# This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Chapter

Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to: ✓ Understand and work with different types of surface models. ✓ Create procedural surfaces. ✓ Create NURBS surfaces. ✓ Create network surfaces. ✓ Create surface models from existing surfaces. ✓ Blend and patch surfaces. ✓ Offset, ﬁllet, extend, and trim surfaces. ✓ Convert existing models to NURBS surfaces. ✓ Edit NURBS surface control vertices. ✓ Convert 2D objects to surfaces. ✓ Thicken a surface into a solid. ✓ Sculpt watertight surfaces into solids.

Overview Overview v e
This chapter describes advanced surface modeling techniques and workﬂows used in AutoCAD. Surface modeling provides the ability to create a more freeform shape with tools that solid modeling cannot provide. You have been introduced to basic surface modeling techniques in previous chapters. As you have learned, one way to create surface models is to extrude, revolve, sweep, or loft proﬁles. This chapter builds on those techniques. In this chapter, you will develop an understanding of surface modeling techniques that can stand alone in the design process or work in combination with other modeling techniques. As discussed in previous chapters, a solid model is created with a closed and bounded proﬁle and has mass and volume properties. A mesh consists of vertices, edges, and faces that deﬁne the 3D mesh shape. A mesh does not have mass or volume. A surface model can be thought of as a thin-walled object with no “Z” depth. A surface model does not have mass or volume.

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press and hold the [Ctrl] key. a series of connected proﬁle curves deﬁnes the network surface. Then. Profiles 1–3 define the first direction and are shown in color. two of the curves do not intersect with other proﬁles. select the curves or edges deﬁning the second direction of the surface. and solid edge subobjects. After selecting this command. Creating a network surface in this manner may result in some unexpected surface shapes. surface edge subobjects. The resulting surface model is shown in wireframe and shaded form. 3 5 2 1 4 A 4 6 3 1 2 5 B Creating Network Surfaces Creating Network Surfaces e i g r ra s A network surface is a surface model created by a group or “network” of proﬁle curves or edges. Procedural surfaces are shown in examples as the default creation method. The U and V directions deﬁne the “ﬂow” of the surface. Profiles 4–8 define the second direction. Figure 11-6. including region edges. B—The resulting surface model. such as splines. You can also use the edge subobject ﬁlter by selecting Edge from the Selection panel in the Home tab of the ribbon. Extruded surface Region 3 2 1 4 Region Solid A 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 1 A 280 B AutoCAD and Its Applications—Advanced Chapter 11 Advanced Surface Modeling B 281 . B—The resulting surface model. select the curves or edges deﬁning the ﬁrst direction of the surface. In Figure 11-6B. the four objects are located at different “Z” heights. A surface subobject edge (3) and solid subobject edge (4) are selected to define the second direction of the surface. Next. but do not have to intersect. and solid subobject edges is shown in Figure 11-7. This creates the surface and ends the command. Notice the differences between the resulting surface models. The network surface is created from the four nonintersecting edges. B—Profiles 1–4 define the first direction of the surface and are shown in color. The resulting surface model is shown in wireframe and shaded form.The following sections discuss surface modeling commands and techniques available in AutoCAD. The curves selected for the two directions deﬁne the U and V directions of the surface. The curves or edges selected can intersect at coincident points. Profiles 5 and 6 define the second direction of the surface. In Figure 11-7. Figure 11-6 shows examples of creating network surfaces from similar sets of proﬁle curves. In Figure 11-6A. A network surface is created as an associative surface by default. A—The profiles used to define the surface are selected in the numbered order shown. Profiles 4 and 5 define the second direction of the surface. Creating a network surface from the edges of existing objects. Make sure to select the curves in the order of surface creation. Figure 11-5. The deﬁning proﬁles can also be the edges of existing objects. Creating a network surface. Press [Enter] when you are done selecting the proﬁles. press [Enter]. A—Profiles 1–3 define the first direction of the surface and are shown in color. The U and V directions can be thought of as the local directions of the surface and can be deﬁned in either order. A network surface is similar to a loft surface. As with a loft. The SURFNETWORK command is used to create network surfaces. A—Two region edges (1 and 2) are selected to define the first direction of the surface. See Figure 11-5. To select the proﬁle edges. Creating a network surface from region edges. Network surfaces. the deﬁning proﬁles can be open or closed curves. Splines are used as the profiles in this example. SURFNETWORK Ribbon Surface > Create Network Surface Type SURFNETWORK Figure 11-7. NURBS surface creation and editing techniques are covered later in this chapter. surface subobject edges.

when working in a wireframe display. Blend Surfaces When working with surface models. The default setting for both system variables is 6. SURFPATCH. Select the SURFBLEND command and then select the ﬁrst edge to blend. Ribbon Surface > Create Surface associativity plays an important role in the creation of network surfaces. The surfaces share the same curvature. or you can use the Continuity and Bulge magnitude options to specify the continuity and bulge magnitude settings at the edges. The settings are similar to those when creating a loft.g-wlearning. These settings can be changed for a surface by selecting the surface and opening the Properties palette. Surface Blend Type SURFBLEND Exercise 11-2 Complete the exercise on the companion website. Different settings can be applied at each edge.com/CAD Figure 11-8. This maintains associativity between the surfaces used to create the surface and the resulting surface. select a curve that forms the basis for the surface and modify it as needed. Surface models created with these commands are created as associative surfaces by default. Next. SURFOFFSET. This option is used for creating ﬂat surfaces. select the second edge. Setting a higher value can give you a better understanding of the curvature of the model. not the surfaces. Select the first edge Select the second edge U direction B C A B 283 282 AutoCAD and Its Applications—Advanced Chapter 11 Advanced Surface Modeling SURFBLEND PROFESSIONAL TIP . This option creates a sharp transition between surfaces. The position of the surfaces is maintained continuously at the surface edges. Select a single edge or multiple edges. isolines appear to represent the curved surfaces of the surface model. This is the default option. This option creates a curvature blend between the surfaces. Isolines defining the curvature of the surface model appear when working in a wireframe display. and SURFEXTEND commands. When editing a network surface with associativity. you can view the isoline representation by hovering the cursor over the model. as discussed in Chapter 9. you select the surface edges to blend. or use the Chain option to select a chain of continuous edges. B—The model after creating a blend surface with the default settings of the SURFBLEND command. there are situations when you need to “blend” together surfaces that do not meet or touch. A blend surface is created between two existing surfaces by selecting a starting and ending edge. • G2 (curvature). B—A network surface with the default number of isolines in the U and V directions. This option forms surfaces so that the end tangents match at the edges.Referring to Figure 11-6. Press and hold the [Ctrl] key to select the ﬁrst edge or use the edge subobject ﬁlter. The number of isolines does not include the lines deﬁning the object’s boundary. you can create surfaces from existing surfaces using the SURFBLEND. The result will be a new network surface shape. C—The surface after increasing the values of the U isolines and V isolines properties from 6 to 10. Continuity deﬁnes how the surfaces blend together at the starting and ending edges. • G1 (tangential continuity). The settings can range from 0 to 200. When you press [Enter] . A—The Properties palette is used to set the number of isolines in the U and V directions of the surface. The SURFU and SURFV system variables control the number of isolines displayed in the U and V directions of the surface. The following options are available: • G0 (positional continuity). Creating Surfaces Creating Surfaces from Existing Surfaces r t g r c m Existing Surfaces x t f c In addition to creating surfaces from proﬁle curves. The two surfaces blend together tangentially. The default settings for the SURFU and SURFV system variables can be changed in the 3D objects section of the Options dialog box. A—Two existing loft surfaces. www. These commands are discussed in the following sections. as shown in Figure 11-9B. You can press [Enter] to accept the default settings. The U isolines and V isolines properties in the Geometry category control the number of isolines displayed in the U and V directions. Press [Enter] after deﬁning the ﬁrst edge. When blending surfaces. When working in a shaded display instead of a wireframe display. SURFFILLET. as shown in Figure 11-9. The SURFBLEND command is used to create a blend surface between two surface edges or two solid edges. See Figure 11-8. V direction Isoline settings A Figure 11-9. You can select multiple edges or use the Chain option to select a chain of continuous edges. a preview of the surface appears.

B—The patch surface created after using the Chain option to select the edges. Using a guide curve to constrain the shape of a patch surface. Using the Curves option of the SURFPATCH command is shown in Figure 11-16. In Figure 11-16A. In the original model (the mesh model).5. You can adjust the continuity and bulge magnitude settings or press [Enter] to create the patch surface. Surface edge selected to create the patch surface In Figure 11-15. The middle post has been added. Creating a patch surface to close an opening in a surface model. Refer to the shaded surfaces shown in Figure 11-16B. but will when used with the SURFPATCH command.7. Then. See Figure 11-15B. Using the Chain option to select multiple surface edges to define the patch surface. press [Enter]. B—A patch surface created with the continuity set to G1 and the bulge magnitude set to 0. Refer to Figure 11-16C. SURFPATCH. The top opening includes eight surface edges.g-wlearning. enter it after selecting the SURFPATCH command. select the curves deﬁning the patch surface. The remaining edges are automatically selected. select the Chain option and select one of the edges. The Chain option is used to assist in selecting edges to create the surface patch. B C PROFESSIONAL TIP The PREVIEWCREATIONTRANSPARENCY system variable controls the transparency of surface previews when using the SURFBLEND. the Curves option of the SURFPATCH command is used to create three surface patches forming the top of the model. Next. The default setting is 60. A—The original model. Figure 11-14. and SURFFILLET commands. The continuity is set to G2 and the bulge magnitude is set to 0. the game controller is to be redesigned with a new top shape. A—The original model. In addition. Then. The model has been converted from a mesh model to a surface. Setting a higher value increases the transparency of the surface preview. First. the top faces were deleted. The surface opening has eight continuous surface edges. A Surfaces created using the SURFPATCH command may differ from those created with the LOFT command. To use the Curves option. The spline is drawn for use with the Guides option. A—The original model is a surface converted from a mesh model. multiple curves have been created to design a sophisticated freeform shape. Surface edge selected to create the patch surface Spline (guide curve) Exercise 11-4 Complete the exercise on the companion website. www. C—A patch surface created with the continuity set to G1 and the bulge magnitude set to 1.com/CAD Figure 11-15. Notice the resulting shape. After selecting the SURFPATCH command. B—The patch surface created after selecting the spline as the guide curve. A B A 286 AutoCAD and Its Applications—Advanced Top surface edges (eight total) selected with the Chain option B 287 Chapter 11 Advanced Surface Modeling .Figure 11-13. The single surface edge indicated forms a closed loop and is selected to generate the patch surface. you may come across design situations where curves used with the LOFT command will not create a surface. the LOFT command is used to create six loft surfaces deﬁning the sides.

polylines. Then. arcs. or regions. As you select each area. the projection of a planar curve is normal to the curve. C—The model after trimming.com/CAD A B C Using Projected Geometry to Trim Surfaces With the SURFTRIM command. The cutting object is projected onto the surface to be trimmed. and helices. See Figure 11-22C. SURFTRIM Figure 11-22. The projection is based on the current viewing direction. Next. Trimming surfaces with the SURFTRIM command. The Extend option determines whether a surface used as a cutting edge is extended to meet the surface to be trimmed. circles. The cutting object is not projected and must lie on the surface in order to perform the trim. B—Selecting the two curves and pressing [Enter] projects the curves to the model surface. The arcs drawn above the model are used for trimming the sides. You can select lines. If you trim an area that you wish to restore. www. After selecting the objects to trim. PROFESSIONAL TIP The SURFTRIM command defaults to the Automatic option. In the example shown. You are then prompted to select the surface areas to be trimmed. In a 3D view. Automatically projected geometry is used in most trim situations. When an associative surface is trimmed. A—The cell phone case model is a surface created from a mesh. See Figure 11-22B. splines. you can trim surfaces using cutting objects other than existing surfaces. Select one or more areas. When selected. The Projection direction option of the SURFTRIM command can be used to set the projection method used by AutoCAD when projecting curves onto a surface.com/CAD A B 292 AutoCAD and Its Applications—Advanced Chapter 11 Advanced Surface Modeling 293 . See Figure 11-22. the arcs are projected onto the surface by AutoCAD. The cutting object is projected in a direction based on the current view. The cutting object is projected in the positive or negative direction of the Z axis of the current UCS. Select one or more curves. the projection of the cutting object is in the viewing direction. Exercise 11-9 Complete the exercise on the companion website. The current setting is indicated by the Auto Trim button in the Project Geometry panel of the Surface tab on the ribbon. Surfaces to be trimmed Cutting object When using the PROJECTGEOMETRY command. The Automatic option is set by default. Curves to be used as cutting objects Projected curves Surface area to be trimmed Exercise 11-8 Complete the exercise on the companion website. press [Enter]. A—The original model consists of three loft surfaces. Select the SURFTRIM command and then select one or more surfaces or regions to trim. • None. select the curve after selecting the object to trim. By default. it is trimmed by the cutting object(s). press [Enter] to end the command. See Figure 11-21. The areas to be trimmed are then selected to complete the sides. The areas within the projected geometry on each side are selected as the areas to trim. Two of the loft surfaces are to be trimmed. • View. To use a curve instead of an existing surface for trimming. ellipses. Objects used in this manner are referred to by AutoCAD as curves. The default setting is 0. this option is set to Yes. In a plan view. the cell phone case is selected as the surface to trim. allows you to project the geometry onto the surface and use it as the cutting edge.Ribbon Surface > Edit Surface Trim Type SURFTRIM a surface to serve as a trimming boundary. The object to be trimmed and the cutting object do not have to intersect. Selecting a curve. A setting of 1 enables automatic trimming of surfaces. The arcs located above the cell phone case are selected as the cutting edges. surfaces. Areas to be trimmed www. and the projection of a 3D curve is parallel to the direction of the Z axis of the current UCS. use the Undo option. Figure 11-21. you are prompted to select the cutting objects. The Projection direction option speciﬁes the projection method used for projected geometry. The following settings are available: • Automatic.g-wlearning.g-wlearning. as discussed in the next section. When you are ﬁnished trimming. it remains associative and retains the ability to be modiﬁed by editing the cutting object. Using projected geometry with the SURFTRIM command. B—The model after trimming. • UCS. such as an arc or circle. The Extend and Projection direction options are available after selecting the SURFTRIM command. the SURFACEAUTOTRIM system variable controls automatic trimming. press [Enter].