Theory of Machines

LECTURE NOTES- MECE 303 Theory of Machines 4- Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms (2) Fall Semester 2010/2011 Halil Orhan YILDIRAN, MS

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Theory of Machines Analytical solution.Loop Closure Equation of a Mechanism Assumption of rigidity results in following conclusions: 1-The plane motion of a rigid body is completely described if two points within the rigid body are known 2 .

Assumption of rigidity 2-Since the actual boundaries of the body does not influence the kinematics the rigid body in plane motion is to be regarded as a large plane 3 .

Assumption of rigidity 3-The particles lying on a straight line have equal velocity components in the direction of this line since the distance between any two points along this line remains constant vA’=vB’ r v B' r v ' A r vB r vA 4 .

The F (dof of mechanism) joint variables which are selected as input variables (specified) are the independent variables. P3. At one position of mechanism one point P can be coincident as P1. A3 and B3. P2. Some points are permanently coincident at all positions such as A2. The rest of the position variables dependent variables. θ θ S S 5 . P4 but at any other position. they will be at different positions Permanently Coincident points. B4 Joint variables are a natural set of position variables.Theory of Machines Instantly Coincident points.

Position of a point 6 .

x. θ where r = x 2 + y 2 and tanθ =y/x → The position of a particle –point.is given by the vector r → → → → → → → → r = x i + y j = r cos θ i + r sin θ j = r u r where u r is a unit vector along r Complex numbers 7 . r.y Polar coordinates.Theory of Machines Position can be expressed in: Rectangular coordinates.

→ z=x+iy: complex number representation of r z=rcos θ + r i sin θ =r(cos θ + i sin θ) Euler’s Equation ei θ=cos θ+isin θ Therefore z=r e is the exponential form of complex number representation of r iθ → 8 .Complex Numbers → → → Consider r = x i + y j .

i.e-i θ z=r ei θ dz & & z= = r e iθ + r θ&. ei θ=(cos θ + i sin θ) and e-iθ=(cos θ .e iθ .i dt d 2z & & && = z = &&e iθ + 2 r θ&.i.i sin θ) 2 cos θ= ei θ+ e-i θ 2 i sin θ= ei θ.e iθ − rθ& 2 e iθ r 2 dt (Find more about complex numbers in the following lecture notes) 9 .e iθ + r θ&.Complex Numbers Using Euler Equation the. following is found.

by describing the position of any two points on that link. 10 .Theory of Machines Considering assumptions of rigidity it is sufficient to represent positions of each link . One way of selecting these two points on a link is to use permanently coincident points (center of joints).

we imagine to be formed from an open loop system. Due to the closed loop formations. two of the joint variables become dependent. 11 . Dof of system=sum of the dof of all joints=total # of joint variables Loop Closure Equation (LCE) In a mechanism there are one or more closed loops.Theory of Machines Open Loop System If there are no closed loops in a mechanical system it is called an open loop system.

Let the disconnected joint be an R joint at point A between links i and j LCE: PA i = PA j (since Ai and Aj are permanently coincident points) PA i : position vector of point Ai PA j : position vector of point Aj 12 . The LCE’s relate the dependent variables to the independent ones. by disconnecting arbitrary joints *Assign the joint variables of the open loop system (choose R joints) *By connecting each disconnected joints the LCE’s can be written.Theory of Machines-LCE *First obtain an open loop system.

Theory of Machines . θ13 θ14 θ12 13 .

θ13. We have 2 equations and 2 unknowns.Theory of Machines Example.Four bar Mechanism So if we write Loop Closure Equation after disconnecting joint B where we have B3 and B4 points as above slide. θ14 (unknown). 14 . A0 A + AB 3 = A0 B0 + B0 B 4 expressing with variables ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (a 2 cos θ12 i + a 2 sin θ12 ˆ) + (a3 cos θ13 i + a3 sin θ 13 ˆ) = a1i + (a 4 cos θ14 i + a 4 sin θ14 ˆ) j j j Writing i and j components a2cosθ12+a3cos θ13=a1+ a4cos θ14 (i components) a2sinθ12+a3sin θ13= a4sin θ14 (j components) Joint variables are: θ12 input (known).

s14 PA 2 = PA3 A0 A2 = A0Q + QB + BA3 15 .Theory of Machines Example: Offset Slider Crank mechanism . θ13. θ13 θ12 Disconnect R at A Joint variables: θ12.

Theory of Machines Number of Loops in a Mechanism The connection of each disconnected joint in an open system yields an independent closed loop formation. ∴ the total # of joint variables must be 2L+F 16 . In an open loop system with l links : # of joints=l-1 ⇒ j. Consider a mechanism with l links j joints Let L # of independent loops L = # of joint that must be disconnected to obtain open loop system. Because of the loop formation some joint variables become dependent. the # of dependent joint variables must be 2L. Since each LCE gives two scalar equations.L = l-1 L=j-l+1 In an open loop system all joint variables are independent.

Therefore we have two independent loops in this mechanism 17 .9 in the Textbook l=6.Theory of Machines Example: Fig 2. j=7 So from the equation L=7-6+1=2.

9 in text book: Disconnect at D and E θ16 θ14 α3 α5 θ12 θ15 18 .Theory of Machines Example: Fig 2.

Theory of Machines Disconnect R at D and E Reconnect D (keeping E disconnected) PD 6 = PD 5 ⇒ A0 A + AB + BD6 = A0 D0 + D0 D5 (1) reconnect R at E (keeping D disconnected) PE 4 = PE 5 ⇒ A0 A + AC + CE 4 = A0 D0 + D0 E5 (2) If while connecting E. D was considered connected then we could also write A0 A + AC + CB + BD + DE5 = A0 A + AC + CE 4 ⇒ CB + BD + DE5 = CE 4 (3) But the third equation is a linear combination of first two i.e. not independent Add second and third we get A0 A + AC + CE 4 + CB + BD + DE5 = A0 D0 + D0 E5 + CE 4 (we get first equation with A0A+AC+CB=A0A+AB and D0E5=D0D5+D5E5) 19 .

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