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# Theory of Machines

LECTURE NOTES- MECE 303 Theory of Machines 4- Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms (2) Fall Semester 2010/2011 Halil Orhan YILDIRAN, MS

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Loop Closure Equation of a Mechanism Assumption of rigidity results in following conclusions: 1-The plane motion of a rigid body is completely described if two points within the rigid body are known 2 .Theory of Machines Analytical solution.

Assumption of rigidity 2-Since the actual boundaries of the body does not influence the kinematics the rigid body in plane motion is to be regarded as a large plane 3 .

Assumption of rigidity 3-The particles lying on a straight line have equal velocity components in the direction of this line since the distance between any two points along this line remains constant vA’=vB’ r v B' r v ' A r vB r vA 4 .

B4 Joint variables are a natural set of position variables. Some points are permanently coincident at all positions such as A2. P4 but at any other position. they will be at different positions Permanently Coincident points.Theory of Machines Instantly Coincident points. The F (dof of mechanism) joint variables which are selected as input variables (specified) are the independent variables. θ θ S S 5 . The rest of the position variables dependent variables. A3 and B3. P2. P3. At one position of mechanism one point P can be coincident as P1.

Position of a point 6 .

x.y Polar coordinates.Theory of Machines Position can be expressed in: Rectangular coordinates.is given by the vector r → → → → → → → → r = x i + y j = r cos θ i + r sin θ j = r u r where u r is a unit vector along r Complex numbers 7 . θ where r = x 2 + y 2 and tanθ =y/x → The position of a particle –point. r.

→ z=x+iy: complex number representation of r z=rcos θ + r i sin θ =r(cos θ + i sin θ) Euler’s Equation ei θ=cos θ+isin θ Therefore z=r e is the exponential form of complex number representation of r iθ → 8 .Complex Numbers → → → Consider r = x i + y j .

Complex Numbers Using Euler Equation the.e iθ − rθ& 2 e iθ r 2 dt (Find more about complex numbers in the following lecture notes) 9 . following is found.i sin θ) 2 cos θ= ei θ+ e-i θ 2 i sin θ= ei θ.e iθ + r θ&.e-i θ z=r ei θ dz & & z= = r e iθ + r θ&. ei θ=(cos θ + i sin θ) and e-iθ=(cos θ .i dt d 2z & & && = z = &&e iθ + 2 r θ&.i.i.e iθ .

One way of selecting these two points on a link is to use permanently coincident points (center of joints). 10 . by describing the position of any two points on that link.Theory of Machines Considering assumptions of rigidity it is sufficient to represent positions of each link .

Dof of system=sum of the dof of all joints=total # of joint variables Loop Closure Equation (LCE) In a mechanism there are one or more closed loops.Theory of Machines Open Loop System If there are no closed loops in a mechanical system it is called an open loop system. we imagine to be formed from an open loop system. Due to the closed loop formations. two of the joint variables become dependent. 11 .

Theory of Machines-LCE *First obtain an open loop system. The LCE’s relate the dependent variables to the independent ones. by disconnecting arbitrary joints *Assign the joint variables of the open loop system (choose R joints) *By connecting each disconnected joints the LCE’s can be written. Let the disconnected joint be an R joint at point A between links i and j LCE: PA i = PA j (since Ai and Aj are permanently coincident points) PA i : position vector of point Ai PA j : position vector of point Aj 12 .

θ13 θ14 θ12 13 .Theory of Machines .

A0 A + AB 3 = A0 B0 + B0 B 4 expressing with variables ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (a 2 cos θ12 i + a 2 sin θ12 ˆ) + (a3 cos θ13 i + a3 sin θ 13 ˆ) = a1i + (a 4 cos θ14 i + a 4 sin θ14 ˆ) j j j Writing i and j components a2cosθ12+a3cos θ13=a1+ a4cos θ14 (i components) a2sinθ12+a3sin θ13= a4sin θ14 (j components) Joint variables are: θ12 input (known).Four bar Mechanism So if we write Loop Closure Equation after disconnecting joint B where we have B3 and B4 points as above slide. 14 . We have 2 equations and 2 unknowns.Theory of Machines Example. θ14 (unknown). θ13.

θ13. θ13 θ12 Disconnect R at A Joint variables: θ12. s14 PA 2 = PA3 A0 A2 = A0Q + QB + BA3 15 .Theory of Machines Example: Offset Slider Crank mechanism .

∴ the total # of joint variables must be 2L+F 16 . Because of the loop formation some joint variables become dependent. Since each LCE gives two scalar equations.Theory of Machines Number of Loops in a Mechanism The connection of each disconnected joint in an open system yields an independent closed loop formation. Consider a mechanism with l links j joints Let L # of independent loops L = # of joint that must be disconnected to obtain open loop system.L = l-1 L=j-l+1 In an open loop system all joint variables are independent. the # of dependent joint variables must be 2L. In an open loop system with l links : # of joints=l-1 ⇒ j.

Therefore we have two independent loops in this mechanism 17 . j=7 So from the equation L=7-6+1=2.Theory of Machines Example: Fig 2.9 in the Textbook l=6.

Theory of Machines Example: Fig 2.9 in text book: Disconnect at D and E θ16 θ14 α3 α5 θ12 θ15 18 .

e. D was considered connected then we could also write A0 A + AC + CB + BD + DE5 = A0 A + AC + CE 4 ⇒ CB + BD + DE5 = CE 4 (3) But the third equation is a linear combination of first two i.Theory of Machines Disconnect R at D and E Reconnect D (keeping E disconnected) PD 6 = PD 5 ⇒ A0 A + AB + BD6 = A0 D0 + D0 D5 (1) reconnect R at E (keeping D disconnected) PE 4 = PE 5 ⇒ A0 A + AC + CE 4 = A0 D0 + D0 E5 (2) If while connecting E. not independent Add second and third we get A0 A + AC + CE 4 + CB + BD + DE5 = A0 D0 + D0 E5 + CE 4 (we get first equation with A0A+AC+CB=A0A+AB and D0E5=D0D5+D5E5) 19 .