’t combine signals. the mobile continues on the current paging channel until the end of the current superframe.the paging channel information stream is different on each sector. CBS. then instantly switches to the paging channel of the new signal • The system doesn’t know the mobile did this! (Does NBC’s Tom Brokaw know you just switched your TV to CNN?) On the new paging channel. not synchronous -.

February.85 . it becomes the new reference pilot and the phone switches over to its paging channel on the next superframe. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . This is called an idle mode handoff. track the Strongest Pilot Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 PN 0 SRCH_WIN_A Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W01 F2 PN168 W01 F3 PN168 W01 Srch PN??? W0 SRCH_WIN_N Active Pilot Rake Fingers 32K 512 Reference PN The phone’s pilot searcher constantly checks the pilots listed in the Neighbor List Message Neighbor Set If the searcher ever notices a neighbor pilot substantially stronger than the current reference pilot.Idle Mode on the Paging Channel: Meet the Neighbors.

(typ. 2008 Origination Msg Success! BTS an Access Probe a Probe Sequence an Access Attempt PAGING Base Sta. phone will wait a random time (~200 mS) then probe again. Order RV TFC FW TFC Service Connect Msg. Acknlgmt. Svc. Page Responses • Base Station always listening! On the access channel. Acknlgmt. TFC preamble of 000s RV TFC FW FC Base Sta. • For mobiles sending Registration.). Order MS Probing ACCESS Call is Established! 132 . Ackngmt. Msg. 2) sequences in an access attempt • most attempts succeed on first probe! The Access Parameters message on the paging channel announces values of all related parameters February. Order FW TFC TFC frames of 000s PAGING Channel Assnmt. Connect Complete Msg RV TFC FW TFC Base Sta. phones are not yet under BTS closed-loop power control! Phones access the BTS by “probing” at power levels determined by receive power and an open loop formula • If “probe” not acknowledged by BTS within ACC_TMO (~400 mS.Phone Operation on the Access Channel A Successful Access Attempt A sector’s Paging Channel announces 1 (typ) to 32 (max) Access Channels: PN Long Code offsets for mobiles to use if accessing the system. 5) probes in a sequence and 15 max. stronger by PI db. Acknlgmt.86 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Order Mobile Sta. Origination. (typ. • There can be 15 max.

Example 3 Let’s Register! Let’s Register! February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .87 .

so that incoming calls can be delivered • registration also allows the system to intelligently page the mobile only in the area where the mobile is currently located. thereby eliminating useless congestion on the paging channels in other areas of the system There are many different conditions that could trigger an obligation for the mobile to register • there are flags in the System Parameters Message which tell the mobile when it must register on the current system February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .88 .Registration Registration is the process by which an idle mobile lets the system know it’s awake and available for incoming calls • this allows the system to inform the mobile’s home switch of the mobile’s current location.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .An Actual Registration SYSTEM PARAMETERS MESSAGE 18:26.00¨ Lon. Class_0_type: 1) [0x 01 8d 31 74 29 36] 00-416-575-0421 AUTH_MODE: 0 REG_TYPE: Timer-based SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 MOB_P_REV: 1 EXT_SCM: 1 SLOTTED_MODE: 1 MOB_TERM: 1 BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 16:18:27. This mobile notices that it is obligated to register. We’re officially registered! 132 . PWR_REP_DELAY: 1 (4 frames) RESCAN: 0.. ESN: [0x 01 99 0d fc] MFR 1.5dB. SRCH_WIN_R (PN chips): 130 NGHBR_MAX_AGE: 2 PWR_REP_THRESH: 2 PWR_REP_FRAMES (frames): 15 PWR_THRESH_ENABLE: 1 PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE: 0. T_ADD: -14.506 Paging Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0. IMSI: (Class: 0. Serial Number 69116. 0°00´00. REGISTRATION MESSAGE 16:18:27. REG_DIST: 0 SRCH_WIN_A (PN chips): 28 SRCH_WIN_N (PN chips): 100.144 Access Channel: Registration ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 VALID_ACK: 0 ACK_TYPE: 0 MSID_TYPE: 3.0dB T_DROP: -16.0dB T_COMP: 2. Reserved 38.89 February. POWER_UP_REG: 1 POWER_DOWN_REG: 1 PARAMETER_REG: 1 Registration period (sec): 54 Base station 0°00´00.00° Lat.826 [PCH] System Parameters Message Pilot_PN: 32 CONFIG_MSG_SEQ: 14 SID: 16420 NID: 0. Class_0_type: 3) [0x 02 47 8d 31 74 29 36] (302) 00-416-575-0421 Order type: Base Station Acknowledgement Order The base station confirms that the mobile’s registration message was received. T_TDROP: 4s EXT_SYS_PARAMETER: 1 EXT_NGHBR_LIST: 1 GLOBAL_REDIRECT: 0 The System Parameters Message tells all mobiles when they should register. REG_ZONE: 0 TOTAL_ZONES: 0 Zone timer length (min): 1 MULT_SIDS: 0 MULT_NIDS: 0 BASE_ID: 1618 BASE_CLASS: Reserved PAG_CHAN: 1 MAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 HOME_REG: 1 FOR_SID_REG: 1 FOR_NID_REG: 1. so it transmits a Registration Message.

90 .Example 4 Let’s Receive Let’s Receive an incoming Call! an incoming Call! February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

When the human user presses the send button.I. 13k voice. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . The mobile is told to ring and given a “calling line ID” to display. the paging channel notifies the mobile in a General Page Message. The system sets up a traffic channel for the call. etc. February. The mobile and the base station notice each other’s traffic channel signals and confirm their presence by exchanging acknowledgment messages. A mobile which has been paged sends a Page Response Message on the access channel.Receiving an Incoming Call All idle mobiles monitor the paging channel to receive incoming calls.91 . then notifies the mobile to use it with a Channel Assignment Message. the audio path is completed and the call proceeds.e.. When an incoming call appears. The base station and the mobile negotiate what type of call this will be -.

An Actual Page and Page Response GENERAL PAGE MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:46. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .92 February.127 [PCH] General Page Message MSG_LENGTH = 128 bits MSG_TYPE = General Page Message CONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 1 ACC_MSG_SEQ = 20 CLASS_0_DONE = 1 CLASS_1_DONE = 1 RESERVED = 0 BROADCAST_DONE = 1 RESERVED = 0 ADD_LENGTH = 0 bits ADD_PFIELD = Field Omitted PAGE_CLASS = 0 PAGE_SUBCLASS = 0 MSG_SEQ = 1 IMSI_S = 6153300644 SPECIAL_SERVICE = 1 SERVICE_OPTION = 32768 RESERVED = Field Omitted The system pages the mobile. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:46. 132 . Now the mobile is waiting for channel assignment. expecting a response within 12 seconds. PAGE RESPONSE MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:46. 615-330-0644.768 [PCH] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 112 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 2 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 0 VALID_ACK = 1 ADDR_TYPE = IMSI ADDR_LEN = 40 bits IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 0 RESERVED = 0 IMSI_S = 6153300644 ORDER = Base Station Acknowledgement Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 The base station confirms that the mobile’s page response was received.425 [ACH] Page Response Message MSG_LENGTH = 216 bits MSG_TYPE = Page Response Message ACK_SEQ = 1 MSG_SEQ = 2 ACK_REQ = 1 VALID_ACK = 1 ACK_TYPE = 2 MSID_TYPE = IMSI and ESN MSID_LEN = 9 octets ESN = 0xD30E415C IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 0 RESERVED = 0 IMSI_S = 6153300644 AUTH_MODE = 1 AUTHR = 0x307B5 RANDC = 0xC6 COUNT = 0 MOB_TERM = 1 SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX = 0 MOB_P_REV = 3 SCM = 106 REQUEST_MODE = Either Wide Analog or CDMA Only SERVICE_OPTION = 32768 PM = 0 NAR_AN_CAP = 0 RESERVED = 0 The mobile responds to the page.

Channel Assignment and Traffic Channel Confirmation CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGE 18:14:47. the mobile receives the channel assignment message. It sends a preamble of two blank frames of its own on the reverse traffic channel.93 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . The base station is already sending blank frames on the forward channel. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 18:14:47.027 Paging Channel: Channel Assignment ACK_SEQ: 2 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0.598 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 Mobile Station Acknowledgement Order The base station acknowledges receiving the mobile’s preamble. Everybody is ready! 132 . Class_0_type: 0) [0x 01 f8 39 6a 15] 615-330-0644 ASSIGN_MODE: Traffic Channel Assignment ADD_RECORD_LEN: 5 FREQ_INCL: 1 GRANTED_MODE: 2 CODE_CHAN: 43 FRAME_OFFSET: 2 ENCRYPT_MODE: Encryption disabled BAND_CLASS: 800 MHz cellular band CDMA_FREQ: 283 Only about 400 ms. after the base station acknowledgment order. 2008 The mobile station acknowledges the base station’s acknowledgment.581 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order The mobile sees at least two good blank frames in a row on the forward channel. February. and concludes this is the right traffic channel.using the assigned Walsh code. MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 18:14:47.

18:14:48. 3600. 7200. 3600.760 Forward Traffic Channel: Service Connect ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 Service Configuration: supported Transmission: Forward Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400.961 Forward Traffic Channel: Alert With Information ACK_SEQ: 3 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 SIGNAL_TYPE = IS-54B Alerting ALERT_PITCH = Medium Pitch (Standard Alert) SIGNAL = Long RESERVED = 0 RECORD_TYPE = Calling Party Number RECORD_LEN = 96 bits NUMBER_TYPE = National Number NUMBER_PLAN = ISDN/Telephony Numbering Plan PI = Presentation Allowed SI = Network Provided CHARi = 6153000124 RESERVED = 0 RESERVED = 0 The mobile agrees and says its ready to play.94 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . 132 . the base station proposes that the requested call actually begin. 1800 bps Reverse Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400. Now it is officially a call. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE MSG.018 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 4 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 Mobile Station Acknowledgement Order The base station orders the mobile to ring. this was an access attempt.Service Negotiation and Mobile Alert SERVICE CONNECT MESSAGE 18:14:47. 1800 bps Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) Forward Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Reverse Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Now that both sides have arrived on the traffic channel. February. Up until now. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE is a major milestone in call processing. and gives it the calling party’s number to display. 2008 The mobile says it’s ringing. 18:14:47. 7200.835 Reverse Traffic Channel: Service Connect Completion ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 3 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 ALERT WITH INFORMATION MESSAGE 18:14:47.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .The Human Answers! Connect Order The mobile has been ringing for several seconds. The human user finally comes over and presses the send button to answer the call.920 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order Now the switch completes the audio circuit and the two callers can talk! February.95 .758 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 Connect Order BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 18:14:54. CONNECT ORDER 18:14:54.

Example 5 Let’s make an Outgoing Call! Let’s make an Outgoing Call! February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .96 .

97 . 13k voice.e. and presses SEND. The mobile arrives on the traffic channel.I.Placing an Outgoing Call The mobile user dials the desired digits.. The system acknowledges receiving the origination by sending a base station acknowledgement on the paging channel. Mobile transmits an Origination Message on the access channel. The base station and the mobile negotiate what type of call this will be -. The system notifies the mobile in a Channel Assignment Message on the paging channel. The mobile and the base station notice each other’s traffic channel signals and confirm their presence by exchanging acknowledgment messages. etc. The system arranges the resources for the call and starts transmitting on the traffic channel. February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . The audio circuit is completed and the mobile caller hears ringing.

Origination ORIGINATION MESSAGE The mobile sends an origination message on the access channel. Class_0_type: 0) [0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073 AUTH_MODE: 0 MOB_TERM: 1 SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 MOB_P_REV: 1 EXT_SCM: 1 DualMode: 0 SLOTTED_MODE: 1 PowerClass: 0 REQUEST_MODE: CDMA only SPECIAL_SERVICE: 1 Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) PM: 0 DIGIT_MODE: 0 MORE_FIELDS: 0 NUM_FIELDS: 11 Chari: 18008900829 NAR_AN_CAP: 0 BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:53. 132 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Class_0_type: 0) [0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073 ASSIGN_MODE: Traffic Channel Assignment. The base station sends a Channel Assignment Message and the mobile goes to the traffic channel.98 February.8 to 2.487 Paging Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0. Class_0_type: 0) [0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073 Base Station Acknowledgment Order CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGE 17:48:54.0 GHz PCS band CDMA_FREQ: 425 The base station confirms that the origination message was received.367 Paging Channel: Channel Assignment ACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1 MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0. ADD_RECORD_LEN: 5 FREQ_INCL: 1 GRANTED_MODE: 2 CODE_CHAN: 12 FRAME_OFFSET: 0 ENCRYPT_MODE: Encryption disabled BAND_CLASS: 1. 17:48:53.144 Access Channel: Origination ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 6 ACK_REQ: 1 VALID_ACK: 0 ACK_TYPE: 0 MSID_TYPE: 3 ESN: [0x 00 06 98 24] MFR 0 Reserved 1 Serial Number 170020 IMSI: (Class: 0.

Everybody is ready! February.99 . MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:54.757 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgment Order The base station acknowledges receiving the mobile’s preamble. It sends a preamble of two blank frames of its own on the reverse traffic channel.using the assigned Walsh code. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:54. and concludes this is the right traffic channel.835 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order The base station is already sending blank frames on the forward channel.Traffic Channel Confirmation The mobile sees at least two good blank frames in a row on the forward channel. The mobile station acknowledges the base station’s acknowledgment.

098 Forward Traffic Channel: Service Connect ACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 Service Configuration Supported Transmission: Forward Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400. 7200. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE MSG. MSG_SEQ: 0. SERV_CON_SEQ: 0 BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:48:55. Now it is officially a call. 1800 bps Reverse Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400. The base station agrees. 17:48:55. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE is a major milestone in call processing. 3600.137 Reverse Traffic Channel: Service Connect Completion ACK_SEQ: 1. the base station proposes that the requested call actually begin. 1800 bps Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) Forward Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Reverse Traffic Channel: Primary Traffic Now that the traffic channel is working in both directions. ACK_REQ: 1.100 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Service Negotiation and Connect Complete SERVICE CONNECT MESSAGE 17:48:55.779 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgment Order The mobile agrees and says its ready to play. ENCRYPTION: 0. 7200. Now the switch completes the audio circuit and the two callers can talk! February. this was an access attempt. Up until now. 3600.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .101 .Example 6 Let’s End a Call! Let’s End a Call! February.

“no reason given”. and the base station acts to tear down the link • a number of reverse link messages aren’t acknowledged. At the conclusion of the call. and the mobile station acts to tear down the link February.Ending A Call A normal call continues until one of the parties hangs up. The other side of the call sends a Release Order. “normal release”. and a fade timer acts • the reverse link is lost at the base station.102 . • If a normal release is visible. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . the call ended normally. the mobile reacquires the system. • Searches for the best pilot on the present CDMA frequency • Reads the Sync Channel Message • Monitors the Paging Channel steadily Several different conditions can cause a call to end abnormally: • the forward link is lost at the mobile. and a fade timer acts • a number of forward link messages aren’t acknowledged. That action sends a Release Order.

997 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 3 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Release Order (no reason given) The base station acknowledged receiving the message. BASE STATION RELEASE ORDER 17:49:21.103 . scanned to find the best pilot. February. this mobile user pressed end. and read the Sync Channel Message. SYNC CHANNEL MESSAGE 17:49:22. USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order At the end of a normal call.936 Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 2 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0.715 Reverse Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0 Release Order (normal release) BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 17:49:21. then sent a release message of its own. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .A Beautiful End to a Normal Call MOBILE RELEASE ORDER 17:49:21.517 Sync Channel MSG_TYPE: 1 Sync Channel Message P_REV: 1 MIN_P_REV: 1 SID: 4112 NID: 2 Pilot_PN: 183 LC_STATE: 0x318fe5d84a5 SYS_TIME: 0x1ae9683dc LP_SEC: 9 LTM_OFF: -10 DAYLT: 1 Paging Channel Data Rate: 9600 CDMA_FREQ: 425 The mobile left the traffic channel.

Example 7 Let’s receive Notification Let’s receive Notification of a Voice Message! of a Voice Message! February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .104 .

368 [PCH] Feature Notification Message MSG_LENGTH = 144 bits MSG_TYPE = Feature Notification Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 1 VALID_ACK = 0 ADDR_TYPE = IMSI ADDR_LEN = 56 bits IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 3 RESERVED = 0 MCC = 302 IMSI_11_12 = 00 IMSI_S = 9055170325 RELEASE = 0 RECORD_TYPE = Message Waiting RECORD_LEN = 8 bits MSG_COUNT = 1 RESERVED = 0 The Feature Notification Message on the Paging Channel tells a specific mobile it has voice messages waiting.105 . February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT The mobile confirms it has received the notification by sending a Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order on the access channel.Feature Notification FEATURE NOTIFICATION MESSAGE 98/06/30 21:16:44. There are other record types to notify the mobile of other features.

106 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Example 8 Let’s do a Handoff! Let’s do a Handoff! February.

2008 . a mobile makes a fresh attempt to acquire the system.0 107 February. After the scan is complete.©1997 Scott Baxter . It scans all the PN offsets in tiny steps to be sure no pilot signal is missed. EC/IO db.V0. and after the end of every call. -10 -15 -20 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. the mobile locks to the strongest pilot it has found.SYSTEM ACQUISITION 0 -3 -6 Strongest At turn-on.

frames begin on the Paging and traffic channels. The mobile puts its rake fingers on this PN and decodes Walsh Code 32.©1997 Scott Baxter . EC/IO db. 2008 Neighbor . the Sync channel.0 108 February.V0. -10 -15 -20 Neighbor Neighbor Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.IDLE MODE 0 -3 -6 The strongest pilot is now the only Active pilot. Soon it receives the neighbor list message. how to make the long code properly synchronized (Long Code State). and when the 20 ms. Now the mobile knows how to receive the paging channel! It begins continuously listening to the paging channel. The Sync channel announces the system (SID) and network (NID).

©1997 Scott Baxter .IDLE MODE HANDOFF 0 -3 -6 EC/IO db. since no messages are exchanged. the mobile can have only one active pilot at a time. 5 sec. The mobile’s pilot searcher is continuously checking both the active pilot (to keep the rake fingers aligned on the best multipath signals) and the neighbor pilots.0 109 February. -15 -20 Neighbor Neighbor New Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 The system does not even know the mobile has done an idle mode handoff. If a neighbor pilot is noticed at least 3 db stronger than the current active pilot. and it remains so for 5 seconds. listening to the paging channel. the mobile just stops listening to the old active and the stronger neighbor becomes the new (Settable parameters) active pilot. The mobile just starts listening to a different sector! Of course. Soft handoff is not possible during idle mode. If the current active pilot should fade and the mobile loses the paging channel. since the messages on one sector’s paging channel do not match the messages on another sector’s paging channel. 2008 Neighbor . 3 Db. -10 former Active Pilot In idle mode. it will register to let the new system know it has arrived.V0. if the mobile notices that the new sector has a different SID or NID from the old sector. it is allowed to switch to another stronger sector immediately without waiting 5 seconds. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.

0 110 February. asking for handoff with them.5. keep. keep.V0. it has only one active pilot – the same sector it was listening to in idle mode. PN102. 2008 Neighbor . -5. it will immediately send a PSMM to the system. SEND PSMM!! When a mobile begins a call.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 SEE ADDITIONAL PILOTS >T_ADD. During a call. PN134. -11. If the mobile notices any pilots with EC/IO above T_Add. It remembers the same neighbor list from its idle time. PSMM: PN248. the mobile’s pilot searcher is scanning alternately the active pilot and each pilot on the neighbor list.©1997 Scott Baxter . -10. keep T_ADD Neighbor above T_Add Neighbor above T_Add BTS EC/IO db. -10 -13 -15 T_DROP -20 Neighbor Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.

and the mobile must also be told which walsh codes have been assigned for it to listen to. 2008 Neighbor .V0. The mobile cannot begin listening to them yet. the newly-requested pilots are considered “Candidates”. -10 T_ADD -13 -15 Requested Candidate Requested Candidate T_DROP -20 Neighbor Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. because they do not have channel elements set up yet to simulcast the traffic channel. EC/IO db.©1997 Scott Baxter . The mobile patiently waits for the Extended Handoff Direction Message.0 111 February.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 WAIT for EHDM After the mobile has sent the PSMM.

the mobile confirms by sending a Handoff Completion Message.©1997 Scott Baxter . After beginning to use the new pilots. -10 -13 -15 T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot -20 Neighbor Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. the mobile receives the Extended Handoff Direction Message (EHDM). W14. 2008 Neighbor . and included the walsh codes the mobile must know in order to hear the sectors. W08. Then the system sends the mobile a new Neighbor List Update message. The base station has authorized the handoff on all the requested sectors.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 RECEIVE EHDM With approximately 500 ms after sending the PSMM. PN102.0 112 February. EHDM: PN248. W52 T_ADD BTS EC/IO db.V0. PN134.

PN134. has faded below T_Drop. T_TDrop EC/IO db. 2008 .V0.©1997 Scott Baxter . -10 T_ADD -13 ! Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 Neighbor 504 -15 T_DROP -20 Neighbor 54 -25 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. The mobile puts PN134 on a “probation watch” – waiting to see if it remains below T_Drop for T_TDrop seconds .IN CALL 0 -3 -6 AN ACTIVE PILOT FALLS BELOW T_DROP One of the active pilots.0 113 February.

2008 .©1997 Scott Baxter . becoming stronger than T_Drop before the T_TDrop time has passed. the mobile “forgives” its earlier weakness and will not send a PSMM to request any change.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 PILOT RECOVERS. REMAINS ACTIVE If PN134 recovers.0 114 February.V0. -10 T_ADD -13 ! Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 Neighbor 504 -15 T_DROP -20 Neighbor 54 -25 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. <T_TDrop EC/IO db.

T_TDrop EC/IO db.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 AN ACTIVE PILOT FALLS BELOW T_DROP AGAIN PN134 has faded below T_Drop again. The mobile puts PN134 on a “probation watch” – waiting to see if it remains below T_Drop for T_TDrop seconds . 2008 .0 115 February.©1997 Scott Baxter . -10 T_ADD -13 ! Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 Neighbor 504 -15 T_DROP -20 Neighbor 54 -25 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.V0.

IN CALL 0 -3 -6 PILOT REMAINS BELOW T_DROP FOR T_TDROP SECONDS.©1997 Scott Baxter . the mobile sends a PSMM requesting to drop it from the handoff. keep BTS EC/IO db. -10 T_ADD -13 ! Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor -15 T_DROP -20 Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. -11. >T_TDrop PSMM: PN248. SEND PSMM TO REMOVE! If PN134 remains below T_Drop for T_TDrop seconds. PN102. -16. PN134. 2008 Neighbor . -5.0 116 February. keep.V0.5. drop.

-10 T_ADD -13 -15 T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot -20 Neighbor Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. 2008 Neighbor .0 117 February. WAIT FOR EHDM EC/IO db.©1997 Scott Baxter .V0.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 The mobile waits for an Extended Handoff Direction Message (EHDM). giving permission to drop the pilot from the Active set.

Receive EHDM. W14.©1997 Scott Baxter . -10 -13 -15 T_DROP Active Pilot -20 Neighbor Active Pilot Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor Neighbor 488 -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. Drop Pilot T_ADD EHDM: PN248. 2008 Neighbor . The mobile continues with Active pilots PN102 and PN248. PN102. W52 BTS EC/IO db.0 118 February.V0.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 PN134 is now dropped from the Active set. and becomes a neighbor.

the newly-requested pilots are considered “Candidates”. EC/IO db. The mobile cannot begin listening to them yet. because they do not have channel elements set up yet to simulcast the traffic channel.0 120 February. and the mobile must also be told which walsh codes have been assigned for it to listen to. 2008 Requested Candidate T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Neighbor .©1997 Scott Baxter .IN CALL 0 -3 -6 WAIT for EHDM After the mobile has sent the PSMM. The mobile patiently waits for the Extended Handoff Direction Message. -10 T_ADD -13 -15 Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate 488 -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.V0.

PN328. PN 200. PN102. W27. Only the strongest 6 signals requested by the mobile are chosen to be active.0 121 February. PN396. and implements the handoff with the pilots listed in the message.V0. -10 T_ADD Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate 504 -13 -15 T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 The mobile receives the Extended Handoff Direction Message. W52 BTS RECEIVE EHDM EC/IO db. W31. W10. PN488. W14. PN248. W08.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 EHDM: PN300. PN420 and PN504 are Unassigned Candidates. The BSC has chosen the strongest six pilots requested in the previous PSMM. 2008 Active Pilot Neighbor .©1997 Scott Baxter . PN134. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.

-10. keep. keep. -11. PN328. keep. -12.V0. PN420. keep. -3. PN102.5. -12.5. PN416. and is now above T_Add. -10 T_ADD Neighbor above T_Add -13 -15 Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 504 The mobile notices that PN416 has just grown stronger. keep. keep EC/IO db. PN200. -11.5. -10. keep. PN134. It sends a PSMM requesting handoff with it and the other 10 signals above T_Add. -12. keep. BTS PN504. PN488. -12.5. PN300.©1997 Scott Baxter .IN CALL 0 -3 -6 SEE ADDITIONAL PILOTS >T_ADD. PN396. 2008 Requested Candidate T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot . -10.0 122 February. keep. SEND PSMM!! PSMM: PN248. keep.5. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.5. -5. keep.5.

and the mobile must also be told which walsh codes have been assigned for it to listen to. The mobile patiently waits for the Extended Handoff Direction Message. because they do not have channel elements set up yet to simulcast the traffic channel.0 123 February. 2008 Requested Candidate T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot .©1997 Scott Baxter . the newly-requested pilots are considered “Candidates”.V0. EC/IO db. The mobile cannot begin listening to them yet. -10 T_ADD -13 -15 Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 WAIT for EHDM After the mobile has sent the PSMM.

2008 Active Pilot . -10 T_ADD Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate 504 -13 -15 T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 The mobile receives the Extended Handoff Direction Message. The BSC has chosen the strongest six pilots requested in the previous PSMM. PN248. W14. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.©1997 Scott Baxter . W08. W34 BTS RECEIVE EHDM EC/IO db. PN416. W52. W31. PN396.0 124 February. Only the strongest 6 signals requested by the mobile are chosen to be active. PN488. PN200.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 EHDM: PN300. PN134. PN102.V0. PN396. PN420 and PN504 are Unassigned Candidates. W10. and implements the handoff with the pilots listed in the message. Notice that PN416 replaces PN102.

-3. keep.V0. -10. PN396. PN396. but the new PSMM includes the new current strength of each pilot. send EHDM T_COMP EC/IO db.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 PSMM: PN248. PN134. keep Notice T_COMP trigger. This triggers the mobile to send a new PSMM including all the pilots above T_ADD. -11. PN102. All of them were already either actives or candidates. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. PN200. BTS PN504.0 125 February. PN328.©1997 Scott Baxter . -10 T_ADD -13 -15 Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 504 Suppose T_COMP = 4 db. keep. -12. The mobile notices that the strongest candidate. keep. -12. PN420. keep.5. -10. -12.5. 2008 Requested Candidate T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot .5. PN300. -10. PN488. keep. keep.5. keep. keep. PN416. PN328. keep. has grown T_COMP db stronger than the weakest active pilot. keep. -5. -14.5. -10.

the active pilots are the same and the candidate pilots are the same.V0. T_COMP EC/IO db.0 126 February. which may cause some of the pilots to change sets. The mobile patiently waits for the Extended Handoff Direction Message.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 WAIT for EHDM Both before and after the mobile sends the PSMM. 2008 Requested Candidate T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot .©1997 Scott Baxter . -10 T_ADD -13 -15 Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate Requested Candidate -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 504 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.

W52. PN416. PN248. W31.©1997 Scott Baxter . W14. PN488. 2008 Active Pilot . W10. Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -. replacing PN328. -10 T_ADD Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate Unassigned Candidate 504 -13 -15 T_DROP Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot Active Pilot -20 Neighbor -25 54 102 134 200 248 300 328 396 416 420 488 Notice that PN396 has become Active. PN134.IN CALL 0 -3 -6 EHDM: PN300.V0.0 127 February. W08. PN328. W27 BTS RECEIVE EHDM EC/IO db.

Messages from a Handoff Messages from a Handoff February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .128 .

Neighbor Set Reference PN T_ADD ! ! 132 .The Call is Already Established. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . and also is our timing reference. What Next? Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 10752 14080 32002 32K PN 0 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN168 W61 F3 PN168 W61 Srch PN??? W0 168 220 500 512 Active Pilot Rake Fingers The call is already in progress. PN 168 is the only active signal. Continue checking the neighbors.129 If we ever notice a neighbor with Ec/Io above T_ADD. ask to use it! Send a Pilot Strength Measurement Message! February.

BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:02. and the mobile wants to use it too. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Mobile Requests the Handoff! PILOT STRENGTH MEASUREMENT MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:02. February. This pilot strength measurement message reports PN 500 has increased above T_Add. this particular mobile already was in handoff with PN 168 and 220.5 dB KEEP = 1 PILOT_PN_PHASE = 32002 chips (PN500 + 2 chips) PILOT_STRENGTH = -11.0 dB KEEP = 1 RESERVED = 0 Just prior to this message.205 [RTC] Pilot Strength Measurement Message MSG_LENGTH = 128 bits MSG_TYPE = Pilot Strength Measurement Message ACK_SEQ = 5 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled REF_PN = 168 Offset Index (the Reference PN) PILOT_STRENGTH = -6.130 .386 [FTC] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 64 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 0 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled USE_TIME = 0 ACTION_TIME = 0 ORDER = Base Station Acknowledgment Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 The base station acknowledges receiving the Pilot Strength Measurement Message.0 dB KEEP = 1 PILOT_PN_PHASE = 14080 chips (PN220+0chips) PILOT_STRENGTH = -12.

The pre-existing link on PN 168 will continue to use Walsh code 61.5 dB T_TDROP = 4 sec HARD_INCLUDED = 0 FRAME_OFFSET = Field Omitted PRIVATE_LCM = Field Omitted RESET_L2 = Field Omitted RESET_FPC = Field Omitted RESERVED = Field Omitted ENCRYPT_MODE = Field Omitted RESERVED = Field Omitted NOM_PWR = Field Omitted NUM_PREAMBLE = Field Omitted BAND_CLASS = Field Omitted CDMA_FREQ = Field Omitted ADD_LENGTH = 0 PILOT_PN = 168 PWR_COMB_IND = 0 CODE_CHAN = 61 PILOT_PN = 220 PWR_COMB_IND = 1 CODE_CHAN = 20 PILOT_PN = 500 PWR_COMB_IND = 0 CODE_CHAN = 50 RESERVED = 0 The base station sends a Handof Direction Message authorizing the mobile to begin soft handoff with all three requested PNs. February.0 dB T_COMP = 2.System Authorizes the Handoff! HANDOFF DIRECTION MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:02.0 dB T_DROP = -15. the new link on PN220 will use Walsh Code 20. MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:02. and the new link on PN500 will use Walsh code 50.945 [RTC] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 56 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 6 MSG_SEQ = 6 ACK_REQ = 0 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled ORDER = Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0 The mobile acknowledges it has received the Handoff Direction Message. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .131 .926 [FTC] Extended Handoff Direction Message MSG_LENGTH = 136 bits MSG_TYPE = Extended Handoff Direction Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 6 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled USE_TIME = 0 ACTION_TIME = 0 HDM_SEQ = 0 SEARCH_INCLUDED = 1 SRCH_WIN_A = 40 PN chips T_ADD = -13.

985 [RTC] Handoff Completion Message MSG_LENGTH = 72 bits MSG_TYPE = Handoff Completion Message ACK_SEQ = 6 MSG_SEQ = 1 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled LAST_HDM_SEQ = 0 PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index PILOT_PN = 220 Offset Index PILOT_PN = 500 Offset Index RESERVED = 0 The mobile searcher quickly re-checks all three PNs. BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 98/05/24 23:14:03. and will continue with all of the links active.Mobile Implements the Handoff! HANDOFF COMPLETION MESSAGE 98/05/24 23:14:02. confirming it still wants to go ahead with the handoff. February.132 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . It still hears their pilots! The mobile sends a Handoff Completion Message.085 [FTC] Forward Traffic Channel: Order ACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 Base Station Acknowledgement Order The base station confirms it has received the mobile’s Handoff Completion message.

Neighbor List Updated, Handoff is Complete!
NEIGHBOR LIST UPDATE MESSAGE
98/05/24 23:14:03.166 [FTC] Neighbor List Update Message MSG_LENGTH = 192 bits MSG_TYPE = Neighbor List Update Message ACK_SEQ = 1 MSG_SEQ = 7 ACK_REQ = 1 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled PILOT_INC = 4 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 164 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 68 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 52 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 176 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 304 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 136 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 112 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 372 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 36 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 8 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 384 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 216 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 328 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 332 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 400 Offset Index NGHBR_PN = 96 Offset Index RESERVED = 0

In response to the mobile’s Handoff Completion Message, the base station assembles a new composite neighbor list including all the neighbors of each of the three active pilots. This is necessary since the mobile could be traveling toward any one of these pilots and may need to request soft handoff with any of them soon.

MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The mobile confirms receiving the Neighbor List Update Message. It is already checking the neighbor list and will do so continuously from now on. The handoff is fully established.
February, 2008

98/05/24 23:14:03.245 [RTC] Order Message MSG_LENGTH = 56 bits MSG_TYPE = Order Message ACK_SEQ = 7 MSG_SEQ = 7 ACK_REQ = 0 ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode Disabled ORDER = Mobile Station Acknowledgement Order ADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bits Order-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 133

Handoff Now In Effect, but still check Pilots!
Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets

-20
Chips 0 10752 14080 32002 32K

PN 0
Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN500 W50 F3 PN220 W20 Srch PN??? W0

168 220

500 512

Active Set
Rake Fingers

T_DROP

Reference PN

Neighbor Set

Continue checking each ACTIVE pilot. If any are less than T_DROP and remain so for T_TDROP time, send Pilot Strength Measurement Message, DROP IT!! Continue looking at each NEIGHBOR pilot. If any ever rises above T_ADD, send Pilot Strength Measurement Message, ADD IT!
February, 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 - 134

The Complete Picture of Handoff & Pilot Sets
Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets

-20 Chips 0 PN 0
SRCH_WIN_A

Rake Fingers

SRCH_WIN_A

Active Set
Pilots of sectors now used for communication

32K 512
Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN500 W50 F3 PN220 W20 Srch PN??? W0

T_DROP

T_DROP

Reference PN Candidate Set SRCH_WIN_N
Pilots requested by mobile but not set up by system

Neighbor Set
Pilots suggested by system for more checking

Remaining Set

All other pilots divisible by PILOT_INC but not presently in Active, Candidate, or Neighbor sets

SRCH_WIN_R

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 135

Section G

Deeper Handoff Details: Deeper Handoff Details: Search Windows & Timing Search Windows & Timing

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 136

The Pilot Searcher’s Measurement Process
CURRENT PILOT SET CONTENTS 3 A A A 1 C 12 N N N N N N N N N N N N 112 R R R R R R R R R R R R
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

The searcher checks pilots in nested loops, much like meshed gears. Actives and candidates N N occupy the fastestspinning wheel. N A Neighbors are next, advancing N A A one pilot for each N Act+Cand. revolution. Remaining is slowest, N N advancing one pilot each time the Neighbors revolve.

R R N R R R R N R

PILOT SEARCHER VIEWED IN SEQUENCE: Typical Elapsed Time = 4 seconds
A A N N C C A A A A N N A A A A A A C C A A A A N N C C A A A A N N C C A A A A N N A A A A A R C C A A A N N C C A A A N N C A A A A N A A A A A C C A A A N N C C A A A N N C A A A R N A A A A A C C A A A N N C A A A A N C C A A A N N A A A A A C C A A A N N C A A A R N C C A A A N N A A A A A C A A A A N C C A A A N N C C A A A N N A A A A A C A A A A N C C A A

Only 3 of 112 remaining set pilots have been checked thus far!
132 - 137

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

A Quick Primer on Pilot Search Windows The phone chooses one strong sector and “locks” to it. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .14 m 1 mile=6.6 chips. the signal from BTS B will seem 29 chips earlier than expected. the signal from BTS A will seem 29 chips later than expected. making them seem earlier or later than expected To overcome skew. One chip is 801 feet or 244.= 4. accepting its offset at “face value” and interpreting all other offsets by comparison to it In messages. when the phone searches for a particular pilot. system gives to handset a neighbor list of nearby sectors’ PNs Propagation delay “skews” the apparent PN offsets of all other sectors. it scans an extra wide “delta” of chips centered on the expected offset (called a “search window”) Search window values can be datafilled individually for each Pilot set: There are pitfalls if the window sizes are improperly set • too small: overlook pilots from far away • too large: search time increases • too large: might misinterpret identity of a distant BTS’ signal PROPAGATION DELAY SKEWS APPARENT PN OFFSETS 33 4 Chips Chips A BTS B BTS If the phone is locked to BTS A. If the phone is locked to BTS B.138 . 1 km.1 chips February.

Setting Pilot Search Window Sizes When the handset first powers up.2 15.06 1.52 2. When a strong neighbor is requested in a PSMM. Its offset is precisely remembered and frequently rechecked and tracked by the phone.R Delta Distance Size (Chips) Value Miles KM.07 7.88 7.3 1. On the paging channel. the handset learns the window sizes SRCH_WIN_A. the former neighbor pilot is now a candidate. N.03 4. Only search wide enough to include multipath energy! • This greatly speeds up overall searching! Most post-processing tools deliver statistics on the spread (in chips) between fingers locked to the same pilot.44 3.77 12. These statistics literally show us how wide the SRCH_WIN_A should be set.1 55.6 39.1 17.3 34.59 9. 2008 SEARCH WINDOW SETTINGS AND PROPAGATION DISTANCES Window Datafill N. Window size for actives and candidates can be small.2 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . since their exact position is known.1 24.32 9. No windows are used in this process. Neighbor and Remaining search windows should be set to accommodate the maximum intercell distances which a mobile might experience February. it does an exhaustive search for the best pilot.86 12. R and uses them when looking for neighbors both in idle mode and during calls.139 .71 2.12 3.42 4.9 19.55 6. 14 (±7) 20 (±10) 28 (±14) 40 (±20) 60 (±30) 80 (±40) 100 (±50) 130 (±65) 160 (±80) 226 (±113) 320 (±160) 452 (±226) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1.5 27.

1 mi. vel This is outside the 65-chip window.Tra Mobile can’t see BTS B’s pilot. l This is outside the 65-chip window. can’t see un distant one tai ns B Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .Handoff Problems: “Window” Dropped Calls Calls often drop when strong neighbors suddenly appear outside the neighbor search window and cannot be used to establish soft handoff. BTS A appears (80-7) chips 7 Chips late due to its farther distance. Neighbor Search Window SRCH_WIN_N should be set to a width at least twice the propagation delay between any site and its most distant neighbor site Remaining Search Window SRCH_WIN_R should be set to a width at least twice the propagation delay between any site and another site which might deliver occasional RF into the service area February.140 Locked to nearby mo site. but its strong signal blinds us and the call drops. BTS B appears (7-80) chips 7 Chips early due to its closer distance. SITUATION 2 A BTS 12 80 mile Ch s ips SRCH_WIN_N = 130 BTS BTS B is reference. 1 mi. Trave Mobile can’t see BTS A’s pilot. can’t see un one nearby tai ns B BTS SRCH_WIN_N = 130 BTS A is reference. 132 . 2008 SITUATION 1 A BTS 12 80 mile Ch s ips Locked to distant mo site.

141 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . and so are unable to do soft-handoff at boundaries between BSCs. but not always possible • a handset can receive BTS/sectors simultaneously only on one frequency • all involved BTS/sectors must connect to a networked BSCs. • frame timing must be same on all BTS/sectors If any of the above are not possible. handoff still can occur but can only be “hard” break-make protocol like AMPS/TDMA/GSM • intersystem handoff: hard • change-of-frequency handoff: hard • CDMA-to-AMPS handoff: hard. Some manufacturers do not presently support this. no handback – auxiliary trigger mechanisms available (RTD) February.Overall Handoff Perspective Soft & Softer Handoffs are preferred.

142 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Section I Introduction to Optimization Introduction to Optimization February.

What is Performance Optimization? The words “performance optimization” mean different things to different people.implementing short-term fixes to ease “hot spots”.143 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . too much overlap/soft handoff. etc.) • “cluster testing” and “cell integration” to ensure that new base station hardware works and that call processing is normal • “fine-tuning” system parameters to wring out the best possible call performance • identifying causes of specific problems and customer complaints. and recognizing problems before they become critical February. and fixing them • carefully watching system traffic growth and the problems it causes . viewed from the perspective of their own jobs System Performance Optimization includes many different smaller processes at many points during a system’s life • recognizing and resolving system-design-related issues (can’t build a crucial site. coverage holes.

competition for capital during tight times Predict sector and area exhaustion: plan and validate effective growth plan. all handoff boundaries. models for cell spliiting. have capacity for anticipated traffic Ensure cells properly constructed and configured to give normal performance Identify problems from complaints or statistics. planning tools Drive-test tools. Access Failures. carrier additions February. customer reports System statistics Smart optimization of parameters. fix them! Ensure present ‘plant’ is giving best possible performance Manage congested areas for most effective performance Activities Plan cells to effectively cover as needed and divide traffic load appropriately Drive-test: coverage. Resolve performance problems Watch stats: Drops. cell diagnostics and hardware test Drive-test tools. system statistics Success Indicators Model results All handoffs occur. carried traffic levels Sectors are expanded soon after first signs of congestion. Blocks. identify/fix hot spots Watch capacity indicators. capital budget remains within comfortable bounds hello Overall traffic increases and congestion.144 .Performance Optimization Phases/Activities Phase RF Design and Cell Planning New Cluster Testing and Cell Integration Solve Specific Performance Problems Well-System Performance Management Capacity Optimization Growth Management: Optimizing both Performance and Capital Effectiveness Drivers/Objectives Cover desired area. system stats. all call events and scenarios Detect. Test Transmitters. tune parameters & configuration Main Tools Prop. all test cases verified Identified problems are resolved Acceptable levels and good trends for all indicators Stats-Derived indicators. avoid integration impact Traffic analysis and trending tools. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . prop. identify problem areas. Investigate. Models.

Two. 2008 BTS C -10 available power Traffic Channels In use Paging Sync Pilot Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . or Three good signals in handoff • Composite Ec/Io > -10 db Enough capacity • No resource problems – I’ve got what I need BTS BTS BTS Ec/Io BTS A BTS B FORWARD LINK February.145 .Good Performance is so Simple!! One.

Channel Elements – No available Walsh Codes – No space in Packet Pipes Pilot “Surprise” ambush.146 BTS Sector Transmitter February. “Rogue” mobiles • Missing Neighbors • Search Windows Too Small • BTS Resource Overload / No Resources – No Forward Power. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Slow Handoffs PN Plan errors Slow Data Problems: RF or IP congestion Improper cell or reradiator configuration Hardware and software failures But on analysis. all of these problems’ bad effects happen because the simple few-signal ideal CDMA environment isn’t possible.Bad Performance Has Many Causes +41 +8 360 A BTS 360+33c B BTS No Available Power! Traffic Channels In Use BTS Rx Pwr Overload CEs Vocoders Selectors Paging Sync Pilot x BTS B PN 99 BTS A PN 100 ACTIVE SEARCH WINDOW 1 mile 11 miles Weak Signal / Coverage Hole Pilot Pollution • Excessive Soft Handoff Handoff Failures. 132 .

50 118.for the same reasons.75 11500 Aeronautical Investigations Flight Data Recorder Cockpit Voice Recorder CDMA Investigations BTS Temporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files To study the cause of an aeronautical accident. February. we try to recover the Flight Data Recorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .147 .Aeronautical Analogy: Tools for Problem Investigation Control & Parameters 11500 Messaging 114. we review data from the Temporal Analyzer and the Layer 3 Message Files -. To study the cause of a CDMA call processing accident.25 125.

Dropped Call Analysis • finally.Starting Optimization on a New System RF Coverage Control • try to contain each sector’s coverage. _R • especially optimize SRCH_WIN_A per sector using collected finger separation data. iterative corrections until within numerical goals Getting these items into shape provides a solid baseline and foundation from which future performance issues can be addressed.148 . _N. February. system logs Access Failures. Handoff State Plots. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Mobile TX plots Search Window Settings • find best settings for SRCH_WIN_A. avoiding gross spillover into other sectors • tools: PN Plots. has major impact on pilot search speed Neighbor List Tuning • try to groom each sector’s neighbors to only those necessary but be alert to special needs due to topography and traffic • tools: diagnostic data.

checking messages on both forward and reverse links to establish “what happened”. frequency plan problems CDMA impairments have one audible symptom: Dropped Call • voice quality remains excellent with perhaps just a hint of garbling even as the call approaches dropping in a hostile RF environment Successful CDMA Optimization requires: • recognition and understanding of common reasons for call failure • capture of RF and digital parameters of the call prior to drop • analysis of call flow.149 . diagnose. external interferences • dragged handoffs. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . and why February. where. adjacent channel. and correct many common problems • co-channel.Solving Problems on Existing Systems CDMA optimization is very different from optimization in analog technologies such as AMPS AMPS: a skilled engineer with a handset or simple equipment can hear.

not T_Add/T_Drop.CDMA Problems Attacked in Optimization Excessive Access Failures • typical objectives: <2% (IS-95B will bring improvements) Excessive Dropped Calls • typical objective: ~1%. nor mobile software. Don’t humbly accept problems -. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .150 . Protocol Violations • Neither system software. use it!” Software Bugs. nor the CDMA standard is perfect. <2% Forward Link Interference • typical objective: eliminate situations which prevent handoff! Slow Handoff • typical objective: eliminate situations which delay handoff! Handoff Pilot Search Window Issues • avoid handoff drops! Excessive Soft Handoff • control coverage.dig in and find out what’s happening! February. to manage soft handoff levels (~<50%) Grooming Neighbor Lists • “if you need it.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Card BSM DISCO ACC TFU1 IS-95/J-STD-8 Messages RFFE A RFFE B Switch Data LPP ENET LPP pegs. logs DMS-BUS DTCs IOC DISCO 1 DISCO 2 System Σα Txcvr A Internal Messages B Txcvr Σβ Σχ SBS Vocoders Selectors Txcvr C RFFE C Handset Messages Various External Analysis Tools IS-95/J-STD-008 Messages Unix-based.Sources of CDMA Data and Tools for Processing CDMA NETWORK EQUIPMENT Switch SLM CM HANDSET CBSC GPSR TFU1 CDSU CDSU BTS GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU Ch.151 . PC-based Data Analysis Post-Processing Tools PC-based Mobile Data Capture Tools PC-based Mobile Data Post-Processing Tools CDMA optimization data flows from three places: • Switch • CDMA peripherals (CBSC & BTS) • Handset Each stream of data has a family of software and hardware tools for collection and analysis February.

152 . Bottoms-Up L Ta osses xe s Management Profits Dis trib utio n Capital e nc ra su In Lea s es ce ervi S on ecti Sel Test Shopper Complex!!! Co sts Simpler Con ven ienc Price e ng Stocking Su isi rt pp ve Labor Relations lie d A rs System are Administration oftw S TransProvisioning mission Switch CBSC Complex!!! Acces s ce eren s Phone rf Inte all ed C pp Dro Simpler Cov erag e Failur es Data C apture PSTN TrunkingData Analys is BTS Neighbor Lists Configuration Field Tools Some things are easier to measure from the customer side! February.Department Store Analogy: Tops-Down. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

To study the cause of a CDMA call processing accident.75 11500 Aeronautical Case Flight Data Recorder Cockpit Voice Recorder CDMA Case BTS Temporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files To study the cause of an aeronautical accident.25 130. we try to recover the Flight Data Recorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder.for the same reasons. we review data from the Temporal Analyzer and the Layer 3 Message Files -. February.Aeronautical Analogy: Tools for Problem Investigation Control & Parameters 11500 Messaging 114.153 .50 118. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

R-P. with no power available to produce an SCH? • Poor RF environment.154 IP Data Environment CDMA RF Environment . causing low rates and packet retransmission? • Congestion in the local IP network (PCU. with long response times? February.So S L O W ! ! IP Data Environment Internet VPNs T PDSN/Foreign Agent Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting Where’s My Data?!! T PDSN Home Agent AAA R-P Interface BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 CE (C)BSC/Access Manager Traditional Telephony CDMA IOS PPP •Coverage Holes •Pilot Pollution •Missing Neighbors •Fwd Pwr Ovld •Rev Pwr Ovld •Search Windows Wireless •Island Cells Mobile Device •Slow Handoff Some sessions are tormented by long latency and slow throughput Where is the problem? Anywhere between user and distant host: • Is the mobile user’s data device mis-configured and/or congested? • Is the BTS congested. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . PDSN FA)? • Congestion in the wireless operator’s backbone (‘OSSN’) network? • Congestion in the PDSN HA? • Congestion in the outside-world internet or Private IP network? • Is the distant host congested.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . February.Finding Causes of Latency and Low Throughput Test Server Test Server IP Data Environment T Test Server PDSN/Foreign Agent Internet VPNs Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting T PDSN Home Agent AAA R-P Interface BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 CE (C)BSC/Access Manager Traditional Telephony CDMA IOS PPP •Coverage Holes •Pilot Pollution •Missing Neighbors •Fwd Pwr Ovld •Rev Pwr Ovld •Search Windows Wireless •Island Cells Mobile Device •Slow Handoff IP network performance can be measured using test servers Problems between mobile a local test server? The problem is local • check RF conditions. investigate BSC/PCU/R-P/PDSN-FA Local results OK.155 IP Data Environment CDMA RF Environment . SCH blocking? • if the RF is clean. stats: poor environment. problems accessing test server at PDSN-HA? • problem is narrowed to backbone network. or PDSN-HA Results OK even through test server at PDSN-HA • then the problem is in the public layers beyond.

Autonomous Data Collection Autonomous Data Collection By Subscriber Handsets By Subscriber Handsets February.156 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

Using Autonomous Collection Collection Server •software download •collected data upload •data management.157 . analysis BTS PDSN/Foreign Agent BTS Backbone Internet Network T SECURE TUNNELS T VPNs PDSN Authentication Authorization R-P Interface Home Agent Accounting AAA PSTN t1 Switch t1 v BTS SEL t1 (C)BSC/Access Manager BTS A Server downloads software to a large population of subscriber mobiles Mobiles collect on custom profiles • all or groups of mobiles can be enabled/disabled • new triggers can be rapidly developed and downloaded when desired Mobiles upload compacted packets to server driven by custom triggers • may be immediately if needed. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . or at low-traffic pre-programmed times • collected data can include location/GPS/call event/L3 messaging/timestamps/etc. Server manages data. provides filtering and reporting Performance optimizers use terminals and post-processing software February.

Conventional Field Tools Conventional Field Tools February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .158 .

CAIT PN Scanners Agilent (HP + SAFCO) Grayson Berkeley Varitronics Qualcomm Willtech Willtech Ericsson TEMS DTI There are many commercial CDMA field test tools Characteristics of many test tools: • capture data from data ports on commercial handsets • log data onto PCs using proprietary software • can display call parameters. graphs. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .investigate! February. and support • new tools are introduced every few months . messaging. availability.159 . convenience. easy to use in vehicles or even on foot A few considerations when selecting test tools: • does it allow integration of network and mobile data? • Cost. features. and maps • store data in formats readable for post-processing analysis • small and portable.CDMA Field Test Tools Field Collection Tools using Handset Data Motorola Grayson Agilent (HP + SAFCO) Comarco Qualcomm MDM.

160 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Qualcomm’s MDM: Mobile Diagnostic Monitor The Qualcomm Mobile Diagnostic Monitor was the industry’s first field diagnostic tool • used industry-wide in the early deployment of CDMA • pictures at right from Sprint’s first 1996-7 CDMA trials in Kansas City Qualcomm’s Mobile Diagnostic Monitor • CDMA handset (customer provided) • Proprietary connecting cable • PC software for collection and field preanalysis – Temporal analyzer display mode – Messaging February.

161 .Grayson’s Invex3G Tool 100 MB ethernet connection to PC the eight card slots can hold receivers or dual-phone cards there’s also room for two internal PN scanners Multiple Invex units can be cascaded for multi-phone loadtest applications Cards are field-swappable Users can reconfigure the unit in the field for different tasks without factory assistance February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .6kb/s. is assigned as an SCH but only on one sector. February.6 kb/s This mobile is in a 2-way soft handoff (two green FCH walsh codes assigned) in the middle of a downlink SCH burst.Grayson Invex 1x Data Example 153. and the downlink data speed is 153. 4 chips long. Notice walsh code #3.162 .

R-SCH 76.©1997 Scott Baxter . 2008 .8kbps CDMA Status PN Scanner Data Current Data Task Status Layer-3 Messages Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.Grayson Invex 1xData Example F-SCH rates 153.V0.0 163 February.6 kbps.

WillTech Tools Blue Rose platform can manage multiple phones and collect data • Internal processor manages test operations independently for standalone operation • Internal PCMCIA flash card provides storage • An external PC can display collected data during or after data collection February.164 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

Bands Base-Station Over-Air Tester (BOAT) • Can display all walsh channel activity on a specific sector • Useful for identifying hardware problems. monitoring instantaneous traffic levels.165 . Post-Processing tool: OPAS32 February. can scan two carrier frequencies Spectrum Analyzer • Can scan entire 800 or 1900 mHz. etc. GPS-locked. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Agilent Drive-Test Tools Agilent offers Drive-Test tools • Serial interfaces for up to four CDMA phones • A very flexible digital receiver with several modes PN Scanner • Fast.

166 .IS-95 Busy Sector Snapshot of Walsh Usage February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .1xRTT Busy Sector Walsh Code Usage February.167 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . GPS-locked – full-PN scan speed 1.168 . miss transient interfering signals Berkeley Varitronics • high-resolution. • 2048 parallel processors for very fast detection of transient interferors Agilent (formerly Hewlett-Packard) • high resolution.2 sec. • Integrated with spectrum analyzer and phone call-processing tool Grayson Wireless • New digital receiver provides CDMA PN searcher and and sector walsh domain displays February.PN Scanners Why PN scanners? Because phones can’t scan remaining set fast enough. GPS-locked – full-PN scan speed 26-2/3 ms.

and stand-alone sources Verizon/Airtouch internal tool “DataPro” February. more effective than studying data playback with collection tools alone Actix Analyzer • Imports/analyzes data from almost every brand of drive-test collection tool Andrew (formerly Grayson) Interpreter • Imports/analyzes data from Andrew Invex3G Nortel RF Optimizer • Can merge/analyze drive-test and Nortel CDMA system data Xceed Technologies Windcatcher • Imports/analyzes data from almost every brand of drive-test device Xceed Technologies Vortex • Provides automated analysis of data from manual.169 . 2008 Vortex Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . autonomous.Post-Processing Tools Windcatcher Analyzer Interpreter Post-Processing tools display drive-test files for detailed analysis .Faster.

170 .Drive-Tests: Phones Maintenance Features of Maintenance Features of CDMA Handsets CDMA Handsets February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

171 .Handsets as Tools: Simple but always Available! Most CDMA handsets provide some form of maintenance display (“Debug Mode”) as well as instrumentation access • all CDMA drive-test tools use handsets as their “front-ends” Using the handset as a manual tool without Commercial Test Tools: Enter the maintenance mode by special sequence of keystrokes Displayed Parameters • PN Offset. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . etc. Handset Mode. Transmit Gain Adjust Maintenance Display Applications • best serving cell/sector • simple call debugging (symptoms of weak RF. serving PN offset not updated during voice calls February. forward link interference. Received RF Level .) Handset Limitations during manual observation • no memory: real-time observations only. no access to messages or call details.

Sync Channel Acquisition Substate 2 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . db Reference PN Offset System Protocol Revision Level Radio Configuration (Idle mode = 0. db (primary PN only) Carrier Freq. 0) 0 .Interpreting Samsung Maintenance Display: Acquisition. (Channel #) Packet Zone ID February. and Access States Display toggles between: System Identifier (SID) Network Identifier (NID) Transmit Gain Adjust.Traffic Channel State 5.MS Idle State 3 .various call service options Slot Cycle Index Processing State Debug Screen S04274 SI2 2 T-56 D070-04 P0060 CH0350 PR6 RC0 0Z11 V206T144L:02 Receive Power.7 . Idle.Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate 1 . dbm Ec/Io.System Access State 4 .6.172 .

db (primary PN only) Carrier Freq.54%L:02 Radio Configuration (RC3. 2008 FCH Receive (FL) Vocoder Rate Walsh Code 0 .MS Idle State 3 .Sync Channel Acquisition Substate 2 . db PN Offset System Protocol Revision Level Service Option Live Cumulative FER February. RC3 common) Receive Power.6.Traffic Channel State 5.7 .Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate 1 .System Access State 4 .Interpreting Samsung Maintenance Display: Traffic Channel State Transmit (RL) Vocoder Rate 1 = 1/8 2 = 1/4 4 = 1/2 8 = Full Transmit Gain Adjust.various call service options Processing State Debug Screen TE8 RE8 40 6 T-10 D070-04 P0060 CH0350 PR6 RC33 Z11 SO00003 G207 F001.173 . (Channel #) Packet Zone ID Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . dbm Ec/Io.

71 LT: 036:06:36 LG: -086:45:36 EC: -16 -63 -63 PN: 084 084 084 FNGLK: Y Y N WLSH: 01 01 01 ACT: 084 484 096 -01 -01 200 CND: 220 332 200 200 332 NGH: 076 080 340 068 196 O56 320 220 316 344 488 196 200 392 124 128 084 224 008 084 Average Battery Temperature Received Signal Strength Estimated Transmitter Power Output Frame Erasure Rate.174 .Denso Maintenance Display Charging Battery Voltage Average Battery Voltage System ID Network ID RF Channel Frequency Digital PN Offset Number of Bad Frames Number of Good Frames Base Station coordinates Current status of Rake Fingers Active Pilot Set Candidate Pilot Set D CBV: 3957 ABV: 3954 ABT: 031 ARF: 0000 CCL: 01 SID: 04157 NID: 00001 CH: 0100 RSSI: 093 DPN: 084 TX:-46 BFRM:0000000968 TFRM:0000135712 FER:% 000. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Percent Neighbor Pilot Set February.

175 .Sanyo SPC-4500 Maintenance Display Choose the following: DISPLAY OK 0 OK Enter Code: 0 0 0 0 0 0 Debug Menu SCREEN OK February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

176 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . State ## 040793 select MENU/OK button scroll to save Phone # select PN offset Receive Power Io Channel Frequency February.Sanyo SPC-4900 Maintenance Display Call Proc.

• New prompts will appear. Then enter the following: FCN 000000 000000 0 RCL You'll be prompted for your MSL. Power off and back on. • Step 1 will appear with its current setting displayed.Entering Maintenance Mode: Motorola StarTac Contact your service provider to obtain your phone’s Master Subscriber entity Lock (MSL).177 . Press STO in response to each prompt until no more appear. Press * to accept and move on to the next step. Press 55#. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . enter it and press STO.) Now press STO to accept the entry and exit back to the ' prompt. Step 9 (Option byte 2) is the only step requiring manual changes. Repeat for steps 2-8. Don’t delay continue quickly and enter: FCN 0 0 * * T E S T M O D E STO • The display will briefly show US then just '. Enter 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (The leftmost bit now set to '1' is what enables test mode. You should now be in test mode! February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .178 .February.

179 State .Service Option Battery Local Time Condition RX Power Strongest Active # # Channel PN Ec/Io Actives Neighbors Number Strongest Neighbor # Cand.Call Proc Last Call Exit Reason PN Ec/Io idates State Rx Power Tx Power Last Call FER% # Drops dbm dbm (Io) Current # Calls Last Call Indicator NI No Indication yet MR Mobile Release BR Base Sta. Release TC Traffic Channel Lost L2 Layer 2 Ack Fail NC No Channel Assn Msg N5 N5M failure BS BS Ack failure WO L3 WFO State Timeout MP Max Probe Failure PC Paging Channel loss RR Reorder or Release on PCH ?? Unknown Condition SID SMS CP CP Exit RST CP Restart ORD RTC Restricted REG 8V 8K voice original 13S 13K SMS PLT Pilot Acquisition TCI IL 8K loopback 8MO 8K Markov Old SYN Sync Acquisition WFO TIM Timing Change 8EV 8K EVRC DAT Data 8S 8K SMS 8M 8K Markov New BKS Background Sch WFA CON 13L 13K loopback 13M 13K Markov New IDL Idle OVD Overhead REL 13V 13K Voice to CDMA v6 Paging Scott BaxterNON PAG (c) 2008 February. 2008 Technical Introduction Call Processing States ORG Call Origination NID Current Service Option Short Message Svc Order Response Registration Tfc Ch Initialization Waiting for Order Waiting for Answer Conversation state Release No132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Scroll down to Test Mode. Enter subscriber entity lock code if required by your phone Same maintenance display as shown for Startac February.180 .Motorola V120C Series MENU 073887* Enter 000000 for security code.

Enter subscriber entity lock code if required by your phone Same maintenance display as shown for Startac February.Motorola V60C MENU 073887* Enter 000000 for security code.181 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Scroll down to Test Mode.

182 .Nokia 6185 Maintenance Display Enter *3001#12345# MENU Scroll down to Field test Press Select Scroll up to Enabled Press OK Power the phone off and on You should now be in Field test mode February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

To exit. February.Novatel Merlin C201 1xRTT Data Card Enter # # D E B U G to enter maintenance mode. just click “OK” box in the Debug window. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .183 .

Audiovox Thera Maintenance Mode Screens How to enter Debug Mode: [ctrl] [D] [enter] Advanced Usr Pwd: ##DEBUG [enter] Protocol Statistics February.184 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

185 . The Network. The other tabs provide details of the packet operations and error counters. February. hover your cursor over the Connection Manager main indicator window or the Start button and type “##debug”.Sierra 580 1xEV-DO Rev 0 Aircard To enter the maintenance display. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Network 2. and HDR tabs provide the most useful information on the air interface.

The Future is Here! CDMA2000 What’s New in CDMA2000? What’s New in CDMA2000? February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .186 .

8 kb/s w/modem IS-95 14.800 kb/s 1xEV-DO 0 2400 – 600 DL 153.6 – 4.187 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .2 kb/s GPRS 40 – 30 kb/s DL 15 kb/s UL 1xRTT RC3 153.6 – 80 kb/s CDPD 19.6 kb/s This summary is a work-in-progress.2 – 9.153 UL ETSI/GSM WCDMA HSDPA 12000 – 6000 kb/s MISC/NEW WI-MAX Flarion OFDM 1500 – 900 kb/s 1xEV-DO A 3100 – 800 DL 1800 – 600 UL WCDMA 1 2000 .2 kb/s PAGING Mobitex 9.8 kb/s obsolete AMPS Cellular GSM CSD 9. Thanks for your comments! February.1200 DL 307 . latest announced details.A Quick Survey of Wireless Data Technologies US CDMA 1xEV-DV 5000 .6 kb/s 1xRTT RC4 307. or corrections to the above? Email to Scott@ScottBaxter.6 – 4.8 kb/s discontinued IS-95B 64 -32 kb/s GSM HSCSD 32 – 19.6 – 76 UL WCDMA 0 384 – 250 kb/s TD-SCDMA In Development EDGE 200 .8 kb/s 9.6 – 4.2 – 160 kb/s IDEN 19.2 – 4. tracking latest experiences and reports from all the high-tier (provider-network-oriented) 2G and 3G wireless data technologies Have actual experiences to share.com.2 – 19.90 kb/s DL 45 kb/s UL CELLULAR IS-136 TDMA 19.4 – 9.

DV QPSK 16QAM 1xEV-DO at highest rates 64QAM 1xEV-DV at highest rates February. 307.188 . Data and Voice”. • Max throughput of 5 Mbps forward. and does not support circuit-switched voice • Commercially available in 2003 1xEV DV means “1x Evolution. “1x Evolution”. IS-2000 1xRTT. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Modulation Techniques of 1xEV Technologies 1xEV. work continues All versions of 1xEV use advanced modulation techniques to achieve high throughputs.6 kbps reverse • A 1xEV DO carrier holds only packet data.2k reverse • Backward compatible with IS-95/1xRTT voice calls on the same carrier as the data • Not yet commercially available. originally proposed by Qualcomm as “High Data Rates” (HDR). Data Only”.4576 Mbps forward. 153. 1xEV DO means “1x Evolution. CDMA IS-95. and lower rates of 1xEV-DO. is a family of alternative fast-data schemes that can be implemented on a 1x CDMA carrier. • Up to 2.

5 BTS F-SCH F-FCH R-FCH MOBILE R-SCH T seconds 0 February.1xRTT Data Burst Control Lags RF Conditions Eb/Nt. 0.1 DATA RATE DECISION +6 GOOD CONDITIONS DATA BURST ACTUALLY OCCURS NOW BAD CONDITIONS Path Loss.1 Setup Time Fixed Rate! F-SCH Burst SCH-Assignment Msg.4 132 .5 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .3 0.3 Time. db 0.4 0.2 0. relative dB +4 +2 +0 -2 0 0. dB Path Loss.2 0.189 0. Seconds 0. 2008 0.

4 0.190 . Thoughput: 0.6 Mb/s typ. T 0 0. 0.4 Mb/s max.3 0. 1xRTT at the Same Time-Scale AP 1xEV-DO Traffic DRC Thoughput: 2.06 Mb/s typ.. Seconds 0.15 or 0. February. SCH-Request Msg.2 Time. AT Setup time can be less than 10 ms.1 0. depending on traffic loading.31 Mb/s max.5 1xRTT BTS F-SCH F-FCH R-FCH MOBILE R-SCH Setup Time Fixed Rate! F-SCH Burst SCH-Assignment Msg. 0. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .1xEV-DO vs.

1xRTT CHANNEL STRUCTURE IS-95 and 1xRTT • many simultaneous users. 2008 IS-95 AND 1xRTT Many users’ simultaneous forward and reverse traffic channels PILOT SYNC PAGING F-FCH1 F-FCH2 F-FCH3 F-SCH W0 W32 W1 W17 W25 W41 W3 BTS F-FCH4 W53 ATs 1xEV-DO AP (Access Terminals) (Access Point) 1xEV-DO Forward Link AP Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . each with steady forward and reverse traffic channels • transmissions arranged. each receives fair share of available sector time • instant preference given to user with ideal receiving conditions.Very Different: • Forward Link goes to one user at a time – like TDMA! • users are rapidly time-multiplexed. to maximize average throughput • transmissions arranged and requested via steady MAC-layer walsh streams – very immediate! February. requested. confirmed by layer-3 messages – with some delay…… 1xEV-DO -.Channel Structure of 1xEV-DO vs.191 .

Power Management of 1xEV-DO vs. 2008 IS-95: VARIABLE POWER TO MAINTAIN USER FER Maximum Sector Transmit Power 8 7 6 power 5 5 4 2 5 3 User 1 PAGING SYNC PILOT time 1xEV-DO: MAX POWER ALWAYS. with only one user served at any instant • The transmission data rate is set to the maximum speed the user can receive at that moment February. 1xRTT POWER MANAGEMENT IS-95 and 1xRTT: • sectors adjust each user’s channel power to maintain a preset target FER 1xEV-DO IS-856: • sectors always operate at maximum power • sector output is timemultiplexed. DATA RATE OPTIMIZED power time Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .192 .

193 . 1xRTT Phone.Some EV-DO Terminology IS-95. BTS. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . Mobile. or Subscriber Terminal EV-DO AT Access Terminal Base Station. IS-2000. Cell Site AP Access Point February. Handset.

1xEV-DO Technical Details 1xEV-DO Technical Details Data Flow and Channels Data Flow and Channels February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .194 .

1xRTT frames are usually 20 ms. long • 1xEV-DO frames are 26-2/3 ms. most slots are intended for individual users or private groups Users don’t “own” long continuing series of slots One Slot like in TDMA or GSM. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . IS-95B.1xEV-DO Transmission Timing Forward Link All members of the CDMA family . long – same length as the short PN code One 1xEV-DO Frame – each 1xEV-DO frame is divided into 1/16ths.195 . each slot or small string of slots is dynamically addressed to whoever needs it at the moment February. 1xEV-DO and 1xEV-DV transmit “Frames” One Cycle of PN Short Code • IS-95. IS-95B. called “slots” The Slot is the basic timing unit of 1xEV-DO forward link transmission • Each slot is directed toward somebody and holds a subpacket of information for them • Some slots are used to carry the control channel for everyone to hear.IS-95. 1xRTT. instead.

What’s In a Slot? ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 The main “cargo” in a slot is the DATA being sent to a user But all users need to get continuous timing and administrative information. even when all the slots are going to somebody else Twice in every slot there is regularly-scheduled burst of timing and administrative information for everyone to use • MAC (Media Access Control) information such as power control bits • a burst of pure Pilot – allows new mobiles to acquire the cell and decide to use it – keeps existing user mobiles exactly on sector time – mobiles use it to decide which sector should send them their next forward link packet February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .196 .

197 . even in an empty slot February. transmitting can be suspended during the data portions of that slot • But---the MAC and PILOT must be transmitted!! • New and existing mobiles on this sector and surrounding sectors need to monitor the relative strength of all the sectors and decide which one to use next.What if there’s No Data to Send? ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC empty 400 chips empty 400 chips empty 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT empty 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Sometimes there may be no data waiting to be sent on a sector’s forward link • When there’s no data to transmit on a slot. so they need the pilot • Mobiles TRANSMITTING data to the sector on the reverse link need power control bits • So MAC and PILOT are always transmitted. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

198 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Forward Link Frame and Slot Structure: “Big Picture” Summary ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms CONTROL CHANNEL 16-FRAME CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE USER(S) DATA CHANNEL 16 Frames – 524k chips – 426-2/3 ms Slots make Frames and Frames make Control Channel Cycles! February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . A Channels IN THE WORLD OF CODES FORWARD CHANNELS Sector has a Short PN Offset W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity W 64 REVERSE CHANNELS Long PN offset ACCESS MAC Pilot W016 Data W24 Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode Access just like IS-95 DRCLock RPC ARQ MAC Primary Pilot W016 Auxiliary Pilot W2832 Public or Private Access Terminal (User Terminal) Traffic Channel as used during a data session Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Walsh code Access Point (AP) MAC RRI W416 DRC W816 DSC W1232 ACK W1232 Data W12 Long PN offset A TR FORWARD The channels are not continuous like ordinary 1xRTT CDMA Notice the differences between the MAC channels and the Rev.199 .EV-DO Rev. 0/A differences IC FF Walsh code February. 0 MAC channels – these are the heart of the Rev.

AP Functions of Rev. frame) MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 ½ Slot – 1024 chips 64 96 64 ½ Slot – 1024 chips February. requiring rate reduction Each connected AT has MAC channel: • DRCLock indication if sector busy • RPC (Reverse Power Control) • ARQ to halt reverse link subpackets as soon as complete packet is recovered •The Control channel carries overhead messages for idle ATs but can also carry user traffic PILOT just like IS-95 DRCLock RPC ARQ MAC MAC Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Walsh code Access Point (AP) •Traffic channels carry user data to one user at a time PILOT Forward Link Slot Structure (16 slots in a 26-2/3 ms. A Forward Channels FORWARD CHANNELS Sector has a Short PN Offset W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity W 64 •Access terminals watch the Pilot to select the strongest sector and choose burst speeds •The Reverse Activity Channel tells ATs If the reverse link loading is too high.200 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . A Reverse Channels •The Pilot is used as a preamble during access probes •Data channel during access carries mobile requests • Primary Pilot on traffic channel allows synchronous detection and also carries the RRI channel • Auxiliary Pilot on traffic channel allows synchronous detection during high data rates •RRI reverse rate indicator tells AP what rate is being sent by AT •DRC Data Rate Control channel tells desired downlink speed •DSC Data Source Control channel tells which sector will send burst •ACK channel allows AT to signal successful reception of a packet •DATA channel during traffic carries the AT’s traffic bits REVERSE CHANNELS Long PN offset ACCESS Pilot W016 Data W24 Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode Access Public or Private Primary Pilot W016 Auxiliary Pilot W2832 Access Terminal (User Terminal) Traffic Channel as used during a data session MAC RRI W416 DRC W816 DSC W1232 ACK W1232 Data W12 Long PN offset A TR IC FF Walsh code February.Functions of Rev.201 .

Reverse Link Frame and Slot Structure: “Big Picture” Summary ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips SLOT DATA 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms FRAME 1 Subframe holds 1 Subpacket Subframe Subframe Subframe Reverse Link frames are the same length as forward link frames The mobile does not include separate MAC and Pilot bursts • Its MAC and pilot functions are carried inside its signal by simultaneous walsh codes There is no need for slots for dedicated control purposes since the mobile can transmit on the access channel whenever it needs February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .202 .

A Reverse Channel Sub-Frame Structure RRI DATA CHANNEL DRC CHANNEL ACK DSC ACK DSC ACK DSC ACK DSC AUXILIARY PILOT CHANNEL PILOT CHANNEL 1 Slot 1 Slot 1 Sub-Frame 1 Slot 1 Slot The mobile transmits sub-packets occupying four reverse link slots. the additional subpackets are spaced in every third subframe until done February. called a reverse link “sub-frame”.Rev. If multiple subpackets are required to deliver a packet. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .203 .

5x Turbo.204 . etc. or other content AP The system notifies a mobile when data for it is waiting to be sent The mobile chooses which sector it hears best at that instant. how many SUBpackets they will be divided into Then. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Information Flow Over 1xEV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3. the sector starts transmitting the SUBpackets in SLOTS on the forward link The first slot will begin with a header that the mobile will recognize so it can begin the receiving process February. web page. and requests the sector to send it a packet there are 16 possible transmission formats the mobile may request. called “DRC Indices”. Each DRC Index value is really a combined specification including specific values for: • what data speed will be transmitted • how big a “chunk” of waiting data will be sent (that amount of data will be cut of the front of the waiting data stream and will be the “Packet” transmitted) • what kind of encoding will be done to protect the data (3x Turbo. if any • after the symbols are formed.) and the symbol repetition.

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO
Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3, web page, or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT, accessing a favorite website. The requested page has just been received by the PDSN. The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a “Data Ready” message to let the AT know it has data waiting. The AT quickly determines which of its active sectors is the strongest. On the AT’s DRC channel it asks that sector to send it a packet at speed “DRC Index 5”. The mobile’s choice, DRC Index 5, determines everything: The raw bit speed is 307.2 kb/s. The packet will have 2048 bits. There will be 4 subpackets (in slots 4 apart). The first subpacket will begin with a 128 chip preamble.

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

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132 - 205

Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO
Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3, web page, or other content

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols
Interleaver

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Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO
Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3, web page, or other content

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols
Interleaver

To guard against bursty errors in transmission, the symbols are completely “stirred up” in a block interleaver.

Block Interleaver

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Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO
Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3, web page, or other content

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + + + D D D index, the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + + D D D coder and the right number of + symbols are created. Symbols
Interleaver

To guard against bursty errors in transmission, the symbols are completely “stirred up” in a block interleaver. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit.

Block Interleaver

Interleaved Symbols

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Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO
Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3, web page, or other content

AP
DRC Modu- Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -11.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.8 -9.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.6 -6.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.4 -0.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 +2.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1,228.8 +3.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1,228.8 +4.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1,843.2 +8.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2,457.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1,536.0 in Rev. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3,072.0 in Rev. A

Turbo Coder When the AP is ready, the first subpacket is actually + + + + + + D D D transmitted in a slot. + + + The first subpacket begins with + + + + D D D a preamble carrying the + user’s MAC index, so the Symbols user knows this is the start of its sequence of subpackets, and how Block Interleaver many subpackets are in the sequence.. The user keeps collecting subpackets until either: 1) it has been able to reverse-turbo decode the Interleaved Symbols packet contents early, or 2) the whole schedule of subpackets has been transmitted.
Interleaver

Subpackets

1
SLOTS

2

3

4
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4 Kb/s) PRBL PILOT PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 336 chips DATA DATA 400 chips MAC DATA 64 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips Channel Interleaver QPSK/8PSK 16QAM Modulator Sequence Repetition. 614.210 .One Slot on the Forward Traffic Channel Example Subpacket: 1536 Data Modulation Symbols (1 slot. Signal Puncturing 64 96 64 400 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips 16-ary Walsh Covers Walsh Channel Gain I Walsh Chip Level Q Summer (modulation symbols) Data 1/3 or 1/5 encoder scrambler Symbol DEMUX 1 to 16 Signal Point Mapping To Quadrature Spreading and Modulation I Walsh Channels TDM Time Division Multiplexer I Sequence Repetition 0 Q Preamble 32-symbol bi-Orthogonal MAC cover MAC RPC bits A MAC channel DRC Lock symbols Bit Repetition (xDRCLlen) Signal Point Mapping Signal Point Mapping RPC Channel Gain DRC Lock Channel Gain Signal Point Mapping RA channel gain MAC Index Walsh Cover Q Walsh Channels MAC channel RA bits I I Walsh Sequence Chip Level Repetition Summer Q (factor=4) Q Walsh Cover 0 Signal Point Mapping 0 I Q Bit Repetition (xRAB len) Walsh Cover W264 Pilot Channel (all 0s) February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

using the MAC index of the intended recipient Five values of MAC indices are reserved for “multi-user” packets • packets intended for reception by a group – for example.8 kbps CCH 38.AP The MAC Index MACIndex MAC Channel Use 0 and 1 Not Used 2 Not Used 3 Not Used 4 RA Channel Available for RPC and DRCLock 5-63 Channel Transmissions Preamble Use Not Used 76. 2008 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .211 MACIndex Walsh Code Phase 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q .4 kbps CCH Not Used Available for Forward Traffic Channel Transmissions MACIndex Walsh Code Phase MACIndex Walsh Code Phase MACIndex Walsh Code Phase 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Each active user on a sector is assigned a unique 7-bit MAC index (64 MACs possible) Each data packet begins with a preamble. control channels • mobiles may have individual MAC indices AND be simultaneously in various groups • this “trick” keeps payload size low even for transmissions to groups February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . A MAC Index Values and Their Uses 114 MAC indices are available for regular single-user packets 3 MAC indices are earmarked for control channel packets 5 MAC indices are reserved for mult-user packets 1 MAC index is reserved for broadcast packets.Rev.212 . or single-users 4 MAC indices are not used due to conflicts with multiplexing patterns February.

A MAC Index and I/Q Channel Contents February.Rev. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .213 .

2 9.2 QPSK 256 1024 153.5 QPSK 64 1024 614. A reverse link has seven available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.8 57.5 QPSK 128 1024 307.8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 256 B4 38 19.4 28.6 -6.8 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1024 B4 153 76.2 2/3 1/3 2/9 1/5 12288 E4E2 1843 921 614 460.0 8PSK 64 3072 1.6 +10.4 76.4 4.8 +4.6 38.2 QPSK 64 2048 1.6 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 2048 Q4 307 153 102.3 16QAM 64 5120 3.457.6 +2.214 .4 25.2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1/5 768 B4 115 57.2 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 4096 Q2 614 307 204.6 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 6144 Q4Q2 921 461 307 230.3 16QAM 64 5120 1.2 -3.8 -9.Preamble Payload Raw C/I lation Chips Bits kb/s db QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a QPSK 1024 1024 38.6 6.8 153.0 16QAM 64 4096 2.843.8 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 3072 Q2 461 230 153. 0.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 8192 Q4Q2 1228 614 409 307.8 51. 0 • Modulation formats are hybrids defined in the standard The 1xEV-DO Rev.4 -0.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1536 Q4 230 115 76.5 QPSK 128 2048 307.3 REVERSE LINK Payload Modu-Effective Rate kbps after: Code Rate (repetition) after Bits lation 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 128 B4 19.0 +8.228.9 16QAM 64 4096 1.2 12.4 -11.072. A forward has two available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.2 38.228.8 +3.5 QPSK 64 3072 921. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .5 QPSK 512 1024 76.6 QPSK 64 2048 614.6 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 512 B4 76 38.Link Rates and Packet/Subpacket Formats FORWARD LINK DRC Index Slots 0x0 n/a 0x1 16 0x2 8 0x3 4 0x4 2 0x5 4 0x6 1 0x7 2 0x8 2 0x9 1 0xa 2 0xb 1 0xc 1 0xd 2 0xe 1 Modu. February.8 9.6 115.536.0 +11.2 +8.8 2/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 The 1xEV-DO Rev.6 19.4 -0.2 -3.

retransmission protocols typically work at the link layer • Radio Link Protocol (RLP) – communicates using signaling packets – lost data packets aren’t recognized and are discarded at the decoder This method is slow and wasteful! February. 2008 In 1xEV-DO.215 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter .The Hybrid ARQ Process AP Access Point SYSTEM CDMA2000 1xEV-DO AT Access Terminal Application layer Stream layer Session layer Connection layer Security layer MAC layer Physical layer HARQ protocol CDMA2000 1xRTT Application layer LAC layer MAC layer Physical layer RLP Radio Link Protocol Application layer Stream layer Session layer Connection layer Security layer MAC layer Physical layer HARQ protocol Application layer LAC layer MAC layer Physical layer RLP Radio Link Protocol F-FCH R-FCH F-TFC repeats R-ACK In 1xRTT. RLP functions are replicated at the physical layer • HARQ Hybrid Repeat Request Protocol – fast physical layer ACK bits – Chase Combining of multiple repeats – unneeded repeats pre-empted by positive ACK This method is fast and efficient! 132 .

up to the maximum of the current configuration • The identity of the subpackets is known by the receiver. bias. even on a static channel! In effect. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . the transmitter keeps sending more subpackets. so it can combine the subpackets for better decoding each additional subpacket in essence contributes additional signal power to aid in the detection of its parent packet • it’s hard to predict the exact power necessary for successful decoding in systems without HARQ – the channel changes rapidly during transmission – various estimation errors (noise. etc. HARQ sends progressively more energy until there is just enough and the packet is successfully decoded February.) – exact needed SNR is stochastic.The Hybrid ARQ Process Each physical layer data packet is encoded into subpackets • as long as the receiver does not send back an acknowledgment.216 .

1 3. 0 3. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . 2 2.A Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 1 2. 1 0 2 1. 2 3. 3 2. 3 Traffic One Slot Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble February. 2 0 3 1.217 . 3 3. 0 0 1 1. 0 2.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . 3 Traffic One Slot Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble February. 3 3. 1 3. 2 0 3 1.218 . 1 2. 3 2. 2 3. 1 0 2 1. 0 2. 0 3.A Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets Packet 1 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 0 0 1 1. 2 2.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . 0 2. 3 3.A Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets Packet 1 Subpackets Packet 2 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 1 0 2 1. 3 Traffic One Slot Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble February. 0 3. 3 2.219 . 0 0 1 1. 1 2. 2 2. 2 3. 1 3. 2 0 3 1.

Multiple ARQ Instances bits symbols Data Packets Encoding Interand leaving Scrambling Packet 0 Subpackets Packet 1 Subpackets Packet 2 Subpackets Packet 3 Subpackets 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Forward Channel Packet Subpacket 0 0 1. 3 3. 0 0 1 1. 0 2. 1 2. 3 Traffic One Slot Definition: Number of ARQ Instances • the maximum number of packets that may be in transit simultaneously • sometimes also called “the number of ARQ channels” This figure and the preceding page appear to show 4 ARQ instances Packets in the different ARQ instances • may be for the same user (the most common situation) • may be for different users (determined by QOS and scheduling) Destination mobile knows its packets by their preamble February. 0 3. 2 0 3 1. 3 2.220 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . 1 0 2 1. 1 3. 2 2. 2 3.

221 .1xEV-DO Rev. A February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . A 1xEV-DO Rev.

February. To allow real-time conversational services • push to talk.1xEV-DO Rev. A Design Objectives To enable multimedia services • high-speed upload of multimedia files and attachments • interactive gaming • IP-based services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Peak forward link data rates of 3.an extension of push to talk that combines immediate voice with simultaneous delivery of video and pictures.8 Mbps Optimized packet data service • one of lowest costs per bit compared to other wireless technologies. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . • video telephony • instant multimedia -.1 Mbps Peak reverse link data rates of 1.222 . multimedia multicasting using QUALCOMM's “Platinum Multicast” • enables high-quality video/audio to many users simultaneously.

4 Mbps to 3. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . A Forward Link Enhancements • Peak rates increased from 2.223 .1 Mbps • Multi-user packet support • Small payload sizes (128. 256. 512 bits) improve frame fill efficiency • The DRC channel functions are broken out into two channels – DRC retains rate control indication – new Data Source Control (DSC) Channel shows desired serving cell • Minimizes interruptions due to server switching on FL February.Forward Link Enhancements in 1xEV-DO Rev.

8 kbps to 1.8 Mbps with 48 payload sizes • 4 slots/sub-packets regardless of payload size (6. QPSK modulation – High Rates: 2 walsh channels. 8PSK modulation • Hybrid ARQ using fast re-transmission (re-tx) and early termination • Flexible rate allocation: each AT has autonomous and scheduled mode • Efficient VOIP support • 3-channel synchronous stop-and-wait protocol • The mobile can use higher power and finish earlier when transmitting packets of applications requiring minimum latency February. A Reverse Link Enhancements • Higher data rates and finer quantization • Data rates from 4.66 ms) • Modulation: – Low rates: 1 walsh channel.Reverse Link Enhancements in 1xEV-DO Rev. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . QPSK modulation – Highest Rate: 2 walsh channels.224 . BPSK modulation – Medium rates: 1 walsh channel.

6 6.6 115.843.2 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 4096 Q2 614 307 204.4 25.6 QPSK 64 2048 614.8 +3.2 QPSK 256 1024 153. A forward has two available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.8 57.2 9.6 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 6144 Q4Q2 921 461 307 230.8 2/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 The 1xEV-DO Rev.0 +11.6 -6.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1536 Q4 230 115 76.2 12.228.8 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 3072 Q2 461 230 153.0 16QAM 64 4096 2.4 28. February.6 19.2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1/5 768 B4 115 57. 0. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .2 38.Preamble Payload Raw C/I lation Chips Bits kb/s db QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a QPSK 1024 1024 38.5 QPSK 128 1024 307.3 16QAM 64 5120 1.225 .5 QPSK 128 2048 307.Available Link Rates in 1xEV-DO Rev.3 16QAM 64 5120 3.9 16QAM 64 4096 1.6 38.6 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 2048 Q4 307 153 102.4 4.5 QPSK 64 3072 921.8 -9.072.5 QPSK 64 1024 614.8 9.8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 256 B4 38 19.2 QPSK 64 2048 1.8 +4.2 +8. A reverse link has seven available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.2 -3.2 -3. A FORWARD LINK DRC Index Slots 0x0 n/a 0x1 16 0x2 8 0x3 4 0x4 2 0x5 4 0x6 1 0x7 2 0x8 2 0x9 1 0xa 2 0xb 1 0xc 1 0xd 2 0xe 1 Modu.4 -0.6 +10.4 -0.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 8192 Q4Q2 1228 614 409 307.457.536.5 QPSK 512 1024 76.0 +8.6 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 512 B4 76 38.2 2/3 1/3 2/9 1/5 12288 E4E2 1843 921 614 460.8 51.6 +2. 0 • Modulation formats are hybrids defined in the standard The 1xEV-DO Rev.4 76.8 153.228.8 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1024 B4 153 76.4 -11.3 REVERSE LINK Payload Modu-Effective Rate kbps after: Code Rate (repetition) after Bits lation 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 128 B4 19.0 8PSK 64 3072 1.

B's lower latency rates will improve the performance of VoIP. February. B CDG says 1Q06 for Rev.jay@informa. similar to the GSMA's emerging markets initiative. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . B increases data throughput to 73.com News 17 November 2005 Rufus Jay. Rev.com The CDMA Development Group (CDG) has announced that the EV-DO Revision B standard is pencilled in for release in 1Q06. rufus. The CDG also plans to expand cdma2000 by improved roaming and a sub US\$40 handset push. video calling. B Telecoms.5Mbps in the forward link and 27Mbps in the reverse link. push to talk over cellular.What’s Next? 1xEV-DO Rev. As well as supporting mobile broadband data and OFDM based multicasting. concurrent voice and multimedia and multiplayer online gaming. Rev.226 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .1xEV-DO Network Architecture 1xEV-DO Network Architecture February.227 .

CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls (C)BSC/Access Manager Switch PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls February.228 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting AAA Switch (C)BSC/Access Manager PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: • channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal – this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 • a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet – including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface February.229 .

230 . Motorola.1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting DO Radio Network Controller (C)BSC/Access Manager DO-OMC AAA Switch CE PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS 1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give • this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions • in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading The following sections show Lucent. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . and Nortel’s specific solutions February.

Lucent 1xEV-DO Architecture Lucent 1xEV-DO Architecture February.231 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

February.Lucent 1xEV-DO Radio Access Network (RAN) OMP FX Element Management System AP Router T-1/E-1 Ethernet RF AAA Server Downlink Input Router AP Uplink Input Router Flexent Mobility Server AP RF User ATs (Access Terminals) AP Uplink Input Router Flexent Mobility Server Downlink Input Router Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) Internet A Lucent 1xEV-DO Radio Access Network (RAN) includes • 1xEV-DO base stations and the • 1xEV-DO Flexent® Mobility Server (FMS). 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .232 . creating 1xEV-DO/IS-95 and 1xEVDO/3G-1X combination base stations. The 1xEV-DO equipment may be collocated with IS-95 and/or 1xRTT equipment.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . and 1xEV-DO February. amplifiers.1xEV-DO in Lucent Flexent Mod Cell Cabinets Lucent Mod Cell cabinets can support up to three IS-95 or 1xRTT carriers on three sectors 1xEV-DO CDMA Digital Modules (CDM) can be mixed with conventional CDMs in the same cabinet the same RF hardware (filters.233 . other RF components) can be used for IS-95. 1xRTT.

Lucent CDMA Digital Module (CDM) Configurations At upper left is a CDM for conventional IS-95 / 1xRTT service.234 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . It includes • CRC CDMA Radio controller • up to 6 CCU CDMA Channel Units • PCU power converter module • CBR CDMA Baseband Radio At lower left is a CDM for 1xEV-DO • it must be occupy the leftmost slot • all CCU packs are removed and replaced by a single 1xEV-DO modem (EVM) occupying 2 slots • the CRC must be 44WW13D or later February.

1xEV-DO in Lucent Mod Cell 4.0 Cabinets
The Mod Cell 4 cabinet comes in many variations Instead of per-carrier dedicated CDMs, resources are pooled URCs (Universal Radio Controllers) are used to steer data for each carrier to EVMs for EVDO or CMUs for IS-95/1xRTT. • in a mixed-mode system, a URC is required for EVDO and a URC for IS-95/1xRTT The modulated signal from a 4.0 EVM or CMU is upconverted to the RF carrier frequency by the UCR • each UCR (Universal CDMA Radio) can handle up to three carriers
132 - 235

FMS

Universal Radio Controller (URC)

Digital Shelf Evolution Carr1 Flow Modem
(4.0 EVM) Carr 2, 3 CDMA Modem Unit (CMU) Universal Antenna CDMA Radio (UCR)

ECP

Universal Radio Controller (URC)

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

Lucent 1xEV-DO Flexent Mobility Server (FMS)
The Flexent Mobility Server is the heart of the Radio Access Network It provides four processors running the 1xEV-DO Application Processor (DO-AP), which provides the Packet Controller Function (PCF) The PCF provides air link and radio resource management to implement 1xEV-DO user sessions, including the dormant state and other DOspecific features

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 236

Motorola 1xEV-DO Architecture Motorola 1xEV-DO Architecture

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 237

Motorola 1xEV-DO System Architecture
MSC MM/SDU
VPU

OMC-IP

OMC-DO BSC-DO AN-DO

AAA AN-AAA PDSNs

OMC-R
Elements Existing IS-95 New 1xEV-DO Shared IS-95/DO

1x-AN 1x-BTS MCC-DO

Packet Core Network

HAs

Connections IS-95/1x 1xEV-DO Shared 1x/DO

New 1xEV-DO carrier appears as a standard carrier addition to existing network elements • new MCC-DO cards and OMC-R database revisions needed • AAA and PDSN need software upgrades

February, 2008

Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

132 - 238

New Motorola 1xEV-DO Network Elements
MSC MM/SDU
VPU

OMC-IP

OMC-DO BSC-DO AN-DO

AAA AN-AAA PDSNs

OMC-R
Elements Existing IS-95 New 1xEV-DO Shared IS-95/DO

1x-AN 1x-BTS MCC-DO

Packet Core Network

HAs

Connections IS-95/1x 1xEV-DO Shared 1x/DO

MCC-DO (Multi-Channel Controller - Data Only) AN-DO (Access Node - Data only) • CR (Consolidation Router) Similar in function to the 1x-AN MGX • LSW (Layer 3 Switch) Similar in function to the 1x-AN CATs BSC-DO (Base Station Controller-Data Only) • Mobility functions like 1x MM - Packet Control & Selection – like SDU OMC-DO (Operations & Maintenance Center - Data Only) LMT (Local Maintenance Terminal)
February, 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 - 239

Motorola 1xEV-DO Block Diagram and Network Upgrade Summary BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX BSC-DO MCC-DO AN-DO IS-2000 1xEV-DO Tool LMF LMT BTS frame & CCP shelf LPA BBX-1X BTS MCC-1X MCC-DO GLI (Traffic) GLI (Control) AN (MGX8800) CR AN AN (Catalyst 6509) LSW BSC CBSC BSC-DO OMC-R O&M OMC-DO UNO PDSN (Note 1) IP Network Telephone Network MSC/HLR Not Required Data Network Not Required AAA BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX CR LSW PDSN T1 or E1 MCCDO OMC-DO AN-AAA February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .240 .

3 sectors per MCC-DO card • Supports 59 channels per sector Span Interface • Up to 3 Active Span lines per MCC-DO • Most operators will generally deploy with 2 spans per BTS BTS provides control: • SCAP messaging • Redundant BBX Selection • Enhanced BBX interface MCC.241 .BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX Motorola MCC-DO Functions BSC-DO MCC-DO AN-DO BTS 1x BBX RF Front End 1x Modems DO BBX CR LSW PDSN T1 or E1 MCC-DO OMC-DO AN-AAA 1xEV-DO Modem • 1 carrier. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .DO February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .242 .Nortel 1xEV-DO Architecture Nortel 1xEV-DO Architecture February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . and 1xEV-DO A Typical Nortel CDMA2000 System February.243 .Providing 1xRTT Voice. Data.

Nortel Multiple Backhaul and Configuration Possibilities February.244 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

25 MHz carrier frequencies • up to three sectors. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .245 . High Power Amplifiers and Low Noise Amplifiers are housed in an external unit • the Multi-Carrier Flexible Radio Module (MFRM) • MFRM may be mast mounted to improve AP RF link budget Univity® CDMA Metro Cell Indoor Base Transceiver System (AP) February.Nortel Univity® Indoor Metrocell Univity® Metro Cell can support: • up to six CDMA 1.

one-carrier MetroCell AP • Additional DOMs support additional carriers February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Nortel DOM: Data-Only Module The Data Only Module (DOM) adds 1xEV-DO capability to a MetroCell AP CEM shelf • transmits/receives baseband data to/from the digital control group (DCG) in the CORE module • CORE switches baseband to proper carrier on the MFRM for transmission • the DOM performs all encoding/decoding of IP packets for transport on data-only network to the Data-Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) • One DOM supports up to a three-sector.246 .

located at the central office (CO) with the BSC and/or BSS Manager (BSSM) DO-RNC is a stand-alone node supporting 1xEV-DO. both idle and connected • handoffs of ATs between cells and carrier frequencies (reverse). It manages: • DOMs at multiple APs (even on different band classes) over IP-based backhaul network • access terminal state.Nortel’s DO-RNC The Data-Only Radio Network Controller DO-RNC is the heart of a 1xEV-DO network. Nortel DO-RNC • connections from airlink to PDSN over Data-Only standard A10-A11 interfaces Radio Network Controller • connects to MetroCell AP via dedicated IP backhaul network DO-RNC is the peer of the access terminal for most over-the-air signaling protocols. including session and connection layers February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .247 . sector selection (fwd).

An EV-DO Connection Access Point (AP) TRAFFIC CONTROL MAC PILOT CONNECTION ROUTE UPDATE CONNECTION REQUEST MAC ACK TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MAC RTC ACK TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMPLETE XON REQUEST NULL MESSAGE NEIGHBOR LIST XON RESPONSE ROUTE UPDATE ACCESS TRAFFIC PILOT RRI DRC ACK DATA Access Terminal (AT) Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W23 #2 PN168+2 W23 #3 PN168+9 W23 #4 PN168+5 W23 Pilot Searcher TRANSITION TO DORMANT NULL MESSAGE TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT TRAFFIC CHANNEL COMPLETE NEIGHBOR LIST February.248 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

249 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Backhaul and Backhaul and Related Considerations Related Considerations February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .250 .Rate Limitations from Backhaul Wireless sites are commonly connected using T-1s or E-1s.544 megabits/second. – Accounting for overhead. depending on local availability • In the case of T-1s. – If one sector is busy while the other two are only lightly loaded. multiple-T1s. sites linked by Cable Modems. and other methods February. the raw rate is 1. 1-carrier EV-DO site. early 1xEV-DO cards without support for multiple ARQ instances can only achieve about 400 kb/s throughput even without backhaul limitations Solutions under study to relieve backhaul congestion include fiberbased ATM to the sites. this translates into a maximum steady throughput of roughly 400 to 450 kb/s per sector on a 3-sector. throughput of roughly 1 mb/s can be obtained on one sector – However.

251 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .Speed of Individual Data Bursts The average data rate received depends on: • “dilution” of sector capacity by multiple users • Reduction of speed due to poor RF channel conditions The distribution of packet rates of one user show the effects of RF impairments only February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .1xEV-DO // 1xRTT 1xEV-DO 1xRTT Interoperability Interoperability February.252 .

no “hooks” In the 1xEV rev.1xEV-DO/1xRTT Interoperability The CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Standard IS-856 makes no provision for any kind of handoff to or from any other technology Driven by Operator interest. A standard. a “Hybrid” mode has been developed to provide some types of handoff functions to the best extent possible Hybrid Mode • is a mobile only function – neither the EV nor 1xRTT network knows anything about it • is a proprietary feature with vendor-specific implementation • has no standard-defined RF “triggers”. some new features will be provided • the 1xEV control channel will be able to carry 1xRTT pages too • this and other changes may make the “hybrid” mode unnecessary and obsolete February.253 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .

it can be closed and then re-originated on the other system • In some cases this can be accomplished automatically without the end-user’s awareness – in other cases.254 .What Handoffs are Possible in Hybrid Mode? All switching between systems occurs in Idle Mode • there are no “handoffs” in active traffic state in either mode Sessions can be transferred from one system to the other. but NOT in active traffic state • If there is a connection. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . this is not possible February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . the hybrid-aware mobile is unable to break away.255 . 1xRTT traffic operation is continuous • no opportunity to see 1xEV-DO signal This hybrid Idle mode capability is the foundation for all 1xRTT/1xEV mode transfers • the network does not trigger any transfers 1xEV-DO Idle 1xEV-DO Active Idle Mode Hybrid Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode 1xRTT Active February. the hybrid-aware mobile can still keep monitoring 1xRTT paging channel During 1xRTT traffic operation.1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Hybrid Idle Mode 1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Mode • depends on being able to hear pages on both systems – 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO • is possible because of slotted mode paging • 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO paging slots do not occur simultaneously • mobile can monitor both During 1xEV-DO traffic operation.

256 . 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . conflicts can be avoided by page repetition./3 ms frames A dual-mode 1xRTT/1xEV-DO mobile using slotted-mode paging can effectively watch the paging channels of both 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO at the same time How is it possible for the mobile to monitor both at the same time? • The paging timeslots of the two technologies are staggered Three of the 16 timeslots in 1xRTT conflict with the control channel slots of 1xEV-DO • However.Hybrid Dual-Mode Idle Operation 1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Paging Interoperability 16-frame Control Channel Cycle 16 slots of 26-2/3 ms = 426-2/3 ms LONGEST POSSIBLE PACKET DRC 16 Subpackets 1xRTT Minimum Slot Cycle Index: 16 slots of 80 ms each = 48 26-2. a standard feature in systems of both technologies February.

2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 . the mobile will not search for 1xEV service again Voice Page! Idle Mode Release 1xRTT Active 1xRTT Voice Call February.257 . can’t see EV Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Classical 1xRTT Idle Mode After entering this state.Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is NOT Available 1xEV-DO Active 1xEV-DO Idle Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL no.

found EV Idle Mode AT Data Ready! AN Data Page! Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network Hybrid Mode Voice Page! Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Idle Mode Release 1xRTT Active 1xRTT Voice Call February. 2008 Technical Introduction to CDMA v6 (c) 2008 Scott Baxter 132 .258 .Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is Available 1xEV-DO Active Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session 1xEV Traffic interrupted during 1xRTT voice call 1xEV Traffic Data Connection Closed Triggers: 1xEV-DO Idle Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL yes.