You are on page 1of 8

SIGNAL CONDITIONING (sensor) conditioning circuits) amplification, filtering OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Operational amplifiers (Op-Amp) circuits, IC) high-gain

amplifier (open-loop gain, GOL) (integrated (analog signal 4 buffering, (special functions)

1 NonInverting Invert ing 1 1 Inverting (-)

(output voltage) (difference voltage, Vd) (non-inverting (+)) (inverting (-)) 

Outpu t (Op-

Amp) (Op-Amp)

Inverting

Output

Non-Inverting (+) Non-Inverting

Output supply voltages (+Vs) 9v supply voltages (-Vs) -9 v

Output

18 v 15 v

voltages (s Vs) voltages (-Vs V0 +Vs)

-18 v -15 v (GOL $ 104 106) open-loop gain (GOL)

supply supply

GOL

power supply

gain

2 1.) open-loop gain 2.) 3.) (GOL(f) = ) (ZIN = ) (ZOUT = 0)

4.)

load (V0 =VOUT) 3

2 gain VOUT

1 2 Inverting VIN/R1 2 1 i1 Non-Inverting i2


      

Vd ZIN = transfer function Non(input voltage, VIN) R1 i1 = ( 2) R2 i1


   

VOUT

gain (GCL)

non-inverting amplifier

(VIN)

amplification

AMPLIFICATION (amplification, gain stage) (interface circuits) (analog-to-digital converter)

differential - single-ended 2 VIN (inverting) (R2)

single-ended

(non-inverting)

gain

4 - differential amplifier 1. 2. R1 5 2

R1

(RA1= RB1 RA2= RB2) gain commonmode rejection ratio ( differential circuits ) instrumentation amplifiers difference stages 6 instrumentation amplifiers 3 common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) 2 common-mode gain ended output 1 differential gain single-

differential amplifier

6 FILTERING

instrumentation amplifiers

(sensors)

(analog filters) band-reject 4

low-pass, high-pass, band-pass

Low-pass filters (cutoff frequency1) High-pass filters Band-pass filters Band-reject filters

cutoff low-pass cutoff

(passive, active circuits) , active ( active gain 0 dB passive active )

passive , active , ,

passive

Low-pass first order filters: (a, b) passive and (c) active 8a passive Low-pass first order cut-off frequency   roll-off slope2 20

gain

1 2

cutoff frequency Steeper roll-offs

3dB

0.707

dB/decade static gain reject

8b active R2/R1 state-variable filters low-pass, high-pass, band-pass 9

8c band-

9 COMPENSATION , (Sensor)

State variable circuit

linearization LINEARIZATION OF RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS transfer function sensor

10 Linearizing a voltage divider through constant-voltage (a) or constant-current (b) measurements. Linearization of a Wheatstone bridge with a constantcurrent arrangement (c) 10a inverting input (VCC) sensor (RS) load output sensor(GS) ( (RS))
      

gain

load