Abstract The study focuses on how local food specialties in UK have impact on the tourism industry.

The country offers many local food specialties. Restaurants, snack bars, street vendors, and cake shops provide tourists and locals a diverse purchasing and dining experience. Tourism is one of the biggest industries in United Kingdom. The industry by market standards is worth approximately Euro 75.9 billion and provides a substantial amount to the U.K economy. Moreover more than 2.1 million people are employed in tourism alone (statistics.gov.co.uk, 2009). Limited consumer behavior information is available with regard to the purchase and consumption of local food specialties. Research-based studies are needed to obtain tourists and locals perceptions about UK‘s food and how they make their food selection decisions. An important component of tourism is the food you find at the destination; it helps nourish the journey and escalates the entire experience. However this important factor has been recognised and given its due importance only in recent times. In the ever changing global horizon, the tourist’s are more cultured and informed, constantly looking for newer experiences. Varied culture has different food and cuisines, thereby with food preparations and the eating ambience a tourist can explore the culture of a place. The drinks and food consumed during a holiday often defines the memories of the travel. Food tourism in itself is a wide spectrum: it could be ordinary or festive, domestic or commercial, cookery classes or cookbooks, restraints or food events, food and wine tours or any other mode of actually getting a feel of the product (www.ittfa.org). Besides this, food and drinks also has a tangible aspect. It helps a tourist understand the history, culture, religion, custom and tradition of the destination place. Tourists and consumers today are more discerning and with this increased demand in the consumption of locally produced products together with the trend of living a healthier lifestyle. The relationship between locally produced food and tourism is also receiving recognition from the main tourism and development agencies in UK. The rationale of the research

With the growing realization and emphasis on food, tourism research and tourism product development teams have been paying greater heed to food and wine tourism and gastronomy (Hall and mitchel2003). A great section of consumers emphasize on a range of food product that serves as a vital factor in their over all satisfaction. So it is important for any place, in this case UK, to emphasis on the marketing and promotional activities linked to food tourism (pubs, bars, farmer’s market, restaurants). Various gastronomy festivals can also be organized to attract larger number of tourists. Such kind of marketing skills would not only help boost profitability but also help provide the tourists with a cultural experience. This thesis is being conducted to understand how food industries can help boost tourism from a different perspective. If the right tools are used then the food tourism will gain due importance and also help the destination to flourish. The food tourism is a crucial factor to the tourism industry it provides the experience of the destination culture as well as a “sense of place “(Hall, 2003). The purpose of this study is also to project how food is a travel motivator not only to an individual tourist but to the world tourism on a whole. My objective is to increase awareness among people that food is not just a mere necessity to keep life moving. Food in fact can help develop a positive image of a country or destination. There by the tourism industry can benefit from it. The right channels and routes of marketing to promote the food industry can help as much as the promotional activities related to sightseeing. Let us take an example, the marketing promotional campaign by Enjoy England in the year 2006 promotes various regional delicacies, traditional specialities and taste trails. The campaign is called “Taste England” and helps pull tourists. Also England’s “‘natural larder” emphasizes on a destination’s food offerings and helps attract customers greatly. It is called as the “pull factor” by writers (Okumus et al., 2007). So it can be seen that food today is not a mere trivial holiday requirement. The thesis will cover the role and significance of food to tourism, the complexities involved in the progress of the food tourism. Also the research will try and provide future direction and scope to help further research. Although food tourism presents great prospects for the future, it is important to understand various quality factors and standards and conflicting needs. Also the correlation and relativity of this factor to others must be understood to help use it as an advantage to both industries: food and tourism. The entire hospitality business which works in close relation to food services is considered to be a part of the tourism industry (a terminology used throughout

the thesis). Proponents assert, food tourism is going to be the “next big thing”. It is expected to give competition to ecotourism as a chic trend (Centre for Hospitality Research, 2005). Defining Food Tourism Food Tourism or one should say Gastro-tourism is now becoming a buzz word around the world. In attempting to define food tourism it is evident that there are many possible variations to any definition. It is evident that farm gate tourism is either juxtaposed or a subsector to food tourism. According to Sarah Lebski, a leading tourism consultant, highlights in her draft Food and Beverage Tourism - Market Assessment, September 2009, it is very difficult to define food tourism and every organisation has a different view. Food tourism can be described as “about food as a subject and medium, destination and vehicle, for tourism. It is about individuals exploring foods (and wines) new to them as well as using food to explore new cultures and ways of being. It is about groups using food to ‘sell’ 5their histories and to construct marketable and publicly attractive identities, and it is about individuals satisfying curiosity. Finally, it is about experiencing food (and wine) in a mode that is out of the ordinary that steps outside of the normal routine, to notice differences and the power of food to represent and negotiate that difference” During the 20th Century, industrialization began to threaten artisan producers and many abandoned their traditional techniques. But in the past two decades, there's been resurgence in demand for quality products made by time-honored methods. The appetite is growing for regional produce, such as Somerset cider, Caerphilly cheese and Cromer crabs. Food tourism has become big business, worth nearly £4bn a year. In a recent survey of tourist perceptions of the UK food industry, two-thirds of Britons said that food and drink influenced their holiday choice. The West Country, Wales and Scotland occupied the top three destinations. Since the Malt Whisky Trail was set up around Scottish distilleries several decades ago, the number of food and drink trails has multiplied. New additions include a wine trail around the

For example wine routes are provided in South Africa and California. so why not add to that through our taste buds?" (Bbc. however finding it and having the knowledge . According to more than 76 billion pounds are generated by tourism on a yearly basis in the United Kingdom (Nasaaarts.org. such as on a castle or cathedral tour. sausage trails in the Midlands and the North-West. Alexia Robinson. This paper aims at emphasizing on how food is connected to a tourist’s experience. also how right form of marketing to promote the regional food can help increase the attractiveness of a place. destinations understand the importance of the food industry. Also food provides a person with a cultural exposure to the land’s culture. Also brand new markets and channels should be organized and started to help portray the food available at a locale in the best possible way and to advertise the food options better. The authenticity of the food being served often draws a person to visit a particular location. museums and restaurants.co. We usually experience a place visually. The growth of the tourism industry in the United Kingdom is directly linked with the growth of amusement parks. Travelling aimlessly is not their intention. the organizer of British Food Fortnight. and a Lake District afternoon tea trail. The strength of the heritage and cultural tourism is to serve the likes of veteran tourists. they are visiting. There by food and travel are greatly connected. To food industry is vital to the hospitality industry. An element of the delight of tour is the gratification of tasting new unacquainted cuisines. 2009) Research by Meler and Cerović in the year 2003 showed that one-third of the total tourist expenditure across the globe is on food and beverages.uk. International travellers like to absorb the feel of the place. Literature review In UK more importance is given to Cultural and Heritage tourism. So each time a tourist goes to a destination a large proportion of his money is spent on the food. In today’s competitive market.South-East. There are many travellers around Europe and indeed the world who consider travelling for heritage. 2011). cultural activities or for ranking art specimens. says food adds to a visitor's experience of a place. "Taste is one of our senses.

This can help stop them from declining further (Boyne et al. ‘it can be much more . showcasing the deceit of the site. for example finding a speciality cake. These reforms are formed by the government and food tourism organizations and help encourage farming economies. 2003) The ‘post-tourist’ Several interviewers concluded their own interpretations and relations from the changing dynamics of tourism. An exhibition maybe for a country or a region. Also there are various economic returns that can be utilised as a measure for rural enhancement and development. it can also be a standalone like a food event for a specific food or a particular location. lists and hygiene policy. As for example. Or perhaps having a place where a tourist can see how the process takes place. This helped the tourists perceive a cleaner and much warmer Guinness ambience.. Paul used an example from Ireland to better communicate the same.about its where about is what the tourism industry should aim at. Reims in France is known for its champagne. There are a lot of factories which have customized tour to help travellers see how factories extract fruit juices. An excellent platform for promoting food tourism is travel exhibitions. Similarly. But on the other hand it turned people off when they eventually saw the production line. However the study revealed that people were being put off by the smell of the hops. That would not be a possibility especially to avoid from mass packaged nature of present day livelihood that tourists required in their journey to the Scottish periphery. envisioning an idealized history devoid of wishing to march into the genuine ‘backstage’ and dress themselves in the contemporary accessory of plastic caps as they stroll around stainless steel vats decked with caution labels. concurring that they were being accessible to an apparently constructed world. instead of a entirely ‘authentic’ view. and try some complimentary items will help boost satisfaction. Many drew relations between the food of a place and the local culture. Cheddar in Somerset England is most known for its cheese and is visited for it. So instead of taking tourists on an excursion to the factory they formulated an audio tour. thinking it would help attract customers. cheese or wine of a place. With physical partition and synchronized spaces a “new” tourism has developed. Numerous exhibitors integrate conventional food into their place display to add extra zeal and interest to attract larger number of tourists. Many tourists showed the characteristics of Urry’s (1990) ‘post tourist’. the yeast.

“You don’t bring them into a place where smell is … that smell will linger in someone’s nostrils for a while!” (Paul). but rather the emotional engagement people have with it. it was accepted that much of the experience was constructed to meet certain . but simultaneously modernist aspects of regulation and structure form an intrinsic part of the experience. Post a tour to the cheese shop. as they understand that the production line is regulated and represented to tourists to match the post modern image created in mind so authenticity is not directly related to any kind of fish. 1976). it is the conception in their mind. However they were aware of ‘it does make you wonder to what extent the local people change their offer’ (John). that would help the tourist to perceive the product as they want to. where you can see some care has gone into it. more. I think that’s what I’m after – something personal. it’s not just going to be a run of the mill kind of food that you can just get anywhere. where they can see the wax wrapping process and the process makes a person want to visit over and over again.” Many travellers perceived sites as Alton towers with food’ (Will). a tourist said. (Jill) Although viewing windows were presented as an opportunity to gaze into the back stage areas of food production. ‘Romantic image isn’t it! We like to think that!’ (Sheena) and ‘can see it made and like to think it is pure and real’ (Donald). This helps us through light on what Oakes and Minca (2004) said that “tourists representing the paradox of ‘post/modernity’ where individual postmodern experiences are celebrated and embraced. It is known as the ‘yellow brick road’.presentable than seeing and harsh smells you know’ (Moira). A corporal rendezvous which differentiate Wang’s (1999) concept of existential validity that hypothesizes realism as happening at a more private level. biscuit or beer. The notion that tourists have of a place. However they wanted to believe the authenticity of the ‘experience’ and that they weren’t mislead into believing a wrongly projected region’s image or identity. The interviewers wanted to have food related activities which would feel authentic and actual. A belief which they wanted to carry forward. cheese. However the understanding and perception about tourist products from a tourist-occupied ‘front stage’ into the industrious ‘back stage’ may be incorrectly ‘dripping with sincerity’ (MacCannell. It is important for a tourism product to have a well developed set up. This would help to attract larger purchase. Any company that can understand this secret will achieve success. (Brenda) I suppose in a way I like to think that there is more taste to it and more flavour when I see them make it in front of me with local ingredients. but the feel of the product in their mind must be authenticated through the activity. They did not care whether the production process was actually the same.

visitor manager at the Arran Distillery). 2003). The ‘performance’ on the tourist’s side of the window bind the pre-conceived viewpoint of tourists by uniting the visual act with the multisensory rendezvous of tasting small samples of smoked fish or cheese. helping to hypothesize the events every surface of the window as a sort of interactive presentation. the production line is strategically placed to help attract and amuse the public. There by Hall and Sharples further classified food tourism into sub heads on the basis of their interest. The Role of Food in Culture and Tourism An intrinsic expression of culture and identity is the food that we get at the destination (Hall & Sharples. 2003). Through the experiences one encounters they can learn about the environment and culture of an unknown place. so it should be considered and weighed how marketing strategies can be used to help promote the local food of a place (du Rand. Isle of Arran).objectives and promote regional food myths. du Rand. These contributions could be motivating agricultural performance and food manufacturing. it acts as a gateway to another culture. 2010. and help boost entrepreneurship (Texas Tech University. avoiding authentic misuse. . increasing destination charisma. August. 2003). p 58). 1995). we are all performing here’ (Robin. Shih-Chi Chao. Even if the staff is working vigorously on food processes. Heath & Alberts. Food can help create economic value to government and businesses. They consider food to be an integral part of their travel experience . reinforce brand image and identity. enforcing the extrication created by the glass. Santich had stated in the year 2004 that food tourism should be considered as a part of cultural tourism. generating jobs. ‘it’s about a whole package. Perkins and Thorns’ (2001) debate of the ‘gaze’ as a sort of ‘performance’ integrate several facets of this synchronized bodily participation. “Food is central to travelling” stated Long (2003). 1996. The sense of ‘performance’ was improved by positioned notices in the window jokingly appealing that you ‘do not tap on the glass as it upsets the animals’ (James’ Chocolates. There are various factors that can be contributed by the local food of a place to help develop and market a place for tourism (Elmont. “Food tourists” were differentiated by Hall and Sharples (2003) as those travellers who are influenced by the food available in a place. Based on these factors stated by various researchers we can argue that the regional food can help create greater value for a destination (Telfer & Wall. For example the wax vats bordered by elucidation panels which build for attractive presentation as cheeses were dipped in colour dyes. Heath & Alberts.

market positioning and diversity in offerings. so experiencing the local food is important for all Asian while they are travelling. the people who belonged to Europe and North America did not consider food to be the primary reason to travel to a destination. winery or market. Their study of foreign tourists that visit Hong Kong. They would to like visit a festival. Richards (2002) conducted a study in Portugal and derived that gastronomy was the fifth most influential factor for tourists. Another survey conducted by Taiwan‘s Tourism Bureau (2006). Okumus. and Thailand). For example. (3) Low interest in food: they would like to visit a restraint or winery at a destination. winery. their presentation of food items at events is incredible.(1) High interest in food: these are those categories of people whose primary reason for travelling is food and wine. They like going to places for a particular restraint. Struwig. 2007) . Japan. Kivela and Crotts (2005) showed that people travel to Hongkong post Taiwan to experience the food there.. For example. if there is something different or unique about it. 256). or market once they have arrived at a destination. Langa. showed that 34% international tourists felt that food was the major differentiating factor between Taiwan and neighbouring countries (China. Okumus & McKercher (2007) used the marketing activities in Hong Kong and Turkey to set example for other countries. Their brand image. A survey conducted by Rule. (4) No interest in food: these people visit restaurants only because they need to eat while they are travelling. Turkey on the other hand does not pay emphasis on the food and related activities. (2) Moderate interest in food: these people are moderately interested in the food and related activities. Viljoen and Boiare in South African (2001) showed that international tourists spend about 8% on food while the domestic tourists spend an amount as high as 24% on the same. The Government of Hong Kong makes large investments to produce high production value products (Okumus et al. while Turkey does not feel the need to do so (Okumus et al. Almost all their activities are food related. p. Hong Kong shows images in the websites of food items and cuisines. So it has to depend on food. So a differentiating factor needs to exist. So food is a part of their lifestyle activities but not a primary motive. Hong Kong does not have too many tourism products on offer in comparison to Turkey. For example. attracts travellers. People from different regions may have a different perspective about food tourism. 2007.. However. food is an important part of the Asian culture.

Tourism Experience Tourism growth in a country benefits the native people financially. whether he focuses on food or not. The peak experience is derived from a different attraction. depending on . with many restaurants catering to foreign tourists and other allied activities. The supporting one on the other hand. is a more like an extension of the daily experiences. and spend a significant amount drinking or dining. Also every traveller would want to see a thing that are unique to a particular destination and that differentiates it from others. Beer (2008) stated that travellers felt that food formed a part of their tourism experience and also created a distinct experience of its own. 297). Food is among the most crucial elements of a traveller’s experience. p. but may stay longer. Most people while travelling. They stated that food consumption can be either a peak or supporting experience. Quan and Wang (2004) derived a relation between food consumed and traveller’s experience. Moreover the citizens get a glimpse of other cultures which broadens their vision of the world. so if the marketing campaigns are centred on communicating the authenticity of a food item then the specific country or region may greatly benefit. The changing weather patterns tend to leave an impact on the industry in a particular area. One negative aspect of the growth is that the emphasis and importance given to domestic tourism has reduced. Ryan (1997) had stated that the primary emphasis of tourism is the experience a traveller goes through. International tourist travel is possible if the season is favourable. Otto and Ritchie (1996) stated that tourism and leisure experiences are the mental frame of a person and is subjective in nature. They also analyzed how significant consumption of food is significant to tourism. whether to try local products. These experiences are often taken for granted and there by not given much importance. then the entire tourism experience is negative. Wang. Even if the peak experience is great. Richards (2002) stated that food creates its own distinct experience. if the supporting experiences are not pleasant. It is possible that the number of visitors may fall. Dining and lodging are common examples of supporting experiences. They said that the experience may be peak or supporting in nature. Quan and Wang (2004) discriminated two types of tourism experiences. Since authenticity adds value to any experience. McCabe (2002) on the other hand said that both these experiences existed in a tourism experiences and is encountered by the travellers. To cite an example international vacations are highest from April-July and from December to January. since one has to eat. 2004. plan on where to eat.

Cohen (1979) classified tourists on the basis of their experiences: the existential tourist. Moxey (1997) also stated that the perception of authenticity can be based on personal knowledge and experience. Scarpato and Daniele (2003) said that proponents felt that increasing stress on globalization had lead to the increase in similarity in products in today’s era. packaging. The book stated that people today are losing interest in town or family. they also want a significant experience that stays in their minds (Gilmore & Pine. 91). 2004) seek for playfulness rather than authenticity. The perception can be based on various factors such as appearance. So people are seeking authenticity in products. It influences a person’s choice to purchase or not purchase a product (Gilmore & Pine. The first three categories look forth to pursuing authenticity during their personal travel and are trying to gain such experiences. the experimental tourist. 2001. Authenticity was mentioned as a motivational factor first in Dean MacCannell‘s book ―The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class (Molz. They do not have a strict factor or criteria to consider something as authentic so they are more open minded about accepting different cultural aspects as authentic. travellers do not want just the product or services. 246). traditional relation. 2004. organic content etc. while recreational tourists (Molz. p. 301). Cohen in 1998 said that people who are less concerned about the authenticity will be more open to take an experience as an authentic one. the diversionary tourist. The authentic term is often used to address items which are considered genuine version of a food item found at a particular place or country or destination (Groves. price. 2007). Authenticity of the food and related activities are relevant is consumer’s sensibilities. Thus making it more difficult to know how customers perceive the authenticity of a product. and the recreational tourist. origin of the product. Kuznesof. 71). 2004). the experiential tourist. p. Tregear. Authenticity To boost tourism. And when it is a peak experience then it is an exotic or memorable experience which a traveller goes through. Grove (2001) researched on what British consumers perceived to be genuine British food. p. When it is a supporting experience then it is merely an extension of the regular dining experience at home (Quan & Wang. or personal things. .the traveller. 2007). p. 1976. but gaining attachment to “real life” of others (MacCannell. They look to have a fun time ad pay less attention to authenticity (Molz. 2004.

supermarkets and larger stores can produce thousand of chocolates with standardized machines and ingredients through mass production. However this perception changes over time.Travelers may not know how to identify and differentiate local cuisines. Any local product and its sales depend on the price. and helps the customer overcome any ambiguity in relation to the price variation. Price Pricing of any product is very vital. Confusion with other categories of food A project may be confused with others or the message related to the product may be non communicated. The meat or the wool may be sold at a lower price in the market. For example. On the other hand. p. . It also requires new investment in new businesses processes and equipments. This rise in price due to production processes often deters a supplier to change supply routes. Lack of confidence about the market There is always a lack of confidence as to whether the product will be sold at the appropriate price. personal travel experiences. But their choice to buy a product will be dependent on the perception he holds about its authenticity. There by the cost which is incurred for production is lowered in case of larger shops due to economies of scale. but daily products such as milk and bread will have a significant price difference due to this small amount. While it may be a small amount when it is for a packet of fudge. a chocolate factory would produce a batch of chocolates with specific ingredients and packaging is done in the kitchen itself. 2007. Local products are bought and sold in smaller economy of scale. The demand should be visible from local markets. The person needs enough security that there is market for products that they are producing. life stages. There by the farmer has lack of confidence and may not be sure as to whether they should change the production processes. 22). Thus it is important that the origin of the product adds value to the product. Thus this retail expenses has to be borne by both the retailer and the customers. Any funding for the projects will help add assurance. For example some local organic food may not be accredited as organic. habitually used products (Gilmore & Pine. the market opportunities should be tested.

This can be done by proper labeling. superstores are gaining the moral and monetary profits of home or local food. Although this does not associate the .however they may be produced the same way as organic products are. Commercial competitors While home produce has of late been the safeguard of small trade. So the local systems need to understand and communicate through the right system to help the consumer understand the quality and value proposition of a product better. Also the packaging helps create an image in minds of consumers. have the same concerns. the local markets may be affected disapprovingly. So the local food may not be organic by label but will have the same qualities. Should organic products be imported or preference should be given to non organic local products. gain significantly from the AB class of shoppers. The operational aspects impact the local food markets. Superstores have to think about the ethical aspects such as corporate social responsibilities. It should be studied whether these products are contributing positively to the local economy? With growing concerns about the environment one must understand the importance of carbon footprints and air miles. the tourism industry can benefit greatly from the food industry. Similarly fair-trade products such as rice. There is no law-making obligation for food manufacturer to recognize the supply and category of components in their commodities. It is difficult to equate overseas standards to the standards in UK. meeting relevant standards and gaining membership of regional food products or organizations. which cannot be resourced in the vicinity and farm guaranteed and industry criterion system. For example stores like Marks and Spencer. tropical fruits. Consumer confusion Consumer confusion is widespread: should a customer buy products from local markets or where they are specialities of? If it is purchased from the local farm then it should be considered how production process can be made more efficient than the supply chains of other superstores. Also there are many factors that are to be considered in case of larger grocery stores. Benefits to tourism With the stress on local cuisines growing and larger demand for it developing among masses. there by determining their expectation level. Again media and stress on environmental concerns may have an influence on customers buying decisions. With the growth in market and increasing stress on globalization. Waitrose.

Research Design During the designing stage one issue. The research would help us understand how food helps improve tourism in UK. one must take in consideration. a 5 point scale was designed especially for the purpose of taking surveys. As an experiment an email containing 20 questions was sent to different people of various segments.food industry with the tourism industry directly but there is an underlying relation. The methodology The thesis will be conducted with the help of both: primary and secondary research. Though books are available and information is free for all. However the quality and information was not compromised. not to give information. Moreover the concern of every participant must be kept in mind. The answers were given honestly. there were no biased answered throughout the questionnaire survey. there is not as many as one would hope. The students are taken in consideration due to the lack of time and resources. and hence they did not respond properly. Various means are used for distributing the questionnaire including emails. The lack of information was another factor for the people. So it is crucial to have local markets makes efforts and initiatives to make the tourist economy more vivacious and luring. The questions were asked. . the privacy of the respondent. which has significant affect. and the answered were sent by means of email and other electronic communication outlets. Rural markets can especially use such tools to attract people and add value to their existing projects and plans. Moreover one should also keep in mind the circumstances of the respondents which making a questionnaire. Data analysis For collecting data. It was noticed that some respondents did not understand the meaning of the terms in the survey. and the disappointing result. and other electronic correspondence. that people need to take care of is the problem of data protection and ethical problem. It is must that during the whole process of conducting research.

the data protection Act of 1988 was strictly kept in mind. While the research was conducted. the knowledge using which actions can be adopted to motivate changes and understand employee performance. This information will enable them to gain a commanding market in this competitive world. Think about it carefully. The major analysis will also be displayed by the data analysis. Methodological approach The adoption of an amazing approach has been found out by the nature of this topic. However in this case. There is a strong privacy security clause known as the data protection act. today there is raging competition between different companies to gain market share. Researchers including the likes of (Bell 1999. Hence the questionnaire should be in such a way that it will respect ethical behaviour and privacy. A lot of ethical issues were considered while making up the questionnaire.The data analysis will tell you much about the graphs. of late. Ethical considerations For researchers. You won’t get information that you can use in case you cannot conduct a thorough survey. The whole procedure translates into information and analysis that organizations and companies can easily use. and many companies follow the act. the qualitative methods are not used (Bryan 2004). This gives companies/ individuals insights into the way people think and behave. Methods of research Exclusive qualitative methods are used for the collection of data. the motivation factor needed to be the best can be achieved using this method. This information can be useful for all mobile companies from all corners of the world. All the information remained strictly private and confidential. a lot of data is required in order to conduct quality analysis. The privacy of all the respondents was respected. It gives the companies conducting the research. Conventional wisdom and assumptions are being cut through as the questionnaires as the people behind the research are trying to understand the. Total award. percentage and main results sourced from the studies. All this is achieved through questionnaires. . It is not possible however to throw enough light on the subject if quality analysis is not done. Interpretation and personal information are emphasized by personal knowledge and subjectivity to the matter.

They will also need to do more conversation that they did before (Bryman. and the effectiveness are pretty simply. simple and general questions are asked. and the interview can act as an excellent way of sharing ideas.Blaxer 1996) point out that the qualitative approach is sensitive to context. Issues and topics. Availability of staff. You would be at an advantage when you uncover many employee features. relevant topics. Qualitative methods of data collections were thus used for interviews. The aim is to dig deeper into broad based questions. These interviews included both telephone and face to face interviews. . The thinking that is not conventional can be obtained by using qualitative techniques (Whipp. The perception of the real world can be apparently seen by taking the analysis provided by the qualitative approach. It is better is terms to flexibility. A detailed questionnaire where questions are formed ahead of time bears contrast with the SSI. both ways. They do not need to be prepared before the right time. and the psychological contract can be firmly analyzed by the by the answers of the questions that will crop up. In SSI. The questions whose answers pertained to the research were asked. 2004) The questions were set in such a way that all the critical data that were needed would be covered up in the questions. A qualitative approach will enable the company to study the case in the environment that it is meant to be in (Bryman. as compared to structured methodologies. This open framework would allow the researchers to give emphasis on free conversation and communication between both the parties. The chance to go deep into the topic spoken is possible as the main questions are formulated on the spot (Fao. Moreover qualitative approach is pretty much of an approach which allows one to gain information The factors like engagement. A fairly open framework was used for the interviews and hence the choice of semi structured interview. The interview consists of several questions that were short in stature. This will naturally mean that more and more tourists will be called in for questioning. zeal to overcome. to be more specific the semi structured interviews. if asked are no brain buzzing questions. One can make these questions up on the spot. 1998). 2004). Org 2009). the expenses incurred. Thus they can thus be termed as ‘comprehensive questions’. motivation.

Additionally. motivations and experiences in situation. Quantitative data will be collected by means of a questionnaire.g. In order to capture the researcher’s inner and outer dialogues. ‘identity’.g. their activities (e. yet systematic accumulation of thoughts. why did you decide to visit this region? Have you been here before?). ‘representation’ and ‘regulation’. the participant observation was also structured by the five key ‘Circuit of Culture’ moments in a simple schedule.g.The interview questions were grouped under five main topic headings taken from du Gay’s ‘Circuit of Culture’ (1997): ‘production’. the nature of their interaction with producers (e. Informed consent was obtained with a signed form and information sheet. This approach generated a pragmatic. brief field notes were made as issues arose or when informal conversations took place and a more comprehensive reflective narrative was completed at the end of each day. their purchasing rationale and Whether they felt they could experience a place’s identity through its food offer. The questions would be based on a travellers food related travel experiences. thus forming a purposive sample group. semi-structured interviews with tourists from 10 different countries and with an age range between 28–82 years were conducted while they were actively Engaged in food-related activities. In all. Thus the data can help us understand the results with sustainable data. An initial hypothesis will be formed and then the variables which concern us most would be analysed and studied with the help of the data gathered. feelings. over 300 photographs were taken during two fieldwork periods (September 2006 and May 2007). ‘consumption’. In addition. There by it seems logical and is also an easier way of collecting information from the sample. . Forming a questionnaire will help gain data from a target sample group. while qualitative research is the form of research where the data gathered is not in form of any numerical or number. Interview questions focused on their reasons for visiting the sites (e. 34 in-depth. what food-related activities have you engaged in during the trip? Why?). have you spoken to producers? What about?). Quantitative: Questionnaires Quantitative research was defined by Punch (1998) as the observed research where numbers form the data. attitudes. all the interviewees agreed that I could use their real first names in the final transcripts.

While face to face interviews are difficult to conduct. websites and or journals. These question would analyze what motivates a person to make a great travel experience. so data can be collected from organizations and websites such as. Surveys can be done online via the internet. the secondary research which has already been worked on by another researcher can be collected and used. The data can be collected from books. the group discusses their experiences and feelings. However all questions may not be answered by all. Focus group discussions are also a form of acquiring data. is food a mere commodity to them or about having a whole cultural experience. So the primary research will use surveys and sampling method to procure primary data. pg 2) as group interviews. It can help bring out justified and basic details. A set of questions would be asked to 50 ordinary people. These days’ books. with greater efficiency. Secondary research Secondary research is a within reach technique of acquiring responses from previous studies or composed data. Taste England campaign and likes can also provide information. primary data can be collected from a large number of people in lesser time. what is their perception of food when they are travelling. ukfoodtourism. Online surveys are gaining popularity as most people these days stay connected via the web. journals and articles can also be found online to help add to efficiency.com. Based on the topic/ question asked by the moderator or researcher. So. Focus group interviews are defined by Morgan (1997.foodtourismscotland. and not the interaction between the research question and research participant. the answers may not be answered by all participants in the group.com. However. as some from the group may place the part of a listener. Also questionnaires may be sending across via email to collect information.Primary research It can be difficult conducting face to face interviews. The difference is the responses arise out of group discussion. . this way of collecting data helps increase connectivity and data can be collected from across the globe to understand a broader perspective. Also they help evolve various feelings about the topic which are aroused out of discussion. www. however organizing interviews may be difficult.

Low response is the curse of statistical analysis. They allow little flexibility to the respondent with respect to response format. By allowing frequent space for comments. In essence.90%). The lack of personal contact will have different effects depending on the type of information being requested. It can dramatically lower our confidence in the results. Questionnaires are structured instruments. They can be of either gender. Duration The thesis will be completed in a span of 6 months as a large amount of data has to be collected and compiled.. The only criteria should be that these people should have travelled to UK and other part of the world. well-designed studies consistently produce high response rates. For example if interviews are to be arranged then it shall take time to get an appointment from the person. so that they have experiences they can recollect and respond from. So accessing the sample size and then compiling the data will require time. Gestures and other visual cues are not available with written questionnaires.e. Nearly ninety percent of all communication is visual. Response rates vary widely from one questionnaire to another (10% . Limitations The limitation in this research would be getting in touch with the sample group for primary research.A mix: Quantitative and Qualitative research Methods Together Sample The sample group will be a mixed group from various nations. Another disadvantage of questionnaires is the inability to probe responses. A questionnaire requesting factual . Comments are among the most helpful of all the information on the questionnaire. the researcher can partially overcome this disadvantage. One major disadvantage of written questionnaires is the possibility of low response rates. they often lose the "flavor of the response" (i. however. and they usually provide insightful information that would have otherwise been lost. respondents often want to qualify their answers).

when you drink it all the time there is a subtle difference here … it has got more body to it …’ (Linda). to dwell in it. sense it. ‘the grammar of landscape experiences includes all the different tourist forms of taking in a landscape. Interviewees gave special significance to the smell that came from a place or a shop. ‘smell scapes’ were used to better feel and understand the experience of a country or city. it's natural to assume that the respondent is the same person you sent the questionnaire to. This may not actually be the case. both of the sense and of the body’. For example an interviewee mentioned ‘Sometimes you can walk into a shop and walk past fruit. one interviewee suggested the very taste of milk characterizes the land’s identity. to traverse it. it’s more about all the senses. ‘milk tastes different … there is a subtle difference. Lofgren (2004: 106 in Sheller and Urry.com. They appreciated place that smelled great. ‘something smells good. next! I think everything here is local produce. you know’ (Lindsay). Housewives sometimes respond for their husbands. Another female tourist on holiday from South Africa stated: I think it’s the whole. be part of it … landscapes are produced by movement. Like we walked down here and said. For a variety of reasons. Many times business questionnaires get handed to other employees for completion. that’s how we say the ‘smelling part’. 2004) proposed that. Another important factor other than “smellscape” was “tastescape” which is greatly related to the function of olfactory perception.he stated that a place cannot be perceived greatly by any form of . When returned questionnaires arrive in the mail. where a person perceives the place through all his senses.information will probably not be affected by the lack of personal contact. cheese and beer. It is a confounding error inherent in questionnaires (statpac. A questionnaire probing sensitive issues or attitudes may be severely affected. the eating part of us isn’t about just getting food in. This gave support to the theory by Dann and Jacobsen (2003) which spoke about the senses connected to a person’s appreciation of a place. Kids respond as a prank. pass through it or past it. you can smell everything. it’s like. 2011) Research Findings A multi-layered touristic ‘food-scape’ is being developed in Arran and the Hebrides. This can be related to industries like wine. This means that the tourist enjoys a place with the help of the taste of the food. let’s go there’ and that’s more of an attraction than just that you have to eat because you have to eat … (Mandy). the respondent may not be who you think it is. and you won’t smell fruit.

senses. and ‘it’s the experience … there is something nice about experiencing place. but the multidimensional understanding and sense of place. identify memories with them. thus illustrating what Harre calls a ‘feeling of doing’ (1993: 68). Food is not merely to fill the stomach but instead it helps to better the experience of a place ‘oh. This supports Game’s (1991) theory that limited the gaze and need of how a food tasted and its relation to the culture and aunthenticty of a place. 2003). ‘So we are looking for those experiences that sort of. 2000). I hope there is a little seafood place . 1994). to activate and appreciate places (Crouch. Tourists’ explanation included: ‘eating that was an experience!’ (Mandy). where locations were ‘experienced’ rather than just visually detained and individualized reminiscences were revival through diverse foodstuffs. The body and emotional aspect of sense is related to the inter relation with the space. through non visual mediums (Crouch et al. it’s just. These meets stand for instant of bodily expression.. 2001). ‘yes I think it is easier to experience a place through food’ (Nicola). so I can eat it overlooking the sea as it tastes the best when you are overlooking the coast’ (Mark). The study and research shows that people perceive a place closely based on the physical attachment to the location. it’s one of the senses isn’t it? Tasting. tasting the area’ (Mark). This emphasizes the increase in ‘new’ pluralized tourism experiences (Poon. Food tourism provides a stage where a person is encouraged to immerse his body and senses ‘there is a kind of feeling … you can’t describe it in words. in its entirety. I guess if you want to put it into context. The interview clearly presented that people connected a place to the food from the region ‘I think it is part of experiencing the area that you are in’ (Glennis).. ‘I like to get my whole body involved’ (Barry). Responses evidently presented the subsistence of a ‘practical ontology’ (Crouch and Desforges. Food may be arbitrated significantly. It is seen that food tourism is taken as a multi sensual experience which is co ordinate with post modern activity. (Nadine). you can feel the land!’. and. “The tourist is submerged in . An American interviewee who was a chef said. ‘… it’s a way of experiencing a place’ (Ed). It can be pursued through visuals and the “gaze” conceptualized. can only be held imaginatively and multi sensually.. 1993). Thus providing ‘lay knowledge’ about a particular place and the culture there of. where tourist spaces present a representative and invisible content that can only be veteran through a sensitive physical meet (Veijola and Jokinen. like here by eating the fish or whatever’ (Tim).

2001). It is important to emphasize research on bodily related activities rather than dimensional situations. 2006). particularly their inbound operator in the destination. of the destination. ‘Embodied semiotics’ helps build intimacy with a region (Crouch et al. 1991: 184). How Can Tour Operators Help? Although some tour operators specialise in particular destinations. people and entertainment” (Zelinsky. Franklin and Crang (2001: 14) stated that traditional tourism research has ‘too readily colluded in writing the body out of tourism’. Evocative of the exhibition that utilizes audio (invisible) sound-scapes of farmers’ voices (Cook.. Merely gazing at the process is not sufficient. with an intake of the forceful flavors leading to a strong physical reaction (chiefly to the inexperienced)! It is this close encounter with locations where sensory commitment gives the tourist an opportunity to know and understand the place. Though physical and emotional response is tangible. This experience is subjective in nature (as shown by Thrift. Tour operators are reliant on the quality and safety of the destination. This theory of “imagined space” helps provide a stage in which knowledge about location and people are generated (Game. This experience cannot be simply instilled via mere photographic images. food and drinks. and making a compromise of the experience.images. it is non-measurable and indefinable within the conservative arrangements of positivistic enquiry. It is the ethereal and unquantifiable relationship to location and its food. costumes.. New psychological research has established the association between recollection and olfactory identification to be particularly acute (Larsson et al. Through conceptual view point we can understand that spaces are a mix of material and metaphorical (Crouch. signs. the majority of operators. they also play a significant role in shaping the way the destination is perceived by the way that they market the location. 1997). 1985). richer excursion and activity programmes. including the specialists. Tour operators have established relationships with local suppliers. Many operators are responding to changing market trends in the UK by placing increasing emphasis on locally sourced services. Tour operators seek . Food themed sites are related with materials (food). The multi-sensual experience is complete by a taste of the whisky. 2002). Their ability to sell trips is very reliant upon the perceived and actual quality. 2006) to inject life into plaintive displays of banana skins. but the space should also be creative and emotive through the body. are multi-destination.

Screening windows have provided an opportunity to encapsulate areas devoid of olfactory sensation and emptied of . olfactory encounters help create personal memories. The small-scale study of food tourism sites was undertaken with the intention of shifting this research area from its own peripheral location within the social sciences into an academic arena in which it is recognized as a powerful conceptual lens and tool of knowledge generation. This article helps draw attention to the non form of “new” tourism. the research showed the paradoxical situation in which food related experiences are being organized and diverged through ‘sanitized gaze’ and produced tourist space. Conclusion This piece shows that there is importance of food tourism within a critical tourism research agenda. Let us take an example. Where investors and developers. Like eating fish for dinner by the river side. I have utilized the concept of the ‘tastes cape’ of food tourism to fuel recent efforts that are broadening tourism discourses beyond the ocular-centrism of the tourist ‘gaze’ discourse. Also. Thus it shifts the concentration on economic-dominated theory that has been vastly studied to understand food tourism. Food is a “polysemic artefact” which helps to distinguish a place or provide it with an identity. Increasing numbers of operators are seeking to secure repeat business by enhancing the quality of the holiday experience in these ways and securing both increased levels of repeat business and referrals. It can also be used to formulate a theory based on the perplexed nature of postmodern production and consumption. The study has shown that the locations are completely apprehended through immersive bodily expression. The post modern tourism activities are analyzed empirically to understand all aspects. hotel and resort management companies and managers and tour operators can identify ways of working together to enhance the quality of the destination. A temporary immersion of the senses. it provides an escape from the worldly activities. Greater luxurious tourism geographies are endorsed as a method in which new knowledge’s may be observed about the tourism experience.market advantage through the quality of the experiences which they offer and that open necessitates close engagement with local communities and micro enterprises. It can be used to examine the culture of the place. The tourists felt that the experience was enhanced by the multi sensory activities. Mostly this paper concentrates on understanding food tourism which helps stress on body embodiment and the multi sensual facet of the “new” age tourism. they and the local community gain.

the multifaceted and contradictory hybrid of multi dimensional postmodern touristic experiences have been stressed upon. new understandings and new definitions are needed to address the heightened cultural consumption and mobility of populations and tourists’. The study taken forth to write this paper shows that this hybrid of consumptions that mixes postmodern activities and some Fordist methods and structures are being liked and accepted by many tourists.social interaction. The research and study also determined that few post-tourists were more concerned with ‘in authenticity’ and the executed character of the experience. . The viewing window may only be a sheet of glass. While emphasizing on considering Urry’s concept of the ‘post-tourist’. In this paper we understand and study the ‘complexity of the spatial forms of contemporary consumption and the ways in which individuals mesh these forms together in their own consumptive activities’ (Gregson. internalized ‘post/modern’ tourism experience: food tourism. there is much research still to do. Clearly. it offers a figurative and bodily focal point with which to understand the character of these hazy postmodern tourism experiences. it was possible to connect in sensitive and individualized experiences within a sanitized bubble. I have suggested that the viewing window is symbolic of the persistence of Fordist modes in tourism consumption. Although individual recognition did arise from some personified engagement with food. Jamal and Kim’s (2005: 60) plead that new perspectives. offering an interesting physical metaphor for the ‘post/modern’ blurring of new postmodern forms of embodied tourism experience within neoFordist structures. but it is hoped that this has ‘whetted the appetites’ of those interested in examining critical tourism discourses with the ultimate embodied. thereby inserting a diverse stress on the tourist ‘gaze’. 1995: 136). The results ad inferences provide a new scope and dimension to understand the “new” tourism aspect. although in the background of this piece.

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Yes b. Food attractions d. Food trails f. No 2. What food-related activity do you engage in on a regular basis? a. If above is yes then have you ever visited Food Festivals when you are on holiday and why? 3. No 5. Markets e.Appendix Questionnaire for Tourists 1. Yes b. Food festivals and events c. No . Do you try to buy local produce when you are on holiday? a. Are you a Food tourist? a. Yes b. Do you visit places to enjoy local food festivals and events? a. Eating out at specific restaurants b. Cooking holidays 4.

Interactive website b. More accessible and easier to find e. Leaflets e. Personal recommendations g. Tourist Information Office c.6. What makes you buy local food when you are on holiday? a. Recommendations by others g. More interaction with producers c. More information about the food f. How would you prefer to find food-related information? a. Media coverage f. Other 9. Better information about where to go d. Do you have enough information about UK food? a. Yes . Is Local food easily available for tourists in the UK? a. Yes b. No 8. Cheaper b. Other 7. Advertisements d.

No 11. Does Buying local food while on holiday is too expensive in UK? a. Yes b. Yes b. No . No 10. Do you find that UK promotes food industry to tourists very effectively? a.b.

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