Mobile Communications

Chap -3 Media Access

Motivation for a specialized MAC
 

Can we apply media access methods from fixed networks? So let us consider carrier sense multiple access with collision detection, (CSMA/CD) which works as follows in wired Network.

A sender senses the medium (a wire or coaxial cable) to see if it is free. If the medium is busy, the sender waits until it is free. If the medium is free, the sender starts transmitting data and continues to listen into the medium. If the sender detects a collision while sending, it stops at once and sends a jamming signal.

Why does this scheme fail in wireless networks?
signal strength decreases proportional to the square of the distance(ISI Problem)  it might be the case that a sender cannot “hear” the collision, i.e., CD does not work  furthermore, CS might not work if, e.g., a terminal is “hidden”

2

Hidden and exposed terminals Hidden terminals
    

The transmission range of A reaches B, but not C. C reaches B, but not A and finally, B reaches A & C. A can not detect C and C can not detect A. collision at B, A cannot receive the collision (CD fails) A is “hidden” for C

A starts sending to B, C does not receive this transmission . C also wants A B C to send some data to B and sense the medium .Thus C starts sending causing a collision at B. But A can not detect this collision and continues with its transmission. A is hidden for C and vice versa. While hidden terminals cause collision.

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Motivation:- hidden and exposed terminal

Exposed terminals
B sends to A, C wants to send to another terminal (not A or B)  C has to wait, CS signals a medium in use  but A is outside the radio range of C, therefore waiting is not necessary  C is “exposed” to B

Now , B sends something to A and C wants to send data to some other mobile A B C phone outside the range of A,B and C. C senses the carrier and detects that carrier is busy. Hence C post pones its transmission. But as A is outside the interference range of C, waiting is not necessary. So in this situation , C is exposed to B.

4

Motivation - near and far terminals
Terminals A and B send, C receives
signal strength decreases proportional to the square of the distance  the signal of terminal B therefore drowns out A’s signal  C cannot receive A

A

B

C

If C for example was an arbiter for sending rights, terminal B would drown out terminal A

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MACA - collision avoidance
MACA (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) uses short signaling packets for collision avoidance
RTS (request to send): a sender request the right to send from a receiver with a short RTS packet before it sends a data packet  CTS (clear to send): the receiver grants the right to send as soon as it is ready to receive

Signaling packets contain
sender address  receiver address  packet size

MACA examples
MACA avoids the problem of hidden terminals
A and C want to send to B  A sends RTS first  C waits after receiving CTS from B

RTS CTS A B CTS C

MACA avoids the problem of exposed terminals
B wants to send to A, C to another terminal  now C does not have to wait for it cannot receive CTS from A

RTS CTS A B

RTS

C

Access Methods
To overcome this problems, signals can be divided into Different like SDMA,FDMA,TDMA, and CDMA 1 ) SDMA : Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is used for allocating a separated space to users in wireless networks.  A typical application involves assigning an optimal base station to a mobile phone user. The mobile phone may receive several base stations with different quality. A MAC algorithm could now decide which base station is best, taking into account which frequencies (FDM), time slots (TDM) or code (CDM) are still available (depending on the technology).  The basis for the SDMA algorithm is formed by cells .  use directed antennas  Use cells to reuse frequencies

8

Access Methods
2) FDMA :  Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) comprises all algorithms allocating frequencies to transmission channels according to the frequency division multiplexing (FDM) .  Allocation can either be fixed (as for radio stations).  Channels can be assigned to the same frequency at all times, i.e., FDMA, or change frequencies according to a certain pattern, i.e., FDMA combined with TDMA.  Furthermore, FDM is often used for simultaneous access to the medium by base station and mobile station in cellular networks. Here the two partners typically establish a duplex channel, i.e., a channel that allows for simultaneous transmission in both directions. The two directions, mobile station to base station and vice versa are now separated using different frequencies. This scheme is then called frequency division duplex (FDD).

9

Access Methods

Again, both partners have to know the frequencies in advance; they cannot just listen into the medium. The two frequencies are also known as uplink, i.e., from mobile station to base station or from ground control to satellite, and as downlink, i.e., from base station to mobile station or from satellite to ground control. As for example FDM and FDD, Figure shows the situation in a mobile phone network based on the GSM standard for 900 MHz. The basic frequency allocation scheme for GSM is fixed and regulated by national authorities. All uplinks use the band between 890.2 and 915 MHz, all downlinks use 935.2 to 960 MHz. According to FDMA, the base station, shown on the right side, allocates a certain frequency for up- and downlink to establish a duplex channel with a mobile phone.

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FDD/FDMA - general scheme, example GSM

f
960 MHz
124

935.2 MHz 915 MHz

1 20 MHz 124

200 kHz

890.2 MHz

1

t

Access Methods
3) TDMA :  Compared to FDMA, time division multiple access (TDMA) offers a much more flexible scheme, which comprises all technologies that allocate certain time slots for communication.  Now tuning in to a certain frequency is not necessary, i.e., the receiver can stay at the same frequency the whole time. Using only one frequency, and thus very simple receivers and transmitters, many different algorithms exist to control medium access. As already mentioned, listening to different frequencies at the same time is quite difficult, but listening to many channels separated in time at the same frequency is simple.  E.g. radio system because it allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing and signal into different timeslots.

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Access method CDMA
4) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
all terminals send on the same frequency probably at the same time and can use the whole bandwidth of the transmission channel  each sender has a unique random number, the sender XORs the signal with this random number  the receiver can “tune” into this signal if it knows the pseudo random number, tuning is done via a correlation function

Advantages:
all terminals can use the same frequency, no planning needed  huge code space compared to frequency space  interferences is not  error correction and encryption can be easily integrated

Disadvantages:
higher complexity of a receiver (receiver cannot just listen into the medium and start receiving if there is a signal)  all signals should have the same strength at a receiver

CDMA in theory
Sender A
sends Ad = 1, key Ak = 010011 (assign: “0”= -1, “1”= +1)  sending signal As = Ad * Ak = (-1, +1, -1, -1, +1, +1)

Sender B
sends Bd = 0, key Bk = 110101 (assign: “0”= -1, “1”= +1)  sending signal Bs = Bd * Bk = (-1, -1, +1, -1, +1, -1)

Both signals are in space
interference neglected (noise etc.)  As + Bs = (-2, 0, 0, -2, +2, 0)

Receiver wants to receive signal from sender A

apply key Ak bitwise
Ae = (-2, 0, 0, -2, +2, 0) • Ak = 2 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 2 + 0 = 6  result greater than 0, therefore, original bit was “1”

receiving B

Be = (-2, 0, 0, -2, +2, 0) • Bk = -2 + 0 + 0 - 2 - 2 + 0 = -6, i.e. “0”

CDMA in theory
The following (theoretical) example explains the basic function of CDMA before it is applied to signals: ● Two senders, A and B, want to send data. CDMA assigns the following unique and orthogonal key sequences: key Ak = 010011 for sender A, key BK = 110101 for sender B. Sender A wants to send the bit Ad = 1, sender B sends Bd = 0. To illustrate this example, let us assume that we code a binary 0 as –1, a binary 1 as +1. We can then apply the standard addition and multiplication rules. ● Both senders spread their signal using their key as chipping sequence (the term ‘spreading’ here refers to the simple multiplication of the data bit with the whole chipping sequence). In reality, parts of a much longer chipping sequence are applied to single bits for spreading. Sender A then sends the signal As = Ad*Ak = +1*(–1, +1, –1, –1, +1, +1) = (–1, +1, –1, –1, +1, +1). Sender B does the same with its data to spread the signal with the code: Bs = Bd*Bk = –1*(+1, +1, –1, +1, –1, +1) = (–1, –1, +1, –1, +1, –1).

CDMA in theory
● Both signals are then transmitted at the same time using the same frequency, so, the signals superimpose in space (analog modulation is neglected in this example). Discounting interference from other senders and environmental noise from this simple example, and assuming that the signals have the same strength at the receiver, the following signal C is received at a receiver: C = As + Bs = (–2, 0, 0, –2, +2, 0). ● The receiver now wants to receive data from sender A and, therefore, tunes in to the code of A, i.e., applies A’s code for despreading: C*Ak = (–2, 0, 0, –2, +2, 0)*(–1, +1, –1, –1, +1, +1) = 2 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 2 + 0 = 6. As the result is much larger than 0, the receiver detects a binary 1. Tuning in to sender B, i.e., applying B’s code gives C*Bk = (–2, 0, 0, –2, +2, 0)* (+1, +1, –1, +1, –1, +1) = –2 + 0 + 0 – 2 – 2 + 0 = –6. The result is negative, so a 0 has been detected.

CDMA on signal level I

data A key A key sequence A data ⊕ key signal A

1

0

1

Ad

0 1

1 0

0 1

1 0

0 1

0 1

1 1

0 0

0 0

0 0

1 1

0 0

1 0

1 0

0 1

0 1

1 0

1 0

Ak

As

Real systems use much longer keys resulting in a larger distance between single code words in code space.

CDMA on signal level II
signal A

As 1 0 0 Bd

data B key B key sequence B data ⊕ key signal B

0 1

0 1

0 1

1 1 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

1 0 1 0

1 1

1 1

1 1

Bk

Bs

As + Bs

CDMA on signal level III
data A

1
As + Bs

0

1

Ad

Ak

(As + Bs) * Ak integrator output comparator output

1

0

1

CDMA on signal level IV
data B

1

0

0

Bd

As + Bs

Bk

(As + Bs) * Bk integrator output comparator output

1

0

0

CDMA on signal level V

As + B s

wrong key K

(As + Bs) *K

integrator output comparator output

(0)

(0)

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