Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion

1.1

1.1 How do we use energy? (Don’t

worry we have quite enough ... ... or not!)

As long as humans are on Earth, he uses energy. In the beginning this energy come directly from nature: the sun provided warmth and light (solar energy). Already at a very early stage, however, man has learned to make fire, so he could control his own heat and light. He transformed the chemical energy, stored in the wood, in the forms of energy of heat and light. This chemical energy was original also coming from the sun. Later the humans has discovered how to make use of the wind to get in an easy way to move over water from one place to another. For that he used a sail for converting the energy enclosed in the movement of air (wind energy) in energy required to move a ship (mechanical energy). The next stage was the use of potential energy of water at higher area. This potential energy is converted into mechanical energy through a water wheel, which was connected with a millstone used to grind grain into flour. Places where no water power was available they use wind energy for grinding. The windmill was the energy converter. However both the water and the wind mill were also used for other (industrial) processes; cutting wood can be mentioned as an example. With the development of the steam engine in the second half of the 18th century attached with the start of the industrial revolution, man is always going to make more and more use of fossil fuels (coal, later also oil and natural gas). The stored chemical energy in fuel is converted through heat into mechanical energy for the propulsion of machines in factories. The main supplier of energy on earth is the sun. Of the solar energy 30% is reflected. Almost 70% of the sunlight is directly and indirectly through evaporation, condensation and wind converted into heat. Only 0.00001% of sunlight that reaches the earth is converted into biomass by plants through photosynthesis. This biomass can be converted into heat by means of incineration or dissolution or by feeding of animals and people. Either the biomass can also be piled to form fossil energy sources (peat, brown coal, coal, petroleum and natural gas). The energy that comes from the earth itself (geothermal energy) and the energy that comes from the attraction of celestial bodies (tides) is about the same size as the energy created by photosynthesis.

The consumption of the human type society in an energy unit is showed in figure 1. . an enormously increase of the oil consumption. In the recent years there is in Asia. A resident of the USA consumes on average 1. 2: Energy use pro area. It is clear that prosperity and energy consumption goes hand in hand.5 more energy as a resident of Europe and almost 10 times as much as a resident from Africa. In the countries with a technological society less than 5% of the energy is needed for the production of food. for making clothes.2 Nowadays the humans use energy not only to feed themselves. the level of development and the way of living (Figure 1. It is a fact that the energy consumption and the accompanied generated waste products and the pollution of the environment cannot continuously growing. Figure1. Energy consumption differs strongly from country to country according to the level of technology. but also for producing food.1. negative spiral by overshoot of the tolerance of the community. by the grow of China as an economic power. 1: Consumption by population. Both the welfare level as the prosperity will become in a Figure1. for housekeeping.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. for the industry and for transporting goods and people.2).

For example a bulb produces an amount of heat. movements. burning uranium-235)... According the law of conservation of energy the sum stays constant of all the forms during the conversion process.. coal.12 € /kWh) 17 € (0. Producing Heat from electricity is a very expensive and environment loaded form of using energy. 1: Cost comparison of energy. thermal (i. At the end it converts only 20 % of the electric energy into light.20 MJ/m³ The use of electrical energy started in the second half of the 19th century by the development of the light bulb: electric lighting is much easier to use than oil or gas lamps.. Table 1. oil). Figure 1.e. nuclear (i.3 shows how the different energy forms can be converted Figure1. Nevertheless it can be transformed for one to another form..e.!) Energy can‟t be generated and is never lost. which were driven by a steam engine. Energy can be transformed on 6 manners: by radiation.60 MJ/kWh 35.. An energy flow is present. 3: Conversion of energy and their converters. chemical (i.1). In the physic world will be a change like the generating power.. Apparatus Electric stove Gas stove Produced heat 500 kWh 1800 MJ Energy use 500 kWh 51 m³ Costs 60 € (0.3 1. wind. see also (table 1. into another form. which is not desired. when one form is decreasing and one other form is increasing. a combustion engine or a water turbine. (i.. light or heat. using earth heat). burning biomass fuel. sun light).e. mechanic (i. To produce electric energy there was already a loss of 50 till 60 % as rest heat. flushing water). energy saving bulbs) and led-lamps the efficiency for lighting is much improved.2 Energy forms and converters (However energy is always the same . Be aware that during every conversion some energy spontaneously and irreversible disappears out of the system and is not usable for another conversion. electricity (i. With regard to the limited lifespan of batteries generators were developed for the generation of electricity. With the use of high frequency bulb (SL. .e.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.47 € /m³) Caloric value 3.e.e. flash light). For the bulb does that mean a miserable 8 % efficiency of converted primary energy.

It is important that power stations are built with the highest possible efficiency (table 1. drive belts and gears. fed by one generator and loaded with lamps and electric motors. Another advantage of electric energy is that it is easily controlled for example with simple switches.2).Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. It is true that for many applications where heat is required. In this way a small electric network arose. Table 1. converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Compared with oil energy: you need to illuminate the oil lamp. 2: Efficiencies of different thermal electric power plants. The advantage of using electric motors in factories was quickly recognized: the distribution of electrical energy in a factory using electrical lines is much simpler than the distribution of mechanical energy (often generated by a single steam engine or combustion engine).4 The conversion of mechanical energy into electric with a generator can also be reversed: the “generator “ acts like a motor. via leather belts. Type power plant Conventional coal-fired Coal gasification with heat/power coupled Conventional oil-fired Neutral gas-fired with heat/power coupled Efficiency 40 % 64 % 42 % 75 % . in spite of the efficiency difficult another comfortable alternative is on hands than electricity.

6: Oil consumtion.4). Europe and North America) and major production areas (Middle East). The production areas are not the same of the high consumption areas (fig.4: Fuel for electricity generation (2004) carriers. x Energy source Coal Oil Neutral gas R (reserve. Besides the prospect for nuclear energy is are not much better than for fossil fuels (discussion after the tsunami Japan. Figure 1.5). Currently there is a known and . despite the disadvantages of its use. Firstly.1. So nearby there are a number of economic problems.1 miljard m³ R/P in jaar 250 46 66 Since 1974. the share of petroleum in energy supplies dropped from 50% to 37% in 1994. the ratio between the annual consumption and the recoverable reserves is very unfavorable (table 1. 2011 ).5 1.1994) 3. 5: Oil distribution. 4: Fuel for electricity generation (2004). Figure 1.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. Secondly.3: production and economic recoverable reserves of energy sources (1994). 1.?) Crude oil is still the main energy provider in the world ( fig.3). 1994) 1031 gigaton 138 gigaton 141 miljard m³ P (production 1 y.3 Energy supply and energy supplies (or do we not have enough……. the fossil energy sources and in particular of crude oil is located very unevenly distributed on Earth (fig 1.6). This situation has led in the „70s to two oil crises by political disagreement between the consumption areas (Western Figure 1.8 gigaton 3 gigaton 2. associated with the great dependence on fossil energy sources. Table 1. This means huge shipments of the energy Figure1.

and with regard to the environment and the ethics (= sustainable energy use). Hydro power.4 Generation of electricity (electricity is rather coming out of the wall socket. we largely can supply in our total energy needs. Modern reactors would be able to produce a multitude of energy with a fraction of the amount of uranium. in principle. however. This also applies for wind energy.. there are problems. used in the current nuclear power plants. we can say that financial and economic hydro power is very attractive in many locations. Nuclear fusion seems to offer a solution in the long term. The total energy demand increased by 40% despite the bottlenecks between 1974 and 1992.. Either the energy consumption have to be reduced or reversed the energy conversion must to a more efficient use or to other energy sources. Also in the use of solar energy we will need to think of this. We can conclude that in the field of power (energy) engineering a number of major problems have to be solved. The first of these three is used for a century for the production of electrical energy. economic sphere.. in principle clean energy sources. Solar energy has as the advantage that. It is now.. This ratio reflects a little bit the reserve. because the final energy production per unit of uranium can greatly vary according to the used or the yet to be developed type of nuclear reactor. All started building plans for reactors were prematurely ended because of environmental technical problems. then we need to think about energy storage. 1. Both in the Figure 1. Also in the near future. 7: Share of energy production. such as on buoys at sea and in the mountains).!) Till now the electricity was mainly generated from fossil fuels.. Therefore the last decades more and more nuclear energy (nuclear fission) is used. only in a (early) research phase. As we have seen. In addition the supply for uranium not unlimited. at which we can expect problems with the storage of the waste and the safety (safe systems are often also expensive). Just for the Netherlands there will be expected is an increase of energy consumption by 35% between 1990 and 2010 if the current trend is extended. the demand for energy sources continue to increase. are renewable energy sources... Wind energy has the disadvantage that it is not always available: in the situation of a major contribution of energy from the wind. However the supply is finite and there are many environmental objections (increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and air pollution).Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.6 economically recoverable uranium storage 70 times larger than the current world production. the electric .. wind energy in windy areas is still not exactly economically feasible (probably it is if the oil prices would be as high as during the second energy crisis in 1980 and 2011) and that solar energy is far too expensive for the time being (except for areas difficult to reach. but can have only a limited contribution to the electricity supply.. In the future the alternative energy generation will be increasingly important (see Figure 1. wind power and solar power. at the introduction of electricity. If we view the renewable energy sources..7).

a local generator would make the area voltage less. However. With a power net fat by more generators. The largest production units in the Netherlands has of a capacity of 600 MW. 8: Electricity from other forms of energy. and for example a wind generator we would be able to use it as a fan. We see in the Netherlands not only one large power plant. electricity is a universally applied form of energy. more and more ware these individual systems connect with each other: at this moment very large parts of the world are in an electric way connected to each other. but power plant spread across the country. it gives a picture of a number examples of practical conversions. the energy density of a battery is much smaller than the energy density of a petrol tank. Larger generation units can function with a higher efficiency (energetic and economic) than smaller ones. even though we must say the picture is far from complete. . It is exemplified in figure 1. There are a number of reasons for this.7 power was made by one generator. within each plant one or more generators. On the other hand. In addition we see an increasing number of so-called cogeneration units. nor fully in charge.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.8. Later. In principle a number of other processes are also reversible: a Figure 1. only for the battery is clearly meant a reversible process. Of course they are connected to the Country/European power net. Here the releasing heat from the generation of electricity is used for heating rooms. The most important is the increase in reliability: if one fails. a relatively small number of large generating units can be used. Because electrical energy can be converted into other forms of energy with a good efficiency. we can also generate electrical energy (convert) out various other forms of energy. one can ensure that the failure of one generator has no serious consequences.8 is from top to bottom. The storage of electrical energy is a major drawback. The economical benefit is larger if the number of connected generators is higher. these units are often placed right to the place decentralized: by the place where the heat is necessary. Another advantage of a large electricity supply system is that instead of a large number of small production units. In general the energy flows in figure 1. electric motor can also used as generator. The consequent is that almost all cars are driving on fossil fuels and not electric. For example. Because the transport of heat relatively expensive (compared to the transmission of electrical energy). However in return the transport cost are higher and caused electricity losses.

9: Energy consumption devices information. Although all components need energy to work. Although both disciplines has the same foundations. only bytes ..Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.. The supply for the present electronics a constant DC voltage of 5V and 12V is needed. they had little to do with each other especially in the beginning: the wire. . . Figure 1. as a relatively simple and rather old fashion information-processing system. partly to solve supply problems. Figure1.10 is a schematic representation of a personal computer-system consisting of a processing unit. Hereby we must consider that we should transfer information as small amounts of energy.. a disk-drive. An example of the use of converters Figure 1. 10 : Electric converters in a personal computer only the energy supply for the processing unit is worked out furthermore as an example. 5 Electric conversions in the information technology ( information technology. telephone and radio information transfer in the 19th century were only fed with batteries. a keyboard. output and handling of the Figure 1..! ) In the second half of the 19th century began in addition to the development of the energy engineering (electrical) also the development of information technology.9 shows some of these daily used devices. Around this machine all kinds of energy conversions take place. Except for the energy supply information-processing systems also need electric converters for their peripherals: input . that has nothing to do with energy. go..8 1. a monitor and a printer. We will explain a few things on the basis of a personal computer. In a later stage one uses for the supply of these systems from the electricity net with the help of converters. partly with the aim of transferring information.

his potential energy stored inside him is converted into the kinetic energy from the movement of matter or when you burn the wood it's chemical energy is converted into the heat energy or when you charge your mobile phone the electrical energy is converted into the chemical energy which gets stored inside the battery's molecules. For the input of information to the processing unit we can use a keyboard. However we can use the saved information on a storage medium (disk . For eg: a laborer when pushes the pile of bags. To let this functioned on the right way converters are needed. are increasing in efficiency. thermal. For the generation of the electron beam in the cathode ray tube is a high voltage (10 to 25 kV) needed. put the magnetic stored information into electrical information. The reading head of the drive. The many different natural and renewable energy technologies highlighted throughout the website are by no means breakthrough. would not be possible without the input of large amounts of energy. such as that exists today. According to the law of conservation of energy. Converted to joules is 1 cal equal to 4. where electrical energy is converted into light (for example. . The unit of work is the joule (J). light. which may vary between + 5 till -10% of the rated value. which is obtained in a number of conversion steps. In a TFT screen that happens by moving crystals by electric signals (voltage). Previously.9 This energy is taken from the electricity net. Many of the renewable energy technologies have been around for years. Via a rectifier the energy is converted into a "raw" DC voltage. this cost us energy. elastic. But exactly what is energy? In general energy is a resource to carry out things or to let thing happen. card or stick). potential. gravitational. a converter of electrical energy into mechanical energy. after which a switched power supply this voltage transformed in a direct current of about 5 and 12 V (+ 5/-10%). This last happened also when a memory card. sound. 1. the indication "Num Lock" then information can turned on). A man consumed. chemical. the calorie was used as a unit of thermal energy. 1 calorie is the amount of heat needed to warm up 1°C 1 gram of water by 15 °C. In addition the printer head must always be in the correct position. depending on age. electrical.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. To ride a bike we must first work. With a printer we can also see those the results on paper. sex and done work per day about 10 MJ. in which a simple converter (a switch) the mechanical energy of our fingers turnover in a change of electrical energy.19 J. The simplest form of output of a pc are the signal lights. As above has shown the society. on which we can see directly results of the processing unit. weight. and as time goes by. electromagnetic or nuclear. magnetic. after which the ink (toner) “write” on the paper. any form of energy can be converted into another form and the total energy will remain the same. This happens in a bubble or inkjet printer on an piezoelectric way and a laser printer using a laser beam. The paper in this peripheral device is moved also by a motor. The disk in the "drive" is a rotating medium driven by an electric motor. also positioned by an electric motor. Another definition of the concept of energy is 'the ability to cause changes in the physical world: mechanical.6 What is basically energy? (And what is the difference with work?) Energy can have many forms: kinetic. The conversion of electrical energy in light is also find back in the screen of the monitor. nuclear. or in any form whatsoever '. In this way. we can define energy: energy is what a living being or machine needs to be able to do something. which has a rated value of 230 V alternating current.

4 below shows commonly used prefixes for quantities .050 kWh c Kosten = 0.000. 1 mega-joule (MJ) = 106 J. 1 gigajoules (GJ) = 109 J.01 € So to find the number of kWh the number of kW must be multiplied with the number of hours. .000 x 1000 x 100 x 10 x 0.10 To identify large amounts of energy one uses: 1 kilojoule (kJ) = 10³ J. Calculate how much it would cost if 1 kilowatt cost 0. A calculation example: a Calculate the energy in joule for a lamp of 25 W burning 2 hours in joule. For all types of energy applies: you can do something with it.0000001 x 0.000. Because that unit is on the energy bill. Solution: a E = P⋅Δt = 25 W ⋅ 7200 s = 180000 Ws = 180000 J b E = P⋅Δt = 0.000. 1 peta joule (PJ) = 1015 J.20 € = 0.20 €.0000000001 109 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 x million x milliard x milliard x million x thousant x hundred x ten ten times smaller hundred times smaller thousant times smaller million times smaller milliard times smaller Although the joule is the internationally agreed unit of energy.000 x 1.4: many prefixes used for numbers.000. Although it is the same energy.1 x 0.000 1015 x 1. The energy content of 1 m³ natural gas is approximately 35 MJ.050 ⋅ 0.000.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.01 x 0.001 x 0. b Calculate the energy for a lamp of 25 W burning 2 hours in kilowatt hours. In table 1. Table 1. P G M k h da d c m  n peta giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano x 1. there is still at home an electricity meter using an old-fashioned unit: the kilowatt hours (kWh or kWh).000. it is useful to count with this unit.000.025 kW ⋅ 2 uur = 0. energy is given a different name in different situations. while 1 kg coal contains about 29 MJ.

Gravitational energy: this is energy of objects that may fall. 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) For all things that happen one type of energy is converted into another. It can be that a certain kind of energy is delivered and under a different name is disposed. Most radiation is pure energy . Chemical energy: this is energy that is stored in the molecules of a substance. for example. Radiant energy: this is energy linked to radiation. Van der Waals energy: this is energy of the molecules when they go further apart. this energy arise as heat and radiation energy. The chemical energy is so getting less. if we perform calculations about work the symbol W is used and the symbol E is used for stored energy. but it can. You may decide for yourselves where you the gravity zero energy. . Example: what energy conversion takes place during moving your arm? Solution : In your muscles food is burnt that is delivered by the blood. nickel or cobalt objects in the vicinity of a magnet. Heat is not a separate type of energy but it is the of energy that moves as a result of a temperature difference. This increases as temperature rises. In chemical reactions. The character E is sometimes also used for electrical voltage and electric field. In nuclear reactions. the total amount of energy stays the same. The magnetic energy is increasing if the objects move away from the magnet. This type of energy is often referred to as kinetic energy.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. 1) 2) 3) 4) Spring energy: this is energy of objects that may be in deflect and tense situation. so there is almost always a little bit of heat. is converted into the kind that is getting more. Energy is never lost. this energy arise as heat and radiation energy. Motion or mechanical energy: this is energy of objects that move.11 Below 11 examples of energy are given. After the word "becomes" you write the increasing energy. Nuclear energy: this is energy that is stored in the nuclei of atoms. The energy-type that is getting less. Answer: chemical energy becomes mechanical energy + heat notes: before the word "becomes" you write the type of energy that is getting less. These types do not participate in the energy conversion. the bottom of a hole. For energy in the form of heat the symbol Q is used. The arm is moving (mechanical energy) and the muscles become warm (heat arises). This is usually on the ground. Electric energy: this is energy of objects that are charged electrically and have an electric potential. We agree that. This is called an energy-conversion. Thermal energy: this is the kinetic energy of the molecules. In the universe. On Earth there is a little bit friction with each movement. This increases for melting and evaporating. Magnetic energy: this is energy of iron. Sometimes there are also types of energy that remain the same. Burning is a chemical reaction so that the chemical energy in food is removed. this is the law of conservation of energy.

Also in the vernacular of physics. This requires a greater power. Therefore you would have to let 10 to 15 people cycling all day for the electricity supply of one family.11 Black Peter must lift a bag with gifts it costs him energy. It is called the power P. If we done work for 10 hours such as cycling. with a peak power of about 500 Watts during a very short time.12 1. work is used on other way than that you are used to. Most families consume daily between 10 and 15 kWh electricity. Therefore every manufacturer of devices tells you how much energy the device convert in 1 second. who works for us. It would be far too expensive to pay everyone. Energy is not consumed but converted. 2. When the displacement is twice as big you have twice as much energy. You can't ask this question: you have to add a time duration.. The power is the done work per second. ground is twice as big. 11: Black Peter on the roof. Work (the converted amount of energy) is to calculate. then we have delivered 10 x 100 Watts = 1 kWh. this definition is used: the power of a device is the energy converted per second In a formula form: Energy = Power ⋅ time(duration) E = P⋅Δt P is the symbol for power. work. . The unit of power is watt abbreviation [W].12. To cycle more quickly we must deliver more effort. This leads to the following formula: Work = Force x displacement W = F ⋅ Δx The reason that the unity of work is the same as that of energy is. So all of our energy consumption replaced by human effort is impossible. Now the same work should be done in shorter time. This means that the work is directly proportional to the distance and with the force. Even if the force with which the bag is pushed on the Figure 1. The work is not done by Black Peter but his muscle force.?) Someone asks: what lamp consumes the most energy? There are two errors in this question: 1. power and force (Are there relation between. Chemical energy from the pepper nuts (sweeties) in his belly is converted into gravitational energy of the bag. This energy we call the work W. In practice. Solution of the power: P  W 120kJ   2 kW t 60 s When in figure 1. A human body is like a 100 watt motor.7 Energy. The price for the domestic consumption of 1 kWh of electricity costs about € 0.. Example: calculate the power of a electric heater that produce 120 kJ in 1 minute.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. because the done work is an amount of energy converted by a force. you have twice as much energy needed..

So since work = force x distance there is still the same amount of energy converted. As you push down the leverage in D over a specified distance. The problem of lifting heavy objects is usually not the amount of needed energy. Given: mass = 25 kg displacement = 9 m Asked: converted energy = work W Solution: Work = Force ⋅ displacement. When you pull down the rope A of the hoist shown in figure 1. In figure 1. because the rope of one meter is divided in two between B and C. Another tool to increase the strength is the hoist. Answer: Work in B = work in D.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. Where more force is necessary the distance is less. you use a lever. It does not matter how you do it. force = mass ⋅ g. let a crane do it.13 one meter.81 m/s2 force = 25 kg ⋅ 9. force x distance in B = force x distance in D 200 N  ??  50 N  40 cm  ??  50 N  40 cm  10 cm 200 N If you need four times as little force you need four times as much distance. as the lever is pushed down in D with a force of 50 N for 40 cm. Hoist 900 N Work in A = Work in B.81 m/s2 = 245. Figure1. 1 kilowatt hour is than 1000 watt in 3600 seconds or 3. A hoist consists of a fixed B C pulley and one or more loose pulleys. That is why the man in the course of time invented tools to ensure that there is a lesser force necessary for the same amount of energy.600. (force x distance) remains the same. 13: The hoist. but is the force to do this. D However only half of the power is needed (450 N).6 MJ To illustrate the difference between force and energy 3 examples: .13 Example: calculate how much energy the muscles of Black Peter must convert to lift up a bag of 25 kg 9 meters up.5 m The relationship between power and force is to deduce as follows: W  P  t  F  x  P  F  x  F v t Power = force x speed ( force and speed in same direction) 1 watt = 1 Newton x 1 meter/second 1 watt is equal to 1 joule per second = 1wattseconde. the table in C will lift up much less far.25 N. g = 9.25 N ⋅ 9 m = 2207 Nm = 2207 J When you have to lift something you need a certain amount of energy.g. Example: calculate how far the table leg of 200 N in B goes up. Force x distance = force x distance so: 450 N x 1 m = 900 N x 0. 12: The principle of a lever will teach you how to lift with a lesser force a heavy table. Work = 245. the weight of 900 N is moving up half a A meter. So you have to convert the same amount of energy. whether you lift it yourself or e.12 we Figure 1. To do this.000 J = 3.

Because heat escapes all the time must the supply of heat still continue. the heat loss of the boiler is useful heat. Not only during converting is energy lost. but also in other subjects such as economics.14 a schematic of a central heating at home is drawn. The word efficiency you can apply not only in physics situations. Because the attic is heated. indicates what percentage of the input energy is useful on the output. 14: The central heater at home. Useful words in this context are: Input = how much you put into it (= 100%) Output = how much useful comes out Loss = at energy: how much is not useful. also known as useful effect.14 1) 2) 3) For a force you need energy. This heat ensures that the material in which the process takes place in temperature will rise. which ultimately as heat losses on the conversion process.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.8 The efficiency of conversion processes. is called the efficiency. You can see in figure 1. The definition of efficiency is: Efficiency. In Figure 1. but sometimes the energy lost during transport or the loss is depending of the situation. The efficiency η is defined as:   useful work 100% energy Figure 1. The grade to which the energy changes from type. force not. If not the room will cooling down. then the heat of the boiler are losses. (Yes. in money: how much do you lose In contrast with money the efficiency in energy can never be higher than 100%. So the useful heat is depending on the user. There is no energy conversion process that convert all energy completely in the desired form of energy.15 shows in a block scheme an energy converter. what is the price of it?) 1. If the attic is not used and does not need to be heated. If the CV is placed at the attic and you want to heat also the attic. The function of the central heater is heating of the living room. Energy always exists force not. Only the heat delivered by the radiator to air in the living room is useful. 15: The energy converter . Figure 1. During the conversion there are always losses. then Figure 1.14 where the losses are. Energy can be saved. because you don't get more energy out device than you put into it. which is generally not desirable. In this example the efficiency is not only determined by the conversion process (chimney losses) but also by the transport (pipe loss and heat leaks in the room) and the application (attic heated or not).

Especially in this consumer industry power consumption is generally indicated in manuals and rarely or never the outgoing power.6 1. the power.. but you don't know how much useful power the device will deliver (output).. then it means that this device consume 200 W (= input). f.80 m in 4 seconds..9. After his illness he gets more force.. Which symbol and unit is used for energy? The same for work and heat. (Yes.9. When my father is sitting on my shoulders it feel very heavy.. b..4 1. Calculate the power of a student (67 kg) when he goes up a stair of 2.9. Question about storing energy.. c. d..7 . The volume of this packet of cakes is 200g.2 a. Iron is heavier than aluminum.. d.9. Explain in own words the meaning of power. b.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.) Question over energy. In general is measuring the power easier than to calculate it. Which type of energy is stored in neutral gas? Which type (s) of energy plays a role in breaking a car? Which energy conversions take place in a hairdryer? Calculate how much energy is needed to bring a briefcase of 5 kg to the second floor seven meter higher.. If an electrical device is intended for the consumer has a power of 200 W. 1.9. 16: Examples of energy converters...5 1.. e. b. is for devices the power used.9. Calculate how much energy is needed for lifting up 80 cm your little sister of 30 kg. Calculate the energy needed to bring 25 kg to the 5e Floor in a flat (20 meter high) e.. The efficiency is given by divided the outgoing power by input power.9. Explain in own words the meaning of energy. c. The sun force is today high. 1. 1.9 Problems 1. Instead of the used energy terms in the common definition for the efficiency.. 1.. so in practice the efficiency is usually defined by Figure 1.. Which symbol and unit is used for power? Explain the meaning of the next phrases. Rintje Ritsma (skater) has much force.16 are some examples of energy converters given.15 In figure 1. Mention 3 advantages and 1 drawback of electric energy. What is the most used unit for measuring the electric energy? Calculate the ratio factor between kWh and MJ? Show how that factor is calculated.1 a. c. the problems .3 a.

objects or places where energy is stored. Calculate the power if 50kWh is delivered in 8 hours.9. d. 1. 1.9. 1. Explain function these towers has? b. Using the words "oil".9. What is coming out of such a tower? . fire b) friction c) falling d) a nuclear reaction e) a burning filament lamp standing on a diving shelf What energy conversion takes place at the following events? A vacuum cleaner that is turned on. Combustion of food in your body. If this has to go in 25 seconds. a. A working nuclear power plant. "turbine".11 Energy sources are materials.9. Search on what "fossil fuels" are.16 Explain in steps how a power plant works.9.9 Converting energy.16 1.9. A plant growing. Name three fossil fuels. "steam". Which energy type is stored in the sources below? a) f) battery b) oil c) uranium d) wind e) a bath full of hot water water reservoir g) strained Indian bow. 1.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. c. d.14 a. c. b. Calculate the power if 40kJ is delivered in 3 hours. b.9.17 At a power plant there are always huge towers a.9.13 a. b. 1. Calculate the work needed for an elevator of 400 kg to go from the ground floor to the 5e floor (on 20 m).9. "generator".12 What kind of energy excises by: a) f) 1. A burning light bulb. c. what is than the minimum power of the electric motor driving this elevator? 1. Calculate the power if 2 kWh is converted in 25 seconds. A falling stone. You lift a bag of books up with constant speed. What energy conversion takes place at the following events? Combustion of natural gas in a power plant.10 Work out the next questions like the example: Example: 4 hs = 4 hecto seconds = 4 x hunderd seconds a) 3 GA b) 5 hm2 c) 7 daK d) 12 s e) 8 ng f) 14 dl 1.8 a. 1. b.9.15 Questions about fossil fuel.

12 €. What is the force needed in A to A lift the weight up? How far is the weight lifted up if you retract the rope in A 60 Hoist cm? Prob.9. 1.17 1.9. hangs a B B E C A D C D 600 N Hoist 900 N Prob.27 On the hoist from Prob.9.9. 1.1 weight of 600 N. Calculate how much money it cost if you need 60 W for 5000 burning hours and if 1 kilowatt hour cost 0. A calculator that works on solar cells and that is turned on A water reservoir that heats by the Sun. How far is the weight lifted up if you retract the rope in A 120 cm? What is the force needed in A to lift the weight up? 106 € on your account = 1. (This is a real value for girls around 14 year).9. . b. a.9. the Indian. Calculate the efficiency of your account in percents.12 €. A energy saving lamp lives 5000 burning hours.18     What energy conversion takes place at the following events? Klukje.12 €. b.9.21 Calculate the average power of a person who convert in 24 hour 9600 kJ energy. 1. How far is the father going up.2 hangs a a. 1. Calculate the energy of a lamp of 40 W burning 5 hours in kilowatt hour.25 A child of around 50 kg is sitting on a turnover. 2 weight of 900 N.9. 1. The turnover is in balance.28 You put 100 € on your account = input.24 A filament lamp lives 1000 burning hours.22 Questions about the cost of energy. An acceleration of a car. b.23 In the living room burns a lamp of 60 W eight hours. a. if the child is 30 cm going down. 1. 1 1. b.9. A energy saving lamp of 12 W produce just as much light as a filament lamp of 60 W. strains a bow. A filament lamp of 60 W cost 1 € a. Also a television of 80 W is switched on for four hours. A energy saving lamp of 12 W cost 14 € Calculate how much money it cost if you have 5000 burning hours. Calculate the energy cost if 1 kilowatt hour cost 0.19 Calculate the power of a lamp that uses in 12 seconds 300 J from the supply net.20 Calculate the power of a lamp that uses in 15 minutes 36 kJ from the supply net 1. 1. Calculate the cost of the energy as the price of 1 kilowatt hour is 0. After 1 year you have output. c. On the other side of turnover is the father of 100 kg sitting.9.26 On the hoist from Prob. Calculate the energy of a lamp of 40 W burning 5 hours in joule.9.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.

work: W.9.9. 1.9. b.6 460 Watt 1. 1. g) Spring energy. c. f. He ends the day with 9 €. b) Nuclear energy becomes electric energy + heat + radiation.7 W b) 6. on large and small scale generated. b) Chemical energy. e) Thermal energy.9.8 a) 3. c) Gravity energy becomes moving energy + heat.9.9. Calculate the efficiency of the stove. Calculate the power of visible light from a 60 W lamp.18 1.2 a.9.11: a) Electric energy.4 343 J 1.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1. neutral gas. d. 1. Calculate the efficiency of this action.30 A gaming addict put on one day 120 € in a one-armed-bandit.34 Electric energy is generated out of coal.9. b. 1. After some time he sells the stocks for 1800 €. c) Nuclear energy. Explain what happens with the rest of the electric energy.1 a.32 Filament lamps have an efficiency of only 3 percent.9. b.9.5 235 J 1. d) Heat + radiant energy.9 3. 1. The gravity force on the shoulders of my father is high. oil. disadvantage: difficult to safe kWh (kilowatt hour) c. 1. The weight of the packet cakes is 200 g. The power of the sun is today high.25 kW c) 288 kW 1. 1.3 a) chemical energy b) Heat c) Electric energy becomes heat + movement.9. Calculate the efficiency that day for the gaming addict. Calculate the total efficiency.14 kW 1. b. Therefore is only around 40 % of the chemical energy is converted.9.25 W for visible light. d) Moving energy. easy to transport. 1.9.9. Power P .33 Filament lamps have an efficiency of only 3 percent and produced 2. heat Q e. Calculate in joule the energy of visible light of a filament lamp with an efficiency of 3 percent out of coal with 1000 joule chemical energy. Advantages: universal useable.13 a) Electric energy becomes moving energy + heat. 1 kWh = 3.9. d 1. b) Heat. The rest is "wasted heat" without a destiny. f) Spring energy + heat.29 John buys for 2000 € stocks. c) Moving energy + heat.10 Do yourself 1. Iron has a higher density of aluminum.12: a) Heat + radiant energy.9. Calculate how much power is needed as input. d) Chemical energy becomes moving energy + heat.31 In the manual of an electric stove is written: input power = 1420 W output power = 900 W. a.9. f) Gravity energy.9. He gets energy after his illness. e) Heat + radiant energy. e.6 MJ Energy: E.9.7 4905 J 1. ASWERS 1. 1. Rintje Ritsma has much power. a.

19 1.2 € 1.14 a) Chemical energy becomes electric energy + heat. 1.9.32 a) 1. c) Radiant energy becomes gravity energy + heat. b) Water vapor (nor visible) and water (visible as a cloud of water drops).9. 1.2 % .26 a) 300 N b) 30 cm 1. 1. 1.29 90 % 1. 1.5 % 1.9. Here steam is cooling down.16 1) Oil is combusted.22 a) 720000 J b) 0.33 75 W 1.27 a) 30 cm b) 225 N 1.9.9.28 106 % 1.9.9. oil and coal.8 W b) heat 1.25 15 cm 1.Chapter 1: Energy and energy conversion 1.23 0. b) Chemical energy becomes moving energy + heat.9.9. d) Radiant energy becomes heat.9.18 a) Chemical energy becomes spring energy + heat.17 a) This are cooling towers.9. 5) The generator delivers a voltage 6) The energy leaves the plant through Electricity cables.096 €.9.9.30 7. b) Electric energy becomes heat + radiant energy.9.9.9.9. 1. 3) That steam drive the turbine (blade wheel). 1.024 €.9. 4) Connected with the turbine a generator will rotate.34 a) 12 J 63 % b) 1.24 a) 41 € b) 21. b) Neutral gas. c) Chemical energy becomes gravity energy + heat d) Radiant energy becomes gravity energy + heat. 2) The heat losses is used to make steam out of water.19 25 W 1.9.9.31 1.9.21 111 W 1.15 a) Find yourself in a dictionary.2 kWh c) 0.20 40 W 1.

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