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Sarah Mae A.


Third Quarterly Exam

1. WEAK ELECTROLYTES: Electrolytes that do not completely dissociate in a solution Examples: a. HC2H3O2 (acetic acid) b. H2CO3 (carbonic acid) c. NH3 (ammonia) 2. AMMINE COMPLEX: A complex ion such as Cu(NH3)42+ that has ammonia molecules as ligands 3. COMPLEX ION: Also called coordinate complex; a species in which a Lewis acid is attached to one or more Lewis bases in equilibrium with its component in solution. 4. COORDINATION ION: Ion (usually metallic) bonded to a surrounding array of molecules or anions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents 5. LIGANDS: The Lewis bases in a complex ion 6. HYDROXO COMPLEX: Ions in which hydroxide ions are the ligands; formed when amphoteric hydroxides dissolve in excess hydroxide ions 7. COMPLEXATION: Method used to prevent a substance from interfering with an assay 8. SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIUM: The equilibrium between aqueous ions and undissolved solid 9. VERY SOLUBLE SALTS: Dissolved to the extent of 10 or more moles per liter of water (> 10 moles/liter of H2O) at room temperature (25 ) and at 1 atm Examples: a. Table salt b. Lithium chloride (LiClO3): has solubility of 35 moles/L of H2O 10. SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE SALTS: Dissolved only to the extent of a few tenths of a mole per liter of H2O (from 0.9 to 0.1) Example: a. Mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2): has solubility of 0.3 mole/L of H2O 11. INSOLUBLE SALTS / SPARINGLY SOLUBLE SALTS: Dissolved only to the extent of 10-20 mole/L of H2O or < 10-20 12. MOLAR SOLUBILITY: The number of moles of a salt that dissolve to form hydrated ions (aqueous ions) in a liter of solution 13. SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANT (Ksp): The equilibrium constant for the solubility equilibrium of a salt

LE CHATELIER PRINCIPLE: Can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration. FRACTIONAL PRECIPITATION: A method of separating a mixture of substances by means of their gradual precipitation from a solution 17. AQUA COMPLEX: A complex ion whose ligands are water molecules . COMMON ION EFFECT: Adding a common ion to a solution of a weak acid or base shifts the position of the ionization equilibrium of the acid or base (in buffer solution) 15. then the equilibrium shifts to counteract the imposed change and a new equilibrium is established. 16. volume. temperature. or partial pressure.14.