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THE VISUAL ARTS

Painting is one of the fine arts that depict various intrinsic values of human through imaginative aggregation of lines and color. It expresses the artists perceptions and feelings on a particular selected subject. Usually, the artist selection of a subject comes from his understanding and interpretation of his feeling and his emotions. Some artist may love country scenes like landscapes, the chores in the countryside, faces, figures and forms; other like to do these in their natural form; and still others in their distorted forms. What is beautiful expression of the artists inner feeling sadness, happiness, fear, anger, anxiety, stillness or peacefulness, turbulence or chaos. It reveals thru his brush or pen what he thinks and feels, giving the subject its meaning for the art lover to enjoy and draw meaning as well. Thus, message of life is born to be discovered and rediscovered by those who know to perceive and appreciate what lies beneath the creative strokes of form lines, color, texture and hue.

Elements of Painting 1. Subject 2. Medium 3. Line 4. Color 5. texture 6. Volume 7. Perspective 8. Form 9. Style

SUBJECT This element answers the what of the piece of painting. What is the painting about? MEDIUM This refers to the materials used by the artist in his painting, which include among others: 1. fresco in which pigment is mixed with water and applied to wet plaster; 2. water color which is a pigment mixed with water and applied to the surface of smooth or rough paper, generally white in color; 3. oil which is done on canvas or prepared wood panel; and 4. tempra a mixing pigment with eggs and applying this on a very hard smooth surface and usually several layers of rubbed plaster (gesso). There are other media available like pencil, charcoal, ink and others which can be bought in ready forms. EMOTIONS can be expressed by artist through their paintings. The painting can likewise bring a message of solitude to those concerned.

EVOLUTION OF PAINTING Factors have influenced the history of painting: 1. Geography 4. Historic events 2. Religion 5. The development of new material 3. National characteristics The authors confine attention to the Realistic and Naturalistic, impressionistic, Expressionistic and Modern Periods.

REALISTIC and NATURALISTIC Painting y Realistic artist portray objects, sceneries, activities, figures as they have been seen and experienced. It is a firsthand replica of what they actually see and feel. Filipino Artists are very good in realistic painting, that they turn to landscape painting. There are naturalistic and realistic painters whose portrayal of human freedom could vividly be seen in their painting. Fernando Amorsolo is one of the realistic-naturalistic painters in the Philippines.  Known as the Father of Philippine Painting  His works depicted Philippine scenes and way of life especially in the countryside. IMPRESSIONISTIC Painting Impressionism portrays the effects of experience upon the consciousness of the artist and the audience. The artist is characterized as one concerned more with the technique of suggesting light and color to the picture than with the subject matter. Origin: French The impressionists show features of vagueness, fleeting, and transitory. EXPRESSIONISTIC Painting  Have its roots in Germany during the 20th century.

 The terms characterized this type of painting are Harsh, brutal, introspective and morbid. The artist uses free distortion of form and color through hitch he gives visual form to inner sensations or emotions. The emotional expression of these paintings could be described as involving pathos, morbidity, violence, or chaos and tragedy. It sometimes portrays defeat. These strong emotions seem to be the pathway through which their counterparts, joy, and happiness will come to pass.  Juan Luna & E. Aguilar Cruz in the Philippines, the Filipino heroes are considered as expressionists translated into canvass his deplorable thoughts and feelings about war & destruction in Spolarium.  ABSTRACTION must be clearly understood because modern art is anchored on abstracts. These paintings were very large, often big enough to cover the wall. The abstract expressionist has his own individuality. He uses his own experience and emotion in the making of his painting. The meaning of the painting is sometimes sacrificed and the artist thinks that viewers of their paintings might just as well accept their work as a visual experience.  CUBISM is a form of abstraction. In this style, objects re first reduced into cubes and flattened into two-dimensional shapes, these are arranged in overlapping planes.  SUREALISM The surrealists brings elements of the subconscious to the surface. This is expressed in symbolic

forms. Surrealism is almost the antithesis of abstract art because it tends to sacrifice plastic values in favor of the symbolic power of the image. Some Filipinos worthy to mention are: 1. FERNANDO AMORSOLO known as the Father of Phil painting. He depicted in his works Philippine scenes and the way of life in the countryside. 2. JUAN LUNA Known for his Spolarium a painting masterpiece in canvas in which he translated his deplorable thoughts and feelings about war and obstruction. He is a famous hero and expressionistic Filipino painter. 3. E. Aguilar Cruz an expressionistic painter of the Picnic in Mt. Arayat former Phil Ambassador to the UNESCO in Paris in 1979. The ases of his remains were scattered in the fields near Mt. Arayat. He was born in Magalang, Pampanga. Replica - duplication Perspective point of view Hue shade, tint, color Vagueness impression, abstraction Fleeting brief Transitory passing, brief, temporary Harsh cruel, unkind Brutal evil, cruel Introspective thoughtful, deep in thought Morbid gloomy, dark

Pathos sorrow, tragedy

ARCHITECTURE  Is defined as the art and science of designing and erecting buildings.  Also connotes the style and method of design and construction that reflect the cultural and religious temper of the era.  Styles and construction designs of buildings depends on the prevailing climate.  Massive materials are used for cold climate countries but light materials are used for warm climate countries. DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTIONS 1. Key tone support both sides of an arch. An arch must also be supported at its base. 2. Barrel vault is a series of arches. 3. Cross vault is the result of the intersection of two barrel vaults. OTHER GEOMETRIC SHAPES, THE ARCHES CAN BE SEEN IN BIG BUILDINGS AND CHURCHES.

1. Post and Lintel Construction this is prevalent in many Philippine middle-income and high-income homes. 2. Can be seen in high-rise buildings like condominiums. 3. Geometric shape can be seen at the Post Office building in Lawton, Manila. 4. Dome comprises a series of intersecting arches where typical dome can be found in churches. *** The medium of construction has its effect on the selection of style to be used. y The Post & Lintel type of construction is used for buildings in wood. y The arch is usually employed for stone construction. y Steel and reinforced concrete are utilized too. Structural materials: 1. Sand and gravel 2. rock materials limestone, clay and gravel and cement; 3. Organic materials like wood (yakal, guijo, apitong, tanguile and red & white lauan. plywood, lawanit), chemically pressure treated lumber 4. Metal Material steel bar, G I sheet, white cement, high tech steel 5. Hybrid materials tiles, bricks adobe 6. Synthetic materials glass, plastics ASSIGNMENT:

1. What are the 3 qualities to be considered in selecting structural materials? STRUCTURAL MATERIALS the designer and architect takes into account at least three different basic materials for a building. These are materials for the roof, the walls and the floors. He has to think of appropriate building of materials considering strength and aesthetic appeal. y qualities to be considered: 1. STRUCTURE - this determine how the structure reacts to the wind, floods, water, movement and the like. This is reaction to stress. The structural design and form are directly part of these considerations. 2. TEXTURE this has to do with the roughness or smoothness of the material. It directs the choice of tools to use. This should blend with the internal structure of the building. 3. ASPECT this refers to particular colors and outside skin after tooling. This is an apparent feature to the layman. Every materials intrinsic qualities are looked into. This is important to achieve consistency in design. The Cultural Center of the Philippines is one of the modern of famous landmarks in architecture in the Philippines. It is contemporary and functional in structure, simple and elegant in tone. y Main features of the museum are:

1. A Painting and Sculpture Hall with special section of contemporary art. 2. A Colonial Art Pavilion split into two levels with a chapel in which the San Jose Church baroque altar was donated by Antonio Bantug. 3. The De Santos Pavilion contains the large and magnificent De Santos Art Collection, an outstanding collection of European, Spanish-colonial art in the Philippines, gold and other artifacts and one of worlds largest collection of export ceramics (Chinese, Annamese and Siamese) excavated in the Philippines. 4. The Filipino Muslim Pavilion which houses the Filipino Muslim art collection of Potenciano Badillo, and a separate section for Filipino folk and primitive art. 5. A Library For Art and Music The architect designed a museum for a complex of smaller structures surrounded by gardens, playing fountains, serene reflecting pools and plazas. One goes from one pavilion to the other and walks through the lush gardens and shaded covered area. Five artists contributed their works and services to the Center: 1. Hernando Ocampo donated his painting Genesis with tapestry weaves in Kyoto, Japan utilized as the design for the curtains of the Centers Theater for the Performing Arts;

2. Fernando Zobel, Arturo Luz and Cesar Legaspi did murals for various areas of the Center; 3. Vicente Manansala gave the bronze wall sculpture that dominates the entrance of the theater. 4. Mrs. Patricia Keller designed the Philippine-made Capiz chandeliers in the Centers foyer. 5. Federico Aguilar Alvarez evolved the curtains design for the smaller experimental the theater. 6. Leandro V. Locsin - The architect of the Cultural Center of the Philippines Among the modern architects in the Philippines: 1. Leandro Locsin and his massive Cultural Center of the Philippines 2. Jose Maosa and his San Miguel Corporation Building 3. Francisco Maosa beautiful Coconut Palace, which is like an odalisque in languid pose, draped in honeycolored rays of the Philippine sun. The Coconut Palace was originally conceived as the Tahanang Pilipino by its innovative architect. Its structure explored the creative uses of coconut.

PLATE NO. 7 Primary Triad Materials: drawing paper, pencil crayon Procedure: 1. draw a design 2. color it with primary colors (red, blue and yellow) PLATE NO. 8 Secondary Triad Materials: drawing paper, pencil crayon Procedure: 1. draw a design 2. color it with secondary colors (orange, green and violet) PLATE NO. 9 Money Pressing Materials: drawing paper, coin, crayon Procedure: 1. make a design by pressing the coin with crayon

PLATE NO. 11 Thumb Mark Design Materials: drawing paper, water color Procedure: make a design using your thumb with water color

SCULPTURE y Puts together into a beautiful, meaningful shape such materials as stone, wood, metal and other hard materials. y There are several colors of STONES and this stones differ in shapes found in our Philippines Rivers and streams and in our mountains and plains.

o Stone is hard and when polished, it has a pretty luster in its natural color and even looks beautiful even without any polish. o Skilled hands polish this stones to give them a smooth, shiny or glossy finish. o The intricate (difficult) stone sculptures are chiseled by hand or by machine or by a combination by these. o Stone, like marble is very hard carving must be done with great strength and at the same time with great delicacy but when marble statue is carve and polished, the sculptors work is great.

y MARBLE is a favorite material used in sculpture is abundant in the province of Romblon and Bulacan; Natural colors: white, jade or greenish, gray, pink, reddish and brownish. Greece and Italy also use marble for their sculpture because of its abundance in said places in Europe. y CLAY is very soft if artist makes mistakes, he can remove the error quickly. o Clay must be kept workable artist must cover his work with damp rags, and from time to time he must add water to unused clay in the bin and pound it. o Clay must be pounded and kept in condition with day-to-day care. Clay must be pounded and kept in condition with day-to-day care.

o Sculpture in clay does not last long. o Clay is the most frequent used substance, but various kinds of wax have also been employed. y For its beginning to the present, sculpture has been largely monumental. y Great fountains with sculpture in the center are as commonplace beside modern skyscrapers.

y A sculptors work is backbreaking (strenuous). o Marble must be moved and cut. o Wood must be curved and sandpapered. y If he cast his own models, he must know the chemistry of metals and their melting point. y Modern sculptor is frequently a competent welder, riverter, and machinist as well as an artist.