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**Module 4. Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems
**

Objective: Maintains a certain physical space at a cold temperature for a refrigeration system (cooling) and at a high temperature for a heat pump system (heating). Concept Support: Coefficient of Performance for Refrigerators & Heat Pumps: • In a household refrigerator, the freezer compartment where heat is picked up by the refrigerant serves as the evaporator, and the coils behind the refrigerator where heat is rejected to the kitchen air serves as the condenser. • The Refrigerator: QC → QH , where Win is input, by maintaining the low T region at a low T: β = COPR = QC/Wnet,in = QC/(Q H - QC); • COPR can be > 1

The Heat Pump: QC → QH , where Win is input, by maintaining the high T region at a high T: γ = COPHP = QH/Wnet,in = QH/(Q H - QC); COPHP is always > 1

• • •

Note that for fixed values of QH and QC : COPHP = COPR + 1 or γ = β + 1 Most HP’s in operation have an average-season value of COP between 2 and 3.

**The Vapor Refrigeration Cycle:
**

Modeling: The system combines a Compressor, a Condenser, an Expansion Device, and an Evaporator.

Copyright © 2004, K. Nasr. All Rights Reserved

Page 1

K. / Wcomp. dE C.V. Carnot Operation: Isentropic Compression Constant Pressure Heat Rejection Isentropic Expansion Constant Pressure Heat Absorption • ⊕ 1. K. • The performance of the refrigeration cycle is quantified by the coefficient of performance: COP = Qevap. 2.right) • Heat is transferred to the working fluid (refrigerant) in the evaporator and then compressed by the compressor.V . • . however it is not practical because: (I) The compressor would experience wear due to liquid droplets since state (1) is a liquid-vapor mixture. and then its pressure is suddenly reduced in the expansion valve. . . An irreversible throttling process as an expansion process. It’s normally assumed that kinetic and potential energy are negligible. 3. + σ gen + ∑ mi si − ∑ me se (2nd Law): dt C . (II) It is difficult to maintain equilibrium between liquid and vapor if we do compress (III) the isentropic expansion device. Inlet to compressor is saturated vapor 2. V2 V2 = QC.left and Ideal .V . + ∑ m i ( h i + i + gz i ) − ∑ m e (h e + e + gz e ) • (1st Law): dt 2 2 i e . . ⊕ Ideal Cycle Operation: Corrects for the drawbacks of Carnot operation by having: 1. = ∑ CV . Nasr. .doc A Simplified Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle (Carnot . 4. is expensive to construct. dSC . involving no losses (friction). Heat is transferred from the working fluid in the condenser. • A Carnot cycle is the most efficient.V. .c:\thermo \module4. ⊕ Applications of the Open System 1st and 2nd Laws to the Various Devices: . Nasr. A refrigeration cycle is used to extract energy from a fluid (air) in contact with the evaporator. T i e Copyright © 2004. and that the expansion process through the valve is a throttling process. − W C . Q .V . All Rights Reserved Page 2 . exit of compressor is superheated vapor 3.

Heat Rejection 3 →4: Adiabatic Throttling 4 →1: p = C. Actual Cycle Operation: Deviates from ideal cycle operation by having: Pressure drops due to friction in connecting pipes Heat transfer exists across connecting pipes Pressure drops occur through the condenser and evaporator tubes Heat transfer occurs from the compressor Frictional effects and flow separation occur on the compressor blades Refrigerant vapor entering the compressor may be slightly superheated Refrigerant temperature exiting the condenser may be slightly below saturation. the compressor power input. since the inlet to the evaporator is always a mixture of liquid and vapor. Heat Absorption Device Compressor Condenser Throttling Device (O-Tube. enters the evaporator at –10 °F and exits at 0 °F. the pressure therefore is the saturation pressure at the given temperature. It is the cooling effect.doc Assumptions: SSSF. 1st Law . / WComp . 5. 3 2 h3 = h4 s4 > s3 . The refrigerating capacity is normally given in tons of refrigeration for a system where one ton of refrigeration is equivalent to 12000 Btu/hr. We want to determine the evaporator and condenser pressures. 6.K. Cond. 7. and the coefficient of performance. The isentropic compressor efficiency is 80%. It is also assumed that frictional effects. that is the rate of heat transfer extracted from air on the outside of the evaporator. = m(h1 − h4 ) . Negligible ∆KE and ∆PE. Having a subcooled liquid exiting the condenser results in having a larger refrigeration effect. TXV) Evaporator COP = QEvap. K. are neglected so that the pressure at the inlet equals the pressure at the exit of the evaporator. the refrigerating capacity is the rate of heat transfer into the refrigerant flowing in the evaporator. Copyright © 2004. Problem: A vapor-compression refrigeration system for a household refrigerator has a refrigerating capacity of 1000 Btu/h. 3. A desirable effect out of the above list is item 7. Q = m( h − h ) s2 > s3 . Nasr. the mass flow rate of the refrigerant. . • Second. The refrigerant. between the refrigerant and the tubes of the evaporator. s1 > s4 ⊕ 1. = m( h1 − h 2 ) s2 = s1 . Solution: • First.c:\thermo \module4. The refrigerant condenses at 95 °F and exits the condenser subcooled at 90 °F. QEvap. All Rights Reserved Page 3 . 2. 4. Single-Inlet. Nasr. There are no significant pressure drops in the flows through the evaporator and condenser. R134a. 2nd Law W Comp . Single-Outlet conditions Process 1→2: Isentropic Compression 2 →3: p = C.

Interpolated Btu Btu P1 = PSat@ −10º F = 16. s 2 s = s1 = 0. in horsepower. Nasr. Therefore.K. we need to utilize the refrigeration capacity.271 min h1 − h4 lbm • Now we can calculate the power needed. • • β= h1 − h4 = 2.62 h 2 − h1 Page 4 Copyright © 2004.674 lbf ⇒ T1 = 0 º F from -12E → h1 = 102. “what I get” is cooling off the evaporator and “what I pay for” is compressor power. & 1h 1000 Btu Q In h lbm & m= = (102. In this case. All Rights Reserved .c:\thermo \module4.72 lbm & To determine the mass flow rate. Nasr. then the pressure in the condenser is the saturation pressure at the given temperature. we get the actual enthalpy value of the refrigerant leaving the compressor: ηC = h 2s − h1 h − h1 Btu ⇒ h 2a = h1 + 2s = 125. being the ratio of the isentropic (minimum required) to the actual power.2281 lbm* R in 2 Utilizing the concept for the isentropic efficiency of a compressor.150 hp & WC = m(h1 − h2 ) = (0.72 lbm Btu (3) to (4) is a throttling process.2 − 40.72) Btu 60 min = 0.7 ) lbm min Btu 1h 2545 h Its performance is measured via Coefficient of Performance (COP).doc • Third. It has the same notion as the efficiency.271 lbm )(102.Psat ) = 40. to run the compressor via the 1st Law: 60 min 1hp Btu & = −0.2 lbm . s1 = 0.2281 lbm*R Table A State 1: 2 in State 2: Interpolating from Table A -12E Btu Btu P2 = PSat @ 95º F = 128. Q In and the specific enthalpies at State 4 and 1.7 lbm h2 a − h1 ηC State 3: State 4: • Btu T3 = 90 F ( subcooled ) ⇒ h3 = h f + v f (P . K. thus from the 1st law: h3 = h4 = 40. since the refrigerant condenses inside the condenser at 95 °F. • Let’s determine the properties of R134a at each state to give us a better look at what the system is doing.01 lbm .62 lbf → h 2s = 121. Now we can determine the coefficient of performance for this refrigerator.2 − 125.

Nasr.K. K.c:\thermo \module4. Nasr.doc Other Questions for Critical Thinking: What is the rate of heat rejection on the condenser side? Is energy Conserved for this cyclic device? What is the entropy change for the refrigerant flowing through the compressor? What is the entropy change for the refrigerant flowing through the condenser? What is the entropy change for the refrigerant flowing through the expansion valve? What is the entropy change for the refrigerant flowing through the evaporator? Copyright © 2004. All Rights Reserved Page 5 .

what is the mass flow rate of air via a fan across the condenser’s coils? Estimate the CFM (ft3/min) of air flowing across the condenser coils Can you draw a T-s diagram and trace the refrigerant as it goes through from device to device? Can you draw an pressure –enthalpy (p-h) diagram as this is what was normally used to get enthalpy values prior to the days of computers and tables? HW # 13 Due Tuesday of 10th Week • Generate a concept map for this module and e-mail to me electronically • Problem 4. All Rights Reserved Page 6 . 10.c:\thermo \module4.K.3. Copyright © 2004.84 of your textbook • Problem 10. Refrigeration and Heat pump Systems Section 10.doc If the air around the condenser experiences a temperature rise of 15 °F. Section 10. Refrigerant Properties.3 of your textbook to be quite useful Corresponding Coverage in your text book: Chapter 10. 10. Analyzing Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems. Nasr.2.17 (a).41 (a). K.1. (b) of your textbook You may find examples 10.1. Nasr.2. (b) of your textbook • Problem 10. Vapor Refrigeration Systems Section 10.

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