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Psychology
Welcome to the A level (A2 level revision and AS level revision) Psychology revision section. Click on the links below to see resources for Approaches to Psychology, Key Terms, Research Methods, Studying Psychology at University, Themes, Issues and Debates,Social Psychology. These resources are constantly being added to.

Approaches to Psychology Cognitive Psychology What is Cognitive Psychology?
Cognitive Psychologists look at our higher mental processes such as language and memory.

Assumptions
The Study of our internal mental processes is important to understanding our behaviour. The human brain, like a computer is an information processor. We receive, interpret and respond to information and these processes can tested scientifically

Methods of Investigation
1) Experimental Cognitive Psychologists conduct their research under strict laboratory conditions. An Independent variable is manipulated and a dependent variable is measured. For example, the IV in Loftus and Palmer’s eye witness testimony experiment is the wording of the critical question and the DV is the how fast the participants estimated the car was travelling. 2) Case Study This method is used by Cognitive Psychologists when conducting research on an unusual case. A case study involves conducting research on just one participant in detail and over a long period of time. For example, cognitive psychologists may use the case study method when looking at rare cases of amnesia

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or when attempting to teach an animal to use language.

Core Studies from Cognitive Psychology Loftus and Palmer (1974) Eye Witness Testimony
Aim: To see if the wording of a question affects memory Design: Experimental Variables: the IV: The wording of the critical question. DV:the estimated speed and whether participants reported seeing non-existent glass Procedure: Participants watched video clips of car crashes and were asked a number of questions. The Critical question: “how fast were the cars travelling when they smashed/collided/bumped etc” Results: Participants who had heard the more emotive verbs e.g. smashed were significantly more likely to estimate that the cars were travelling faster and they were significantly more likely to have reported that they had seen glass than those who had heard the less emotive verbs- e.g. contacted This shows us that memories can be distorted after an event and that the wording of questions affects memory

Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee, Gardner and Gardner (1969)
Aim: To see if a chimpanzee can be taught to use American Sign Language Design: Longitudinal Case Study Materials: A mobile home (where the Chimpanzee lived) Toys Procedure: Washoe, a chimpanzee, was looked after in a mobile home and had a similar routine to a child. Life evolved around feeding and playing. She was trained to use American Sign Language using Operant Conditioning. Washoe was encouraged to imitate signs and she was rewarded with a tickle for imitating a sign. A sign was recorded as learnt when 3 observers saw the sign used in the correct context over 15 consecutive days Results: Washoe learnt 30 signs after 22 months. She was able to display some of the following key features of language: differentiation, transference and combining signs. This study supports the view that language is learnt through positive reinforcement.

Contributions to Psychology
Cognitive Psychology has helped us to understand the following:

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Memory: Research into the nature and structure of memory / Methods to improve memory / Explanations of forgetting. Therapy: Cognitive behavioural techniques Education: Improving teaching techniques

Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths It mostly uses rigorous scientific methods The approach has had many practical applications This area has worked with other areas of psychology to produce the following: social learning theory, social cognition and artificial intelligence Weaknesses It is too simplistic. It ignores the complexity of the human functioning. It ignores biological influences of human functioning It ignores emotions, conscious experience and free will.

Summary
Cognitive Psychologists look at our internal mental processes They carry out their research using the experimental method and the case study method Their research has many practical applications in understanding our how our memory works, how people learn, and in therapy. It is scientific, but it has been accused of being overly simplistic.

QUESTIO S Quick Fire Questions Gardner & Gardner

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(2) Question 4 Describe the participant in Gardner and Gardner’s study.(2) 4 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . to speak using sign language rather than spoken language? (2) Answer Chimpanzees do not have the vocal apparatus to speak. (1) their palates are too low (1) and their tongues are too large.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.co. (1) Question 5 Identify two materials used by Gardner and Gardner in the study.revisionworld.(2) Answer The participant is called Washoe and she is a female chimpanzee (1) captured from the wild. (1) Question 2 What is meant by the term “reinforcement”(2) Answer Reinforcement is when a good behaviour is rewarded to encourage this behaviour to be repeated (2) Question 3 Identify one example of how positive reinforcement was used in Gardner and Gardner’s study...http://www. (2) Answer The chimpanzee is encouraged to sign by being rewarded with a tickle for a correctly signed word. the Chimpanzee. Question 1 Why did Gardner & Gardner teach Washoe.

(2) Question 2 In the study by Loftus and Palmer on eyewitness testimony. the participants watched film clips of car accidents.” (2) Question 3 The table below features in the study by Loftus and Palmer on eyewitness testimony.revisionworld. Outline two conclusions that can be drawn from this table (4) Response to the question: “Did you see broken glass?” Verb condition Response smashed hit control 5 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Give one explanation for this. (2) Answer The critical question varied in the verb used to describe how the cars collided. When using words such as “smashed” it altered the participants memory of the event and consequently they thought that the cars were travelling more quickly than when the experimenters used a verb like “hit.http://www. the participants gave different estimates of the speed of the cars depending on how the critical question was asked.co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Describe one difference between witnessing these film clips and witnessing a real accident (2) Answer Participants were purposely watching the film clips as part of a psychology experiment and expected to be asked questions about the content of the film clip where as witnessing a real accident would be unexpected.. Answer A Mobile Home (1) Toys (1) Loftus & Palmer Question 1 In the study by Loftus and Palmer on eyewitness testimony.. It would be more frightening and shocking than watching a film clip.(2) Watching a real accident would be more arousing.

Does the autistic child have a theory of mind.g. 6 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .(2) The wording of a question can create false memories. smashed were significantly more likely to estimate that the cars were travelling faster and they were significantly more likely to have reported that they have seen glass than those who had heard the less emotive verbs.. This shows us that wording of questions can affect memories (2) Essay Questions Question 1 Describe what each of the following studies from cognitive psychology tells us about our cognitions.g. (2) Question 4 Identify the independent and the dependent variable in part one of the Loftus and Palmer study on eyewitness testimony (2) Answer IV = The wording of the critical question.. (12) Loftus and Palmer. e.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. than when the verb “hit” is used in the critical question.http://www. Yes No 16 34 7 43 6 44 Answer Participants were more likely to report seeing glass when the verb “smashed” is used. collided. (1) Question 5 Briefly describe one finding from the study on eyewitness testimony by Loftus & Palmer (2) Answer Participants who had heard the emotive verbs.co. (1) DV = The estimated speed in which the cars were travelling.revisionworld. Teaching a chimpanzee to speak Baron and Cohen.e. Eye witness testimony Gardner and Gardner. No glass featured in the video clips.

co.revisionworld.http://www.Cognitive Psychology uses lots of lab research which is low in ecological validity. Deregowski. This tells us that a theory of mind is unrelated to intelligence and is something associated with autism Deregowski showed us that perception of depth cues is dependent on education. Gardner’s study tells us about the origins of language. It also tells us that a non-human species can pick up basic language Baron and Cohen’s study tells us about a theory of mind. Use examples to illustrate your points.. Autistic children were significantly less able to correctly answer the false belief question than downs syndrome children. C – Practical applications justify time and money spent on research. C – Being scientific increases Psychology’s status as a science Advantage 2 P – Cognitive Psychology has practical applications E – Loftus and Palmer’s study tells us that when interviewing witnesses we should be careful about the wording of the question as it can distort memory. 7 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. For example using an emotive verb like crashed led participants to believe that they had seen glass. This was demonstrated by Deregowski’s reports that Africans did not understand western depth cues. Disadvantage 1 P . It is set in a laboratory and it is very controlled.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. This supports the view that language is learnt rather than innate. It is learnt rather than innate. A chimpanzee was able to pick up basic language using operant conditioning. Question 2 Describe 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of the cognitive approach to psychology. Pictorial Perception and Culture Answer Loftus and Palmer’s study tells us that our memory can be distorted after the event by the wording of questions. (12) Split into Point/Example/Concluding comment Answer Advantage 1 P – Cognitive Psychology is very scientific E –Baron and Cohen’s study is scientific.

E – Seeing car crashes on television in Loftus and Palmer’s study is a very different experience from seeing real car crashes C – Low Ecological validity = Less easy to apply results to everyday life.. but rarely does. It is possible that this Chimpanzee was different to other Chimpanzees.co. The disadvantage here is that case studies lack generalisability E. Animals Studied Dogs Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments Cats Thorndike’s early work on operant conditioning Rats Thorndike’s operant conditioning work and current day work Pigeons 8 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . C-Case study information can only be applied to that participant and therefore findings are less applicable to the whole population = less useful P = Point / E = Example / C = Concluding point Comparative Psychology What is Comparative Psychology? Comparative psychology is the study of the behaviour and mental life of non-human animals Comparative psychology should. involve the use of a comparative method in which similar studies are carried out on animals from different species. There has been a recent reversal in its approach..revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Disadvantage 2 P – Cognitive Psychology uses the case study method to look in more depth at cognition.Gardner and Gardner’s research involved just one Chimpanzee. In the past researchers have looked to apply findings from animals to humans. but researchers are now taking principles uncovered in the study of human cognition and testing these principles on animals.http://www.

Skinner’s learning theory Primates Harlow’s study of maternal deprivation / Intelligence in animals / Language development. Thorndike (1911) Operant Conditioning Experiments Aim To demonstrate that cats learn through operant conditioning (Learning through the consequences of behavioural responses) Design Experiment Procedure Cats were placed in a puzzle box and had to learn to escape. The dogs had learnt to associate new external stimuli (e.Comparative Psychology Pavlov (1927) Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is learning by association Aim To demonstrate that animals learn by association Design Laboratory Procedure A dog was placed in a harness and fed food in a bucket. Their escape entailed pulling a string inside the box which released the catch on the door and provided escape (a desirable consequence) Results 9 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. A salivation recording device measured salivation Results The dogs started to salivate before the food bucket arrived. Core Studies . Each time the dog ate a bell rang. often at the sights of the food bucket or the sound of the bell.g sights and sounds) with the original stimulus (food).co. This shows us that animals can learn by association.revisionworld.http://www.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm..

. Learning and language theories. This is known as the Law of Effect. Recognition that a dog’s character and breed will determine how they will react to stimulation problems Dogs are prone to psychological problems if they are violently treated. inappropriate stimulation. problem solving and other cognitive abilities in animals The Development of Learning Theory Recognition of the following causes of disordered behaviour in animals kept in captivity: lack of stimulation. An interesting insight into the animal world Disadvantages The Ethics of animal testing.. Can you really generalise results from animals to humans? Subjectivity Researchers working with dolphins and primates have been criticised for becoming overly attached to the research and exaggerating findings.co. QUESTIO S 10 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Contributions to Psychology An animal's psychological condition is recognised as an important part of its well being in captivity Significant advances in our understanding of memory. Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages Useful Findings. Each time the cat was put in the box they escaped more quickly by using methods that had previously provided a desirable consequence (escape) and they avoided behaviours that led to an undesirable effect.revisionworld. Summary Comparative Psychology looks at animals.http://www. Cats gradually learnt how to escape from the box.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. It has helped us to understand basic learning and it has provided an insight into animal psychology It has been accused of being unethical and lacking in generalisability to humans. or over stimulation.

http://www. Each time the dog ate a bell rang. (Learning by association) Question 3 Describe how Pavlov trained the dogs to salivate using classical conditioning (2) Answer A dog was placed in a harness and fed food in a food bucket. The dog began to associate the bell with food..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. so the neutral stimulus comes to produce a version of the response on its own. Question 4 How did Pavlov’s dogs respond when the bell was activated? (2) Answer 11 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. Quick Fire Questions Quiz 1 Question 1 What is Comparative Psychology? (2) Answer Comparative psychology is the study of the behaviour and mental life of animals other than human beings.revisionworld. What is Classical Conditioning? (2) Answer Classical conditioning is the action of pairing an originally neutral stimulus with a stimulus that reliably produces a response.co. Question 2 Pavlov investigated whether animals can learn using Classical Conditioning.

co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.http://www. The dogs had learnt to associate new external stimuli (e. Quiz 2 Question 1 Identify the 2 different types of animals Thorndike used in his experiments on operant conditioning? (2) Answer Cats (1) Rats (1) Question 2 How did Thorndike teach cats to escape from a box using Operant conditioning? (2) Answer Their escape involved pulling a string inside the box which released the catch on the door and provided escape. The dogs started to salivate before the food bucket arrived..revisionworld. sights and sounds) with the original stimulus (food). Explain this problem..g. Operant conditioning is rewarding appropriate behaviours with a positive response or by the avoidance of something negative. (A desirable consequence) (2) Question 3 Comparative Psychology has been criticised for having problems with generalisability. (2) 12 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (2) Question 5 What is operant conditioning? (2) Answer Operant conditioning assumes that learning of an appropriate action is likely to be strengthened if the action is followed by a pleasant consequence. often at the sight of the food bucket or the sound of the bell.

co.(2) Scientific methodology increases Psychology’s status as a science. for example.revisionworld.http://www. Animals and humans are very different.(2) Scientific methodology allows cause and effect to be ascertained in a controlled environment. Answer People question whether you really can generalise results from animals to humans.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. it includes research from cognitive psychology on how we develop abstract thought. (2) Question 4 Outline two advantages in studying psychology using the comparative approach. It includes research from other approaches to psychology. Outline two strengths with using scientific methodology. (2) Answer Useful Findings. (2) Answer Scientific methodology is reliable and standardised making retesting possible. Methods of Investigation Experimental 13 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (2) Developmental Psychology What is Developmental Psychology? Developmental Psychology is an area of psychology that looks at how people change through the lifespan. (1) An interesting insight into the animal world (1) Question 5 Comparative Psychology using a scientific methodology..

Core Studies from Developmental Psychology Social and Family Relationships of ex-institutional Adolescents. This allows the researcher to collect information on how an individual changes through the life span.revisionworld.co. Design Longitudinal research Participants 31 ex-institutional children. An Independent variable is manipulated and a dependent variable is measured.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. In developmental psychology the iv is often the age of the child.. Data collected 14 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . For example the IV in Bandura’s (1961) study is whether the children are exposed to an aggressive or non-aggressive role model and the DV is the number of imitative and non-imitative acts of aggression displayed by the child when no model is present. All children had been in institutional care until the age of 2. Developmental Psychologists conduct their research under laboratory conditions.. This allows researchers to compare children of different ages. Procedure Interviews. An alternative method to the Quasi Experiment is Longitudinal research Longitudinal Research Involves studying people in detail over a number of years. questionnaires and psychometric tests were conducted over a number of years. Children were compared to a comparison group of children who had always lived with their parents. The benefits of Longitudinal research over quasi experiments is that the researcher can trace the development of one individual rather than comparing people of different ages which will be liable to individual differences rather than differences.http://www. A Quasi (or natural) Experiment is where a researcher can not control the independent variable. Hodges and Tizard (1989) Aim To examine the effects of ex-institutional upbringing on attachments. At 2 they were either restored to their families and or adopted. It allows researchers to see how events in childhood affect people later in life.

They are then taken to a room with a Bobo doll and various other toys and observed through a one-way mirror.co. Results Children who were showed the aggressive model displayed significantly more imitative and non-imitative aggression than the other children.The development of abstract thought. . Results Adopted children were more attached to parents than those restored to a biological parent. This shows us that children copy behaviour. included: attachment to parents. no adult is present. .How children learn. Children are then subjected to mild aggression arousal through being stopped from playing in a room with desirable toys.The psycho-sexual stages of development. an adult plays in a quiet and subdued manner. Contributions to Psychology Developmental Psychology has helped Psychologists to understand: . .The development of language. Bandura et al (1961) Aim To demonstrate that learning can occur through the observation of a model and that imitation will occur when no model is present. Design Laboratory Experiment Procedure Children were individually taken to a room containing toys..revisionworld. Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. 15 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . . relations with siblings and peer relationships.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.The effects of maternal deprivation and privation. Both groups required more adult attention and had more difficulty with social relationships than the comparison group.The development and variety of attachments..http://www. . They played in the corner for 10 minutes while either: an adult behaves aggressively towards a 5 foot inflated Bobo doll.

. The use of the longitudinal method allows us to see how people change through the lifespan which provides rich information about factors affecting development.The effects of day care on children’s cognitive and social development.. Advantages and Disadvantages of Developmental Psychology Advantages Wide Applications Developmental research has helped with childhood problems/issues. Longitudinal research can be an invasion of privacy.. but is often criticised for being unethical. Disadvantages Ethical Concerns. debriefing and harm.revisionworld. Experimental research often compares children of different ages allowing results to be obtained more quickly. Summary Developmental Psychology looks at how people develop/change through the life span.http://www. This area of psychology has wide applications. (4) 16 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Research is conducted using both longitudinal methods and experimental methods. Experimental research on children raises ethical concerns surrounding informed consent.co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. but this is time consuming and expensive. QUESTIO S Quick Fire Questions Bandura Question 1 Outline two ethical concerns raised by Bandura’s study on imitation of aggressive behaviour. Longitudinal methods allow the same individual’s development to be tracked.

describe how the children were subjected to mild arousal of aggression. Answer The children were taken from the University Nursery without the consent from parents to be in the experiment. as a result of the experiment.co.. Suggest one implication for society if children do learn by imitation (2) Answer It may be that children will imitate violent or aggressive behaviour seen on television suggesting that there is a need for increased censorship.http://www. (1) they were told that they could not play with the toys (1) and that the toys were for other children. (2) Answer Boys were more aggressive than girls. (2) Question 3 Outline the difference between the aggressive behaviour displayed by boys and the aggressive behaviour displayed by girls in Bandura’s study.revisionworld. be more aggressive in the future. (2) Question 4 In Bandura’s study on aggression.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (1) Question 5 17 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. (2) Question 2 Bandura’s study suggests that children learn from imitation. (2) The children may have been psychologically harmed from seeing an adult behaving aggressively (2) It is possible that the children may have learnt aggressive behaviour and may. (2) Answer The children were shown a room of attractive toys.

http://www. (2) Answer Children who were shown the aggressive model displayed significantly more imitative and non-imitative aggression than the other children. (2) Answer Interviews (1) Questionnaires (1) Psychometric tests (1) Question 2 Hodges and Tizard’s study on attachments is a natural experiment.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. (2) Question 4 18 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (2) Boys were more aggressive than girls.. Outline one finding from the study on aggression by Bandura.co.revisionworld. (2) Hodges & Tizard Question 1 Identify 2 of the methods used to collect information on attachment in Hodges & Tizard’s study. What is a “natural experiment”? (2) Answer An experiment that compares naturally occurring differences between people (2) Question 3 What was the independent variable in this study? (2) Answer How the children are brought up.

(2) Essay Questions Bandura Bandura gathered data about aggression by observing the ways in which the children behaved after being exposed to either an aggressive or non-aggressive role model. (2) Answer Longitudinal research allows the researcher to collect information on how an individual changes through the life span. (8) Answer Interview/ Questionnaire/ Self Report: Parents/teachers and children could be asked questions about factors influencing behaviour.http://www.co. This method would not entail the children ever being exposed to an aggressive model.revisionworld.Case Study: Again instead of observing behaviour in a laboratory setting Psychologists could carry out research on aggressive children and explore the causes of their behaviour Question 1 What does developmental Psychology tell us about Human behaviour? (12) Answer 19 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Suggest two other ways in which data could be gathered in Bandura’s study on aggression. Outline one of the differences that Hodges and Tizard found between the restored children and the adopted children. (2) Answer Adopted children were more attached to their adopted parents than those restored to their natural parents (2) Question 5 Outline one advantage of a longitudinal study. (2) It allows researchers to see how events in childhood affect people later in life...

Hodges and Tizard: Institutional care This study tells us that being brought up in an institution at a critical age will affect children’s social and family relationships. Question 2 Describe 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of the developmental approach.. It also tells us that children are more likely to imitate same sex models. (12) Split into Point / Example / Concluding comment Answer Split into Point / Example / Concluding comment Advantage 1 P – Developmental Psychology shows us how early events can affect us later in life E –Hodges and Tizard’s research shows us that being reared in an institution leads to family and social problems C.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Advantage 2 P – Research often uses the longitudinal method which traces the same person through life 20 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . E.co..revisionworld.Developmental research findings are very useful and can help with issues/problems in childhood.g. Samuel and Bryant discovered that children were confused by being asked the same question twice. The study also showed us that older children are better at conservation than younger children. Samuel and Bryant. He wished his father dead and felt sexually attracted to his mother.http://www. Children who were adopted after living in an institution at a critical age had less friends at school. Freud: Analysis of a phobia Freud’s study told us that Little Hans was in the oedipus stage of development. Bandura’s research shows us that children copy aggression even when the aggressive role model is no longer present. Asking 1 question in the conservation experiment Samuel and Bryant’s study tells us that children are able to conserve at a younger age than Piaget previously estimated. Bandura: Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive role models.

Unethical.. Individual Differences Psychology What is Individual Differences Psychology? An approach to psychology that focuses on how people differ from one another Assumptions People are unique! Methods of Investigation A whole range of methods.Freud used one child and showed a child move through the psycho-sexual stages of development C.http://www.revisionworld.Studying the same person rather than comparing people at different ages is less liable to differences being as a result of factors other than age Disadvantage 1 P.Subjecting children to some experimental conditions may actually affect development E.Being ethical ensures protection of Participants. E.Samuel and Bryant used children who may have been too young to understand their rights.Ethical concerns with the use of children and being able to follow guidelines E . It is often used when looking at exceptional cases Participant Observation This method involves the researchers joining a particular social group and making often secret observations over a long period of time.. Review Study 21 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.co. As well as conducting experiments Individual Differences Psychologists use the following methods: Case Study This method involves an in-depth and detailed look at an individual or particular group.Children may have learnt to become aggressive in Bandura’s study C – Research shouldn’t change people’s behaviour. (informed consent/right to withraw) C . Disadvantage 2 P .

she was mischievous and had little concern for her husband. Jane was more mature and interesting. Core Studies from Individual Differences Psychology A Case of Multiple Personality. Eve White was demure. A ation of Morons. IQ test scores. During therapy Eve White’s two other alters (personalities) came out.http://www. but she couldn’t get rid of Eve Black..co.. She eventually took over from Eve White. Looking at previous work and drawing conclusions. Eve Black was the opposite. Results Researchers identified three separate alters.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. neat. Eve Black and Jane. This information included: interview material.Gould (1982) Aim To review Yerkes’ work on IQ testing Design A Review Study 22 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .g. Each alter had separate personalities as shown by observations and a range of tests e. The Researchers conducted a range of tests on the alters and researchers documented her treatment.revisionworld. polite and very anxious. psychometric tests and physiological tests. The researchers named the alters Eve White. Thigpen and Cleckley (1954) Aim To document a case of Multiple Personality Disorder Design Case Study Participant A 25 year old woman with Multiple Personality Disorder Procedure Information was collected from Eve White.

Results Gould reviewed Yerkes tests and claimed that the tests were invalid. Unlike the rest of Psychology it focuses on how we are different from each other rather than generalising findings to everybody. in other words. He claimed that his tests measured native intellectual ability.. Research is often time consuming and expensive. He also identified problems with the way in which the tests had been administered Contributions to Psychology This area of Psychology has led to a greater understanding of the way we differ from each other.http://www. This explains why recent immigrants to America did not do very well in the tests. Research methodology can lead to subjective findings. This has been useful in the following areas: 1) The understanding and treatment of usual mental illnesses 2) A greater understanding of different cultural groups 3) This area has challenged previously ethnocentrically biased research Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Practical Applications.co. Instead of measuring innate intelligence the tests were measuring cultural knowledge and were dependent on fluency of English. Particularly in the treatment of the mentally ill.. Yerkes conducted a mass IQ testing programme on the American army during the first world war. Disadvantages It is often lacking in scientific rigour.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. intelligence that was unaffected by culture or education. Procedure Gould reviewed Yerkes’ work. After conducting his tests Yerkes concluded that people from Southern European countries and Africa were less intelligent than people from North America and Northern Europe.revisionworld. 23 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . The findings can only be applied to a small group of people. It lacks generalisability.

. It has helped further the treatment and understanding of mental illness It has wide applications.co. What is the individual differences approach? (2) 24 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . It uses case studies. QUESTIO S Quick Fire Questions Quiz 1 Question 1 What method did Thigpen and Cleckley in their research on multiple personality? (1) Answer Case Study (1) Question 2 Identify two psychological tests that were carried out on Eve White and Eve Black in the case study on multiple personality disorder by Thigpen & Cleckley (2) Answer IQ test (1) Memory Test (1) Projective test (human figure drawing & Rorschach test) (1) Question 3 Thigpen and Cleckley use the individual differences approach to Psychology. but it has been accused of lacking in generalisability.revisionworld. participant observation and review studies.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Summary Individual Differences Psychology looks at the differences between people..http://www.

Question 5 Summarise Eve Black’s character.http://www.” What did Yerkes mean by “native intellectual ability”? (2) Answer Intelligence that you inherit from your cultural/ethnic group.. Task: Convert the numbers to symbols (1) 25 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . vain and egocentric. Answer An approach to psychology that focuses on how people differ from one another.co. (2) Question 4 Define DID. She is childish.revisionworld..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (2) Question 2 This is an example of a task similar to those found in the Army Beta Test. (2) Quiz 2 Question 1 Yerkes believed that his IQ tests measured “native intellectual ability. (2) Answer Dissociative Identity Disorder. (2) Answer Eve Black is a party girl.

Identify one problem with this task and say why it is a problem (1) Answer The Beta test was the picture test for illiterate recruits. Only people with a good grasp of English could do well in the tests. Recruits could only answer this question if they could read English.(2) Question 5 Identify the three tests Yerkes used to measure IQ.revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (2) Answer The tests were culturally biased.. (2) The tests were poorly administered. (2) Question 3 Outline one effect that such test items had on Yerkes’ conclusions. (2) Question 4 Describe one problem that Gould identifies in his report on Yerkes’ IQ tests.. (2) The Beta test for illiterate recruits required that they read written English.co.http://www. (3) Answer 26 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (2) Answer Yerk’s test scores lacked validity.

the DV. Laboratory Observations Controlled observations of our biological processes.revisionworld. Physiological Psychologists study how the body affects behaviour. removing part of the brain or stimulating the brain to look at the effects on behaviour. Correlations Correlations measure the relationship between 2 variables to see if there is a trend or pattern. Assumptions All of our thoughts. This area of psychology focuses on nature rather than nurture. (1) The Beta Test. (1) The Spoken Test. neurochemistry and genes Methods of Investigation Laboratory Experimentation The IV often involves giving drugs. Sleep laboratories are often used to look at brain activity.http://www... Raine (1997) 27 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . The Alpha Test. Physiological psychologists have found a significant positive correlation between time spent in rapid eye and time spent in REM sleep. Case Studies from Physiological Psychology Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (1) Physiological Psychology What is Physiological Psychology? This approach is sometimes known as the Biological approach. feelings and behaviours have a biological cause Much of our behaviour has a genetic basis Psychology should investigate the brain.co. the endocrine system.

revisionworld. the corpus callosum and the amygdala.. sex and mental illness. Method Participants: 41 Prisoners charged with murder and claiming “Not Guilty reason Insanity. Results Murderers brain’s had less activity in areas associated with aggression. A positron emission tomography was used to show brain activity during a cognitive task. For example the pre-frontal cortex. Aim To see if people who have claimed not guilty reason insanity to a murder charge have a dysfunction in the brain areas associated with aggression..http://www.” Each participant was matched with a “normal” person on age. self control and inhibitions. the length of the dream and the 28 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Participants were awoken several times during the night and they were asked to recall whether they had been dreaming.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Electrodes were placed near their eyes to record eye movement and on their scalp to measure brain waves.co. Procedure All participants were injected with a tracer substance that was taken up by the brain to show the location of brain activity. The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity. Dement and Kleitman (1957) Aim To test whether: 1) Significantly more dreaming occurs during REM sleep than non-REM sleep 2) There is a a significant positive correlation between lengths of time spent in REM sleep and duration of dreaming 3) There is a significant relationship between the pattern of rapid eye movement observed during sleep and the content of the dream reported on waking Participants 7 adult males and 2 adult females Design Laboratory experimentation using observation Procedure Participants sleep individually in a sleep laboratory. where relevant.

This approach has developed many effective treatments for mental illness.The impacts of brain injury on memory Localisation of Function .co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.Damage to specific parts of the brain has shown specific behavioural effects Gender .Biological causes of mental illness Memory . This approach explains complex emotions. 29 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Disadvantages Over Simplistic. Many practical applications. Summary Physiological Psychologists explain human behaviour through looking at our biological make-up. dream content Results 1) Significantly more dreaming was reported during REM sleep than non-REM sleep 2) There is a a significant positive correlation between length of time spent in REM sleep and reported duration of dreaming 3) There is a significant relationship between the pattern of rapid eye movement observed during sleep and the reported content of the dream reported on waking. behaviours and thoughts in terms of our biology. Contributions to Psychology Physiological Psychologists have increased our understanding of the following: Aggression .. Provides evidence in support of the nature side of the nature/ nurture debate. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Rigorous scientific methodology.revisionworld..Biological causes of aggression Abnormality .The effects of hormones and genetics on our behaviour. This approach places too much emphasis on biology when clearly humans are influenced by many other factors Reductionism. There may be a more complex explanation.http://www.

uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (2) Answer Significantly more dreaming occurs during REM sleep than non-REM sleep. (2) There is a significant positive correlation between length of time spent in REM sleep and duration of dreaming (2) There is a significant relationship between the pattern of rapid eye movement observed during sleep and the content of the dream reported on waking.. Physiological Psychology has furthered our understanding of aggression. memory etc.http://www. abnormality.co.revisionworld. but it has been accused of reductionism QUESTIO S Dement & Kleitman Question 1 What was the design of Dement and Kleitman’s study? (2) Answer Laboratory experiment (1) Using observation to collect data (1) Question 2 Identify one of the hypotheses from the study on sleep and dreaming carried out by Dement and Kleitman. It is very scientific. (2) 30 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (2) Question 3 Outline one finding on the relationship between sleep and dreaming (2) Answer Significantly more dreaming was reported during REM sleep than non-REM sleep. Physiological Psychologists use scientific methods to carry out their research..

Identify one of the reasons for insanity. (1) Raine Question 1 The participants were claiming the defence “not guilty reason insanity” to a murder charge.revisionworld. (1) Answer Schizophrenia (1) Brain Injury (1) Personality Disorder (1) Question 2 Briefly describe the experimental group (2) 31 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM ..co. (2) Question 5 Identify two controls employed in the study on sleep and dreaming by Dement and Kleitman.http://www. (2) There is a significant relationship between the pattern of rapid eye movement observed during sleep and the reported content of the dream reported on waking.. There is a significant positive correlation between length of time spent in REM sleep and reported duration of dreaming. (2) Answer Participants were not allowed to drink any caffeine.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (2) Answer Sleeping in a laboratory is a very different and unnatural experience. (1) Participants were not allowed to drink any alcohol. (2) Question 4 Outline one way in which Dement and Kleitman’s study is low in ecological validity.

” (2) Question 3 Briefly describe the control group in the study by Raine (2) Answer The control group were people who had not murdered.co.. (2) Question 5 What was the aim of Raine’s study? (2) Answer To see if people who have claimed “not guilty reason insanity” to a murder charge have a dysfunction in the brain areas associated with aggression. Answer The experimental group were Prisoners charged with murder and claiming “Not Guilty Reason Insanity. (1) They were matched to the experimental group on age.revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (1) Question 4 Why are control groups used in experimental research? (2) Answer Control groups have not been subjected to the independent variable allowing researchers to conclude that differences between participants are a result of the independent variable. feelings and behaviours of individuals are influenced by actual. where relevant. imagined or implied presence of others.. sex and mental illness. “ Allport (1935) 32 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www. (2) Social Psychology What is Social Psychology? "The scientific investigation of how thoughts.

co. Assumptions All behaviour occurs within a social context A major influence on people’s behaviour.http://www. Questionnaires are a useful tool in researching people’s attitudes. Social Psychology looks at the influence of the individual. the group. Procedure Participants believed that they were playing the teacher and another participant was playing the learner.. obedience.revisionworld. prejudice. thoughts and feelings are other people and society Methods of Investigation Experimentation Social Psychologists carry out experiments both in the laboratory and on the field. aggression and attraction. Surveys Social Psychologists carry out questionnaires. These areas include helping. Observations Social Psychologists carry out observations of real life social settings Case Studies from Social Psychology Study of Obedience.. 33 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Milgram (1963) Aim To investigate how far people will go in obeying an authority figure Design Laboratory Experiment using observation to collect data Participants 40 males aged between 20 and 50 from a range of occupations recruited by a newspaper advertisement offering payment to take part in an experiment on learning punishment. the society and the culture on individual’s behaviour.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. This area of Psychology focuses research on our social behaviours. conformity. Both methods involve the manipulation of an independent variable and the measurement of a dependent variable.

34 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Results The experiment had to be called off after 6 days because of the abnormal reactions shown by prisoners and guards. trembling. Participants 22 males were selected from a large group of volunteers.revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. This was achieved by conducting a prison simulation with normal participants allocated the roles of either prisoner or guard. mature and without any anti-social tendencies. Procedure The participants were split into prisoners or guards. Each time the learner got a question wrong the teacher (the real participant) was required to administer an electric shock to the learner. groaning and three participants had uncontrollable seizures. They were told to maintain a reasonable degree of order. All participants administered shocks of up to 300 volts.. The guards wore a military style uniform and worked shifts in the prison.http://www. All were considered to be stable. The prisoners were taken by surprise by being arrested at home and charged with a crime at a real police station. Participants were observed sweating. They were given a prisoner’s uniform and a number. Zimbardo et al (1973) A Study of Prisoners and Guards in a Simulated prison Aim To demonstrate that situational factors (the environment) rather than dispositional factors (personality) cause negative behaviour in prison settings. They were prohibited from using physical violence. Results 65% of participants administered electric shocks to the highest level of 450 volts.. An authority figure stood over the participant insisting that he had to administer electric shocks. Clearly participants found the task very stressful but continued to obey because of the presence of an authority figure. Participants were told by an authority figure to administer fake electric shocks to another the learner (who was actually an actor) in another room. The electric shocks and recorded responses of discomfort from the “learner” increased in intensity as the task progressed.co.

uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.” They enjoyed the power at their disposal and abused the prisoners’ rights.” This included disbelief followed by rebellion. Contributions to Psychology This area of Psychology has led to a greater understanding of how our behaviour is influenced by other people. The Guards Participants showed the “pathology of power.co.. It has been applied to the following areas: Criminology Social Psychology has revealed how juries can be swayed by a powerful juror Education Social Psychology has warned teachers about the dangers of labelling people Industry Social Psychology has helped people in industry to identify potential leaders Sport We now know more about how an audience affects an athletes performance The Environment Social Psychology has revealed that a crowd can change people’s behaviour. For example Why the Nazis obeyed Hitler. They became excessively obedient and half showed signs of depression.revisionworld. For example they withdrew privileges. The approach has explained many phenomena. Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths The approach has demonstrated the strong effect of social influences on people’s behaviour. Wide applications 35 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. They treated going to the toilet and eating as a reward and they verbally abused the prisoners. The Prisoners They showed “ Pathological Prisoner Syndrome. This experiment demonstrates that normal people’s behaviour can quickly be affected by the environment and by conformity to roles.http://www.

They carry out research using the experimental method. Social Psychology has contributed to many areas such as criminology.revisionworld. This area fails to acknowledge the role of individual differences within a social setting. observations and surveys..http://www.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. the participants were observed showing tension. It has been argued that some research has been unethical Summary Social Psychologists explain behaviour through the influence of other people. education and industry. It is scientific and very useful. Scientific Methodology Weaknesses Reductionism.co.. (2) Answer Participants were observed sweating (2) trembling (2) stuttering (2) biting their lips (2) Question 2 How did Milgram recruit his Participants in his study on obedience? (2) Answer They volunteered (1) after seeing an advertisement in a newspaper article (1) or through direct mail advertising. (1) Question 3 36 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . QUESTIO S Milgram Question 1 In Milgram’s study on obedience. Unethical. but it can be unethical. Give one example of the behaviour of the participants that indicated extreme tension.

Banks and Zimbardo). Milgram’s study is often criticized for being unethical..co. (2) Milgram claimed that no participants were damaged in the long term. the guards and the prisoners were given distinctive uniforms.http://www.revisionworld. A Psychiatrist followed Participants for a year after the study (2) Question 4 Describe the experimenter (the authority figure) in Milgram’s study on obedience. (2) Question 5 Outline one way in which Participants were deceived in Milgram’s study on obedience. Give two examples of how the ethics of this study can be defended. Briefly describe the guard’s uniform.. rather than obedience. (2) Answer 37 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (4) Answer Milgram did not expect his Participants to obey (2) It was necessary that participants were deceived in order for the study to work. (2) The participants believed that they really were administering electric shocks. (2) Answer A 31 year old “stern” biology teacher who wore a grey lab technician’s coat.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (2) The participants were told that the “learner” was another participant. (2) Answer The advertisement used to recruit participants claimed that the experiment was on memory and learning. (2) Zimbardo Question 1 In the prison simulation study (by Haney.

(2) Answer The uniform made the guards feel powerful and authoritative (2) Question 3 Briefly describe the prisoners’ uniform.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. The guards wore a military style uniform. 38 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www. nylon stockings on their heads and rubber sandals Question 4 Outline how Haney. (2) Answer The prisoners had loose-fitting smocks with identification numbers. Banks and Zimbardo selected participants for their prison simulation study. (2) Question 2 Describe one effect the uniform had on the guard’s behaviour.. a whistle and a long truncheon.revisionworld. reflective sunglasses. Answer Participants volunteered after responding to a newspaper advertisement asking for male volunteers to take part in a study on prison life.co. (2) Question 5 What was the aim of Zimbardo’s research on prison life? (2) Answer To demonstrate the situational rather than the dispositional (personality) causes of negative behaviour found in prison settings by conducting a prison simulation with normal participants allocated the roles of either prisoner or guard.. consisting of a khaki shirt and trousers.

co. Correlation: A measure of the extent to which two variables are related. temperature may be controlled because it may be possible that temperature could affect participants' performance. Key Terms Definitions Abnormal Behaviour: Behaviour that differs from the norm Adaptive: Behaviours that promote survival and reproduction.revisionworld. Hypotheses are 39 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Behaviourism: An approach to Psychology that believes that all behaviour can be explained by the learning theory. Determinism:The belief that all human actions are determined by causes that are outside of our control Demand Characteristics: Features within an experiment that give away the experiment's aim. E. Ethnocentrism: Only being able to interpret the a situation from your own point of view. a positive correlation is when two variables increase together and a negative correlation is when one variable increases and the other one decreases. when a person is part of a crowd. Case Study: A research method that involves looking in detail at a single person.g. Extraneous Variables: These are variables that are controlled by the experimenter because they may interfere with the investigation. This can lead to participants displaying artificial behaviour in order to please the experimenter.. For example.http://www. acquiring knowledge and perceiving. Bystander behaviour: The theory that within a potential helping scenario the presence of other people reduces the victim's chances of recieving help. event or organisation.. Attachment: The strong emotional bond between a baby and their carer. Deindividuation: When loss of personal identity occurs. Cognition: This refers to our higher mental processes such as believing. Free Will: The belief that we all choose how to behave Gender Bias: When people are treated differently or unfairly because of their gender.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Psychologists must follow ethical guidelines to reduce the chances of deception/ danger/damage. Agentic State: When a person is under the control of an authority figure. Ethics: To do with rights and wrongs." Generalisability: The extent to which research findings can be applied to people away from the study. "I am a girl. Laboratory settings are often low in Ecological Validity and therefore behaviour is unnatural. Helping Behaviour: Alturism. Hypothesis: When Psychologists conduct experiments they formulate hypotheses. Control: Control refers to the extent to which an experimenter can claim that the behaviour recorded in experiment is as a result of the independent variable. Alturism: Helping behaviour. Ecological Validity: Whether a psychological method/technique corresponds to its equivalent in an everyday natural setting. Putting other people before your self. Gender Identity: The part of your self concept that identifies with a gender. For instance in an experiment measuring the effect of noise on perfomance. Hormone: Chemicals in our bodies that can alter our behaviour. Assisting somebody who is in need. Ethical Guidelines are laid down by the British Psychological Society. Ethnocentric Bias: When a situation is interpreted unfairly due to the psychologists’ own biases/ point of view.

both testable statements and predictments. How likely an experimental design is to produce the same results if used again in the same circumstances. Personality: A person's relatively stable set of characteristics. Gender Observation: A research method that involves watching people. The experiment is designed to test the hypotheses. stimulus – response. Validity: The extent to which a psychological technique really assesses what it intends to measure. usually within an observation. (situational) Informed Consent: One of the ethical guidelines. E.http://www. Measures are usually descriptive and interpretation can be subjective.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Qualitative measures: Techniques for obtaining information that assume that the meaning of the information is the most important thing. behaviour or phenomenon can be understood as nothing but its component parts.Dependent variable (dv): Measured by a psychologist QUESTIO S Quiz 1 Question 1 What is the name given to the variable manipulated by the experimenter? (1) Answer 1 Independent variable (1) 40 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Reductionism: An argument that takes the view that an event. Reliability: Consistency of measure. case studies. This argument ignores deeper explanations and is simplistic.Independent variable (iv): Manipulated by a psychologist. Methods include interviews. Operant Conditioning: A type of learning that takes place because of the consequences punishment and reinforcement.. observation. Just-world hypothesis: This is the belief that we live in a fair and predictable world Laboratory: A very controlled and often artificial environment where experiments take place.. It is when an experimenter asks a participant's full permission before they take part in the research.revisionworld. Individual and Situational Explanations: When a person’s behaviour is explained using their personality (individual) or when a person’s behaviour is explained using the situation they are in. Inter-rater Reliability: This is the extent to which two or more experimenters. In a psychology experiment any measure of performance or behaviour taken in a study is referred to as a variable. gather similar findings/information. Quantitative measures: An approach to psychological information that is primarily concerned with the collection of numerical information.g. Participant: A person who is measured/questioned/observed within research.co. E. Variable: Anything that varies. Minimal Group: A group that has nothing in common and therefore group identification is based on nothing meaningful.g. atural Experiment: When the Independent variable in an experiment is naturally occuring and is not manipulated by the experimenter.

.http://www. Question 2 What term means consistency of measure? (1) Answer 2 Reliability (1) Question 3 What term refers to whether a psychological method/technique corresponds to its equivalent in an everyday natural setting? (1) Answer 3 Ecological Validity (1) Question 4 What is the name of the belief that all human actions are determined by causes that are outside of our control? (1) Answer 4 Determinism (1) Question 5 What is the term given to features within an experiment that give away the experiment's aim? (1) Answer 5 Demand Characteristics(1) Question 6 What type of measurement technique assumes that the meaning of the information is the most important thing?(1) 41 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM ..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.revisionworld.co.

http://www.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Answer 6 Qualitative (1) Question 7 What type of measurement technique is primarily concerned with the collection of numerical information...revisionworld.co. (1) Answer 7 Quantitative (1) Question 8 What type of guidelines reduce the chances of deception/ danger/damage to participants in psychology experiments?(1) Answer 8 Ethical Guidelines (1) Question 9 Which type of variables are controlled by the experimenter because they may interfere with the investigation?(1) Answer 9 Extraneous Variables (1) Question 10 Which term refers to whether a psychological method/technique measures what it intends to measure?(1) Answer 10 Validity (1) 42 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .

1) The Experimental Method 2) Questioning 3) The Observational Method 4) Case Studies 5) Correlational Method The Different Methods Questioning There are many questioning techniques. Choose an appropriate research method for testing the hypothesis. Interviews This involves the researcher asking verbal questions to the participant. Interviews range from having no structure e.g just a topic area established to being very structured e. A hypothesis is a prediction or a testable statement.co. They can be highly structured enabling results to be easily analysed using descriptive statistics. Questionnaires can be less structured allowing the respondent to give further details. Psychologists use both interviews and questionnaires.revisionworld.. 43 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www. Questionnaires Often used to find out people’s opinions or behaviours.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.g a list of pre-prepared questions. Research Methods Introduction Research Methods Psychologists carry out research using a number of techniques Planning Research Formulate a hypothesis..

.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. looking at an individual with a rare mental disorder.g. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Questionnaires Questionnaires can be highly structured enabling results to be easily analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews Very Time Consuming Difficult to analyse and quantify Potential for participants to give incorrect responses. The Case Study Method This method involves studying one individual or one social group in detail.revisionworld. Case studies are often used when looking at people who have gone through an unusual experience or they are used when looking at exceptional cases e.http://www. Easy to analyse and quantify Easy to replicate Easy to administer Interviews Very Detailed Very Flexible allowing the researcher to explore interesting things that may arise Disadvantages Questionnaires Lacks flexibility People may give biased answers to create a socially desirable response. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages 44 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . It can be used to look at a broad range of traits as opposed to a small number of traits that can easily be looked at in a laboratory.co.

In Psychology the pairing of two variables would usually be a particular individual’s score in 2 variables. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Precise information about the degree of the relationship can be established by the correlation coefficient No manipulation of behaviour is required Establishing a relationship between the 2 variables may imply that there could be a cause and effect relationship. Very difficult to replicate. Correlation can be plotted out on scatter grams. Thigpen and Cleckley (1954) Disadvantages It lacks generalisability to the rest of the population due to having a very small and unrepresentative sample. (Gardner and Gardner 1969) It is the only suitable method when researching very rare cases. Disadvantages o cause and effect can be established. Validity problems More potential for observer bias due to the subjective nature of the method. Low reliability Time Consuming and Expensive Problems with a participants’ memory distortions when recalling past events.http://www. Teaching a Chimpanzee to speak. E. Highly detailed data is collected.co..g.. 45 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . The Experimental Method Psychologists carry out experiments both in the laboratory and in the field (the outside world). E. A Case of Multiple Personality. E.revisionworld. Stress is not determined by caffeine intake so there can be no cause and effect from a correlation. Can lead to subject attrition (Loss of Participants) The Correlation Method Correlation measures the relationship between 2 variables to see if there is a trend or a systematic pattern. Further experimental research can be conducted to establish cause and effect.g.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.g.g Stress Score and Caffeine intake. o cause and effect can be legitimately established. but the correlation does not indicate that caffeine is causing the stress. E. The data is high in Ecological Validity It is often the only suitable method. There may be a positive correlation between caffeine intake and stress scores.

although there is less control in field experiment. The Observational Method This method involves observing people’s natural or freely chosen behaviour.co. invasion of privacy. Disadvantages 46 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Observation can take place within an experiment. consent. Easy to replicate aturalistic Observations High in Ecological Validity This method is often the only appropriate and ethical method. potential harm etc.revisionworld. Experimental method is more controlled than other methods allowing Psychologists to claim that behaviour is a result of the independent variable. but the term “observational method” usually refers to research carried out in a natural environment like a town centre.. Field experiments are less artificial and therefore they are more ecologically valid. E. Easy to replicate due to standardised procedure More accurate data collected Data is more objective than other methods Disadvantages Experiments are artificial environments which may produce artificial behaviour. Controlled Observations measure people’s natural behaviour.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (cause and effect) Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Manipulation of the independent variable under controlled conditions allows cause and effect to be inferred. Both methods involve the manipulation of an independent variable (iv) and the measurement of a dependent variable (dv). but under contrived conditions.http://www.g a laboratory setting. Ethical Problems over deception. aturalistic Observations involve the recording of people’s natural behaviour in a natural setting.. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Controlled Observations More controlled enabling more accurate observations.

Controlled Observations Validity problems. The presence of an observer can change participants’ behaviour. An interview would allow more depth than a questionnaire. but a questionnaire is easier to administer. QUESTIO S Quiz 1 Question 1 Identify two strengths of carrying out research using the experimental method (4) Answer Manipulation of the independent variable under controlled conditions allows cause and effect to be inferred (2) Easy to replicate due to standardised procedure (2) 47 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . If the participants know that there behaviour is being observed their behaviour may change. This would mean that their behaviour was unnatural. A correlation indicates whether there is a relationship between 2 variables.. They are time consuming and lack generalisability.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. The observational method allows observations of naturally occurring behaviour. but it does not establish cause and effect.revisionworld.. aturalistic Observations Cause and Effect can not be established Ethical Concerns.http://www. Is this an invasion of privacy? Summary Psychologists carry out research using experimental and non-experimental methods Experiments are more scientific. Case Studies are used when more detail is required or when looking at an unusual case.co. but they lack ecological validity Questioning people can be a useful way to measure opinions.

More accurate data is collected (2) Data is more objective than other methods. (4) Answer Very time consuming (2) Difficult to analyse and quantify (2) Potential for participants to give incorrect responses. (2) Question 5 What would be an appropriate visual display of data collected using the correlation method? (1) Answer 48 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www. (2) Question 3 What validity problems may a psychologist face in using a questionnaire to investigate teenagers’ smoking habits? (2) Answer Teenagers may not want to admit to smoking because they fear that they would get into trouble (1) meaning that data collected lacks validity (1) Question 4 What is the observational method? (2) Answer Research carried out in a natural environment involving the recording of naturally occurring behaviour...revisionworld.co. (2) Question 2 Describe two problems psychologists may face when conducting research using the interview method.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.

. (2) Interviews are more flexible than questionnaires allowing researchers to explore interesting concepts as they arise whereas questionnaires feature a list of set questions. (2) Question 4 What is the difference between a laboratory and a field experiment? (2) 49 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (3) Answer No.http://www. A correlation does not indicate a cause (1) Correlations simply identify a positive correlation between 2 variables.. (1) Question 3 What is the difference between a questionnaire and an interview? (2) Answer Interviews are more detailed than questionnaires. (1) It may be that people drink more alcohol when they are under stress (1) Question 2 What is a naturalistic observation? (1) Answer Naturalistic Observations involve the recording of people’s natural behaviour in a natural setting.revisionworld. Scatter grams. (1) Quiz 2 Question 1 If a researcher found a positive correlation between stress levels and the number of units of alcohol drunk.co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. could they conclude that drinking alcohol makes people stressed? Explain your answer.

Hodges and Tizard (social relationships) Bandura (aggression) Loftus and Palmer (memory) Thigpen and Cleckley (a case of multiple personality) What are the practical applications of each study? (12) Answer Thorndike’s Operant Conditioning Experiments The principles can be used in both the teaching of animals and humans.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. (2) Question 5 Name one piece of research that uses the case study method? (1) Answer Thigpen and Cleckley: A case of multiple personality (1) Gardner and Gardner 1969: Teaching a chimpanzee to speak.http://www. (1) Essay Questions Applications of Psychology Applications of Psychology to everyday life refers to the extent to which we can apply research to real life.. Use each of the following studies to answer the following question. Answer Laboratory experiments take place in a controlled environment and questionnaires take place in real life environments.co.revisionworld. Bandura’s aggression experiment Censorship/Preventing further childhood aggression Loftus and Palmer’s memory experiment Can be applied to people giving interviews/ eye witness testimony Thigpen and Cleckley’s “a case of multiple personality”: 50 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .

C.It may be difficult to replicate the study 51 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .Realistic research conducted in real settings may involve distressing or embarrassing participants E – Milgram’s electric shock machine and fake screams were so realistic that participants really believed that they were administering electric shocks on another person. C – Distressing participants breaks the ethical guidelines laid down by the British Psychological Society. For example.revisionworld.This means that there is a lack of control over the situation and this can make drawing conclusions very difficult.One participant may experience an artificial experimental situation as if it was real and another may not. Problem 3 P . an experiment conducted in realistic conditions would be said to be high in ecological validity and an experiment conducted in artificial conditions would be said to be low in ecological validity..Often ecologically valid research is conducted in real situations and may use methods such as observation and field experiment.co. Use either Milgram. Can be applied to other patients with multiple personality disorder. The scenarios therefore couldn’t be easily controlled C. but Participants may have different ideas on what constitutes a realistic prison. Participants found this distressing.Zimbardo attempted to create a realistic prison.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. E.” If a piece of research is high in ecological validity it is easy to relate to real life.Piliavin set his research on a real life train..http://www. Ecological Validity “The extent to which a study can be generalised to real life. Describe 4 problems in attempting to conduct ecologically valid research.What do we mean by realistic situations? E. Problem 2 P . Problem 4 P . Zimbardo’s or Piliavin’s research to illustrate your problems (12) (Problems are split into Point/ Example/Concluding comment) Answer (Problems are split into Point/ Example/Concluding comment) Problem 1 P .

(12 marks) Hint: Select an ethical guideline and for each guideline explain why this guideline might be difficult to follow. E. Ethical Guidelines Describe 4 problems Psychologists may face following the ethical guidelines. the task would not have worked. Deception: Sometimes it is necessary to deceive Participants in order to make an experiment work E.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.http://www. – If the participants in Milgram’s study had known that the electric shock machine was fake. if Participants knew that the study was about obedience. Any harm was unexpected. The experiment would not have worked if he had both urged them to continue and at the same time told them that they could withdraw from the experiment. Use examples from Milgram’s study to illustrate your points.revisionworld. Answer Informed Consent: Some experiments wouldn’t work if participants knew the full aim. Obeying the authority figure would have been meaningless.Recreating Piliavin’s study would have been difficult as it was set in the field and it would be difficult to recreate those exact surroundings C . rather than learning and punishment. – Milgram never expected Participants to obey the authority figure and administer strong electric shocks.g. Protection from Physical and Mental Harm: Sometimes unintentionally harm is caused to participants. – In Milgram’s study. E. E.. Social Psychology Social Cognition ATTRIBUTIO OF CAUSALITY 52 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .It is important to be able to replicate a study to check and expand findings.g. they would focus on obedience and their behaviour would be unnatural.co.. E.g. – Milgram could not remind the participants of the right to withdraw because his experiment was on obedience and the nature of the task was to encourage participants to continue to give electric shocks. Right to withdraw: Reminding Participants of the right to withdraw may affect the validity of some experiments. Illustrate your problem using Milgram’s research.g.

Theories of attribution Theory of naïve psychology: Heider (1958) Commonsense or naïve ‘theories’ about behaviour are based on two sources: • the person – internal or dispositional factors. triangles) in a film in anthropomorphic terms.revisionworld. clumsiness) but seen as dispositional.. has personalism and/or hedonic relevance. • Some behaviours are not intentional (e.g. unusual. such as a person’s beliefs • the situation – external or situational factors.http://www..co. Evaluation • Not a true theory of attribution but inspired others to formulate theories. FAE). stereotypes) but they lead to correspondent inferences. (1977) demonstrated the FAE.g. John always laughs at this comedian (high consistency) 53 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Observers rated questioners (quiz participants who made up the questions) as superior to answerers. Research evidence Jones and Harris (1967) showed that participants judged an essay writer’s opinion to be the same as expressed in their essay (pro. Ross et al. Covariation model: Kelley (1967) Kelley proposed that attributions are based on covariations: • consistency – e. Jones and Nisbett (1971) gave additional information about essayists’ opinions affecting judgements.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Research evidence Heider and Simmel (1944) found that participants described objects (e. Evaluation • Attribution may be more complex in real life. low in social desirability. • FAE is not universal Correspondent inference theory: Jones and Davis (1965) We infer that an individual has a corresponding disposition when a behaviour is: intentional. • Some behaviours confirm expectations (e.g. Dispositional attributions are preferred (fundamental attribution error. a dispositional attribution even when situational factors were clearly involved.or anti-Castro) even if the raters knew the essay was written under no-choice conditions. such as social norms or luck. indicating our tendency to infer ‘personalities’ even when no causation could possibly be involved.g.

uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. External attributions are made when there is sufficient evidence of all three. Evaluation • Includes other dimensions than just the internal/external. Three-dimensional model: Weiner (1980) • Locus: external or internal (E or I).g.http://www.g.revisionworld. Social Perception IMPRESSIO FORMATIO 54 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . • Possible to explain the results differently. • Controllability: controllable or uncontrollable (C or U). • distinctiveness – e. everyone laughs at this comedian (high consensus). Internal attributions occur when distinctiveness and consensus are low and consistency is high. the discounting principle (select most obvious potential cause) or the augmenting principle (a behaviour ‘against the odds’ is given greater weight).g. Evaluation • The evidence is based on artificially created situations. e. • However. • Stability: stable or unstable (S or U). • The model has interesting applications such as attribution retraining. • We often have rather incomplete information. Research evidence McArthur (1972) used sentences with information (high or low) about all three axes. John laughs at just this comedian (high distinctiveness) • consensus – e. Evaluation • Can explain how attributions are made when information is incomplete. attending to salient features. e. Real-life is different. the model lacks empirical support.co..g. Participants attributed external/internal causes predicted.. Causal schemata: Kelley (1972) Causal schemata (heuristics) provide rapid interpretation of ambiguous social data: • multiple necessary causes – a group of behaviours are jointly necessary • multiple sufficient causes – attributions are made on the basis of only one instance of behaviour using.

Kelley (1950) arranged real-life encounters where students were given a description of a substitute lecturer and. • Halo effect: A person who possesses one desirable characteristic. asked the students to assess the lecturer. Sherman et al. ‘warm’ instead of ‘cold’) participants gave different descriptions of the target individual. • Contrast effect: When an object is contrasted with something even less appealing. will be assumed to possess other desirable traits. Research evidence Asch (1946) gave participants descriptions of a person (e. in contrast it looks much better. See also confirmatory bias. Once formed they are resistant to change possibly because they tend to be self-fulfilling leading to self-fulfilling prophecies. especially when the two things are unusual such as presence of a minority ethnic group and a crime being committed. • Illusory correlations: When two things co-occur people often perceive relationships where none exists. such as being physically attractive.revisionworld. If key words were changed (e. below.. Kenrick and Gutierres (1980) asked male students to rate a blind date. • Primacy/recency: First impressions do count.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Such simplified cognitive processing depends on heuristics and categorisation (identifying groups of individuals). energetic – assured – talkative – cold – ironical – inquisitive – persuasive). STEREOTYPI G A D SCHEMATIC THEORY Both schema and stereotypes provide a means of organising information and generating future expectations which simplify our social perceptions. Stereotypes are more fixed and culturally determined. such as polite and blunt. though when there is a time interval the recency effect may come into play. Those who did this after watching an episode of Charlie’s Angels (with attractive girls) gave lower ratings than those who did the rating beforehand. after the lecture. 55 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . • ‘Grain of truth’ hypothesis: At least some stereotypes are derived from experience and contain some truth.. Biases in stereotyping • False consensus effect: Individuals overestimate the degree to which others think the same. (1984) found that smokers estimated a higher percentage of smokers than did non-smokers (51% to 38%).co. This can explain negative stereotyping of minority groups. Biases in impression formation • Central traits: Adjectives such as warm/cold or intelligent have greater weight than other words.http://www. Impression formation consists of taking a limited amount of information and producing a global perception of another individual.g.g. Explaining stereotypes and schema • Cognitive misers: Stereotypes/schema allow us to conserve cognitive energy because they summarise large amounts of information.

Moscovici (1981) first described social representations as shared beliefs that evolve within a social/cultural group and are used to explain social events. For example. Evaluation • Stereotypes aid cognitive processing but they are at least partly inaccurate. Research evidence Moscovici (1961) used the idea of social representations to explain how psychoanalysis moved from a scientific theory to a broader explanation of why society is like it is. by labelling a behaviour as ‘child’s play’ one is creating a host of expectations and understandings. People don’t always use heuristics. Second. Freudian principles). When time was limited and there was no expectation of evaluation. • Objectification – unfamiliar abstract concepts are made more accessible through personification (linking a concept to a person. participants thought more carefully and were less affected by stereotypes. When given more time and told they would be assessed. e. discussing brain rather than mind processes). e. • Complex situations. SOCIAL REPRESE TATIO S Cultural knowledge is constructed and transmitted via social representations. The first. Schema operate at a more individual level whereas social representations operate at more collective or macro level. If the information was minimal participants resisted the influence of stereotypes but when shown further videos (increasing the complexity of the task) their judgements were more affected by stereotypes.. Freud’s concept of the id) and ontologising (making the abstract more material.. is when scientists use the theory. figuration (use of metaphorical images.g. How are social representations formed? Moscovici (1984) suggested that social representations are the product of: • Anchoring – unfamiliar objects and events are set in familiar contexts by using known classifications. • Confirmatory bias: We seek out information which confirms rather than challenges our beliefs. Social representations are more than schema because they include social dynamics. • The motivated tactician. Evaluation • The concepts of schema and social representations are complementary. Darley and Gross (1983) showed videos of ‘Hannah’ playing in a high-class or run-down neighbourhood and asked participants to estimate her academic ability. 56 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .g.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.co. the concepts are applied to society in general. Cohen (1981) found that people tended to remember data consistent with stereotypes when shown a video about a waitress or a librarian. they can also act as a ‘fully engaged thinker’. Echabe and Rovira (1989) used the concept of social representations to explain distorted recall of AIDS-related information by individuals who had different beliefs about AIDS (conservative or liberal).g.revisionworld. participants were more affected by the ethnic origin of the writer.http://www. in the ideological phase. the ideas become more widely known and finally. Kruglanski and Freund (1983) asked participants to assess the quality of dissertations attributed to individuals of different ethnic origins. e. Most people are aware of the effects of stereotypes and try to control them but this may break down in complex situations. scientific phase.

Outgroup becomes the scapegoat.. • Doesn’t fully explain the violence associated with some prejudices. (1950) suggested that some individuals may be more prejudiced. Linville et al. favoured law and order and tended to repress feelings. but discourse analysis is more appropriate. social comparison (ingroup favouritism and outgroup negative bias enhance social and personal esteem) and social beliefs (our beliefs/attitudes generate different social behaviours). generates a number of testable propositions. The parents of such individuals 57 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. Prejudice and Discrimination THEORIES OF THE ORIGI S A D MAI TE A CE OF PREJUDICE A D DISCRIMI ATIO Social identity theory (SIT) Social identity is determined by categorisation (creates ingroups and outgroups. • Social representations may not be consensual. Research evidence Sherif et al.revisionworld. Evaluation • Good explanation of ingroup favouritism. and can account for prejudice in situations of minimal information. which may be true in terms of the experimental tradition. conformist and obedient personalities as a consequence of parenting styles. • Social representation theory may be non-falsifiable because any data can be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the theory. which in turn can support the theory. simplifies interpersonal perception). Litton and Potter (1985) analysed the St Paul’s riots in Bristol and noted that the range of explanations offered by participants showed consensus but also individual variation – some people acknowledged but rejected the shared accounts. It found that the authoritarian personality had a positive self-concept. Hovland and Sears (1940) found a negative correlation between number of lynchings and economic wealth. Evaluation • Prejudice is likely to exist prior to conflict. Research evidence Tajfel (1970) conducted the minimal group experiments.http://www. Research evidence The F scale tested authoritarianism. Can be applied to reducing prejudice (see the ‘jigsaw method’ ) The authoritarian personality Adorno et al. but Tyerman and Spencer (1983) didn’t obtain the same results. (1982) demonstrated the illusion of outgroup homogeneity. a basic element of the concept. rigid cognitive style. but conflict is the trigger to hostile behaviour. • Some critics feel that social representation theory doesn’t lend itself to scientific research. Realistic conflict theory Prejudice stems from direct competition between social groups over scarce and valued resources.co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Breakwell (1978) showed how group members react to threat. (1961) used the Robbers Cave Experiment to demonstrate conflict and superordinate goals.

above ground. when their positions were unequal. 58 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . strict discipline and expected unquestioning loyalty.’s study (1961) found that cooperation and superordinate (shared) goals overcame prejudice. Schoolchildren worked in groups where each member had a piece of work to prepare and teach to other group members for an end-of-project test.http://www. Evaluation • Increased contact may increase conflict. Equal status When the US Supreme Court declared segregation unconstitutional in 1954. However. Evaluation • In Aronson’s study.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. A person with repressed feelings will project these on to scapegoats (realistic conflict). Forced desegregation may have an effect opposite to that intended. Pursuit of superordinate goals Sherif et al. whereas it decreased when they were randomly assigned apartments in the same buildings irrespective of race. Research evidence Aronson et al. Such experiences would create an insecure adult who respects authority. there was some attitude change but it was limited. integration may lead to lowered self-esteem because it emphasises their inferior position. The study was correlational. Needs social and political change. probably because time spent in the classroom is low compared with home and cultural influences. • It is quite common for people to like individual members of an outgroup. • Sample was biased. and who may increase selfesteem through ingroup favouritism. they sought the advice of social psychologists who argued that equal status would be necessary to eliminate false stereotypes. but still feel prejudiced towards the group as a whole.co. their attitudes changed. Research evidence Deutsch and Collins (1951) found that prejudice possibly increased when Black and White residents lived in separate buildings. • For the minority group. which is at best slow. (1949) found that racial prejudice amongst soldiers diminished in battle but did not extend to relations back at base..revisionworld. increasing aggression through resentment. (1978) developed the jigsaw method to foster mutual interdependence. tended to give conditional love. Research evidence Minard (1952) found that Black and White miners were not prejudiced when they worked together below ground. Questionnaires may have contained a response set. For example. Evaluation • Equal status doesn’t address the hostility factor from intergroup conflicts. thus creating stronger hostilities. and some data was retrospective. Evaluation • Accounts for existence of prejudices and the hostility element. Stouffer et al.Contact may reduce stereotyping and prejudice. Reduction of prejudice and discrimination Contact hypothesis . conforms readily.

using the caption ‘We shouldn’t infect children with poisonous stereotypes. the more physical intimacy was displayed. For example. Physical attractiveness (which was independently assessed) proved to be the most important factor in liking. • Holding prejudices has benefits: positive discrimination for the ingroup increases selfesteem and prejudices provide a means of displacing aggression. noting that the greater the degree of physical attractiveness.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm..revisionworld. Research evidence Murstein (1972) asked dating couples to rate themselves in terms of physical attractiveness. Landy and Sigall (1974) found that male participants rated essays thought to be written by a more attractive woman more highly. Years later the children said that this taught them to be more careful about discrimination. The matching hypothesis predicts that people select partners of comparable physical attractiveness. and asked independent judges to rate them.. or because of the halo effect. The blue-eyed children became the underdogs until she reversed her treatment. Abeles (1976) suggests that even though conditions are improving for Blacks in America.co. and later asked to rate their date.http://www. Challenging stereotypes through the use of advertising and instruction Phrases like ‘Black is beautiful’ try to create a positive bias. 1966) did not find support for the matching hypothesis. Relationships ATTRACTIO A D FORMATIO OF RELATIO SHIPS Explanations of interpersonal attraction Physical attractiveness Many studies show that people who are physically attractive tend to be treated better. This may be to maintain balance (see Equity Theory ). the gap between the rich and the poor remains. Towhey (1979) found that individuals who scored high on the Macho Scale were 59 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Stereotype formation and social identity are processes basic to human nature and make the world more manageable. Silverman (1971) confirmed these findings in a field study. A survey of Black people living in poor areas of America showed that they have rising expectations which leads to a sense of dissatisfaction and militancy. Nearly 400 male and female students were randomly paired at a dance. Evaluation • Individual differences. He found that real pairs were more similar in terms of physical attraction than random pairs. The computer dance experiment (Walster et al. rather than similarity.’ Research evidence Elliott (1977) gave a lesson in discrimination by telling her brown-eyed pupils that they were more intelligent and treating them more favourably. Evaluation • Prejudice is inevitable. For example. It was also the best predictor of the likelihood that they would see each other again.. or due to a fear of rejection. Direct campaigns about the danger of stereotyping have been mounted in America. • Equal status may be impossible.

Evaluation • Duck (1992) criticises such bogus stranger methods for being artificial. • Physical attractiveness is important in initial attraction. demographic characteristics and personality.co. they later expressed the most liking for those who were at the same level of physical attractiveness as themselves. (1976) found that most ‘enemies’ also lived close by. Need satisfaction (Argyle. Clarke (1952) found that 50% of the people living in Columbus. • The matching hypothesis has been extended to include matching in terms of other highly attractive features. Byrne and Nelson (1965) found a significant linear relationship between attraction and similar attitudes when participants rated people on the basis of seeing their responses to an attitude questionnaire. Research evidence Veitch and Griffitt (1976) placed participants in a waiting room where they listened to either good or bad news with a stranger present. married people who lived within walking distance of their house. • Proximity can be psychological as well as physical. two. Research evidence Newcomb (1961) offered 17 male students rent-free housing. When they were asked to rate the stranger the degree of liking was related to the kind of news they had been listening to. Evaluation • It is important to distinguish between similarity in attitudes. (1950) found that people who lived near the stairways (in the end apartments) in a U-shaped housing block had most passive contact with other residents. (1973) gave participants the task of rating the tastes of various drinks. Ohio. Proximity Physical closeness increases the probability of interaction and acquaintance.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Walster and Walster (1969) found that when students met before the dance and had time to think more about their dates. Evaluation • Proximity may polarise relationships. 1994) There are seven basic motives or needs. and had developed the greatest number of friendships with other residents. liking of the stranger was positively related to the frequency of meeting. Ebbesen et al. Research evidence Festinger et al.. five or ten times. 58% of those paired with a room-mate with similar attitudes formed friendships as opposed to friendships between 25% of those with dissimilar room-mates. • Artificiality in the computer dance. Winch (1958) argued that people seek a partner whose personality is complementary. much influenced by physical attractiveness. Saegart et al.. Similarity Similarity reinforces our own attitudes. reducing uncertainty and anxiety. each of which can be satisfied at least in part by interpersonal 60 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . such as intelligence or wealth. Theories of relationship formation Reinforcement-Affect Model (Clore and Byrne. 1974) We learn to associate positive feelings (affect) with people or situations which reward us (reinforcement).http://www. matching is more important later.revisionworld. during which they came into contact with a stranger one. explaining by Internet relationships.

Relationships develop through key stages: • sampling – explore rewards and costs directly or indirectly (observing others) • bargaining – prospective partners establish sources of profit and loss • commitment – routines are established • institutionalisation – norms and mutual expectations are established. Evaluation • Mechanistic approach. and the comparison level for alternatives (CLalt). such as youth and symmetry (= ‘attractiveness’) as a guide to reproductive ability. Evaluation • This approach is directed at reproductive relationships only. • The model doesn’t quantify the point of dissatisfaction.revisionworld. eating together). Clark and Mills (1979) argued that romantic relationships are communal rather than exchange relationships. Equity theory (Walster et al. Research evidence Dunbar (1995) found that ‘lonely hearts’ ads supported this: women seek resources and offer attractiveness whereas the reverse is true for males. 1959) Satisfaction (profit) is determined by exchange of rewards and costs.co. affiliation (seeking company). that women can increase their reproductive success by choosing high-status males who can control sufficient resources to provide for the offspring. There are two comparisons: between actual and expected rewards (comparison level. 61 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . demonstrating that they close themselves off from attractive alternatives. being comforted). • Relationship differences. sex (reproduction). 1978) Balance is achieved more through perceived fairness. Evaluation • Presents a one-sided picture. In reality it is difficult to define rewards or costs precisely. Research evidence Rusbult (1983) found that ‘costs’ are only calculated after the honeymoon phase.g. Relationship Maintenance & Dissolution THEORIES OF RELATIO SHIP MAI TE A CE Social exchange theory (Thibaut and Kelley. as in the matching hypothesis.g..http://www.. (1990) found that participants who were dating rated members of the opposite sex as less attractive.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. and self-esteem (being valued by others). Men use physical characteristics. This theory would predict. dominance (establishing social order). relationships: biological (e. omitting the behaviour of other people.. Inequity results in striving to restore balance or in dissolution. Simpson et al. for example. Sociobiological theory Only those behaviours which increase an individual’s reproductive success are naturally selected (see page 108). aggression (interpersonal hostility). dependency (e. CL). is deterministic and based on studies on non-human animal behaviour.

conflict. clear the air and reformulate rules for a future relationship. 62 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . boredom.• Intra-psychic phase: thinking about the relationship. • Many relationships are stable despite the presence of such factors. Equity is not a norm for all cultures. parents divorced). Evaluation • Lee’s model is mainly concerned with events leading up to dissolution.• Dyadic phase: deciding whether to break up or repair. change in interests. Evaluation • Equity may be maintained by matching any ‘attractive’ characteristics. salvage friendship. for example lower educational levels may be associated with divorce but not the cause. in private. money or status. • Neither model explains why breakdown occurs. Duck’s (1982) risk factors 1 Predisposing personal factors (dispositional): distasteful personal habits. whereas Duck’s model concerns processes after breakdown. they are descriptive. poor social skills.Repair strategy: outsiders may help patch things up or encourage separation.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. poor role models (e. Evaluation • These factors offer an explanation for dissolution. • Individual differences. Repair strategy: decide on a mutually acceptable version of events. • Some of the factors are intervening variables. relocation.http://www. • Cultural differences.g. .. Repair strategy : correct own faults. Duck’s (1984) model of relational dissolution • Breakdown: dissatisfaction leads to crisis. Repair strategy: express conflict..co. (1972) interviewed over 500 students about equity in their relationships. such as physical looks.revisionworld. and drew up the five stages. Individuals low in exchange orientation don’t bother about equity (Buunk and VanYperen. Research evidence Hatfield et al.• Grave dressing phase: public and private post-mortem. Repair strategy: re-establish liking for partner. then with confidants. Those relationships that had been the strongest took the longest time to work through the five stages of dissolution. enlisting support for your ‘side’. 2 Precipitating factors (situational): such as deception. Three months later the inequitable relationships were more likely to have ended. Research evidence Lee (1984) studied over 100 premarital romantic break-ups. 1991).• Social phase: including others in the debate. THEORIES OF RELATIO SHIP DISSOLUTIO Lee’s (1984) stage model Dissolution is a process taking place over a period of time: • dissatisfaction – problems recognised • exposure – problems identified and brought out into the open • negotiation – discussion about the issues raised during the exposure stage • resolution attempts – both partners try to find ways of solving the problems • termination – if the resolution attempts are unsuccessful.

g.revisionworld. 1978) Companionate love is an extension of liking. Sternberg’s (1986) triangular theory of love • Intimacy (emotional component): mutual understanding and support. Stemberg Theory of Love Three-factor theory of love (Hatfield and Walster. and tends to deepen over time.and longterm decisions. It develops through mutual rewards. • Passion (motivational): physical attraction. Evaluation • Can explain cultural differences and ‘love at first sight’. 1981) (i) a state of physiological arousal (ii) an appropriate label for that arousal (cultural influence) and (iii) an appropriate love object. and a mixture of emotions (e..http://www. excitement and deep despair). Evaluation • Classifications can be used to identify where changes can be made. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLA ATIO S OF LOVE Romantic and companionate love (Bersheid and Walster.. Cultural & Sub-cultural Differences in 63 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Romantic/passionate love is based on intense emotions which often become diluted over time. need for self-esteem. The high arousal condition led to greater attraction presumably because the men misattributed the arousal they felt as sexual attraction rather than fear. • May only be relevant to certain love experiences. • Some of the components are rather vague. familiarity. See Schachter and Singer’s (1962) cognitive labelling theory of emotion Research evidence Dutton and Aron (1974) arranged for men to be interviewed by an attractive female either on a high suspension bridge (high arousal) or a low bridge.co. • Decision/commitment (cognitive): short.

India 49%) whereas in England it was 7. LeVine et al. Sub-cultural differences in relationships 64 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . 1994). passion is most important during the initial stages of a relationship but in arranged marriages commitment is. This means that extramarital affairs are essentially condoned and more common than..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. They found evidence of universal features. and Italy and Britain (individualist cultures). would you marry this person if you were not in love with him/her?’ In most collectivist societies the highest percentage was ‘yes’ (e. Research evidence Harris (1995) found that only 6 out of 42 societies world-wide gave individuals complete freedom of choice of marriage partner. for example all respondents distinguished between intimate and non-intimate relationships. Shi‘i Muslims are additional allowed any number of temporary wives (lasting between 15 minutes and 15 years) (Haeri. 1992). (1995) interviewed young people in 11 countries. the Italians being more concerned with regulating intimacy. e. Divorce is likely to be higher in individualist societies because of the view that one should seek the ideal partner.http://www. They also found differences. Ghuman (1994) studied Sikhs.g. and there were more rules for obedience in the East. societies probably because they are based on research studies conducted there. Voluntary and involuntary Moghaddam (1998) identifies the major difference between Western-style marriage and non-Western arranged marriages in terms of Sternberg’s love triangle . (1986) compared the friendship rules selected by people from Japan and Hong Kong (collectivist cultures). In Western. Research evidence Statistics indicate Chinese divorce rates are less than 4% and US rates are over 40% (US Bureau of Census. romantic marriages. Brodbar-Nemzer (1986) found greater marital stability in traditional New York Jewish families (collectivist) than those who had assimilated more into the individualist US society. Over 4000 households were interviewed.g. and found satisfaction higher in the former. Western. All Muslim men are permitted to have up to four permanent wives..3%. Yelsma and Athappilly (1988) compared happiness in arranged Indian marriages with both Indian and American love matches.. such as the Japanese endorsing more rules for avoiding conflict. Research evidence Argyle et al. Relationships DIFFERE CES BETWEE WESTER A D O WESTER CULTURES Individualist and collectivist Many theories of relationships are more appropriate for individualist.co. Hindus and Muslims living in Britain and found that arranged marriages are common. in the US where 25% of men admit to such affairs (Gagnon et al. 1989). asking them ‘If a man/woman had all the other qualities you desired. Permanent and impermanent Social norms affect the way individuals conduct their relationships.revisionworld. and that commitment involves the entire family.

g. leading to offline contact • two people meet offline but maintain their relationship online. possibly because of geographical distance. counselling services).co. There were no social class differences. • Conclusions may be based on small and possibly biased samples. Haskey (1984) reported that divorce rates were four times higher in unskilled manual families than in professional families. Older men were generally more pragmatic than younger men. Young (1999) explains the appeal of such relationships with the ACE Model (anonymity. Electronic relationships Usenets Discussion groups (‘usenets’) exist for sharing information (e. conversation (e.. • The differences within cultures may be as great as those between cultures. The longer duration of heterosexual relationships is likely to be due to the greater social support they receive. MUDs – Multi-User Dungeons). Cyberaffairs Griffiths (1999) suggests that there are three types of cyberaffair: • two people meet on the Internet and engage in an erotic dialogue • relationships that are more emotional than sexual.g. 22% of wives. Kitzinger and Coyle (1995) point out that gay and lesbian couples have to survive in the face of considerable hostility from society. 30% of husbands.g.g. Argyle (1994) noted a tendency for middle-class individuals to have friendships based on shared interests and attitudes. convenience and escape) and Cooper (1998) uses the Triple A Engine (access. Differences: Blumstein and Schwartz (1983) interviewed couples who had been together for more than ten years. seeking advice (e. 65 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www. Problems with electronic relationships • Individuals may masquerade as something they are not. Research evidence Risavy (1996) found that men tended to display Lee’s love style called Agape (altruistic love) whereas women endorsed Pragma (logical love). gay and lesbian couples. about sleep problems). 43% of lesbians and 94% of gay men reported having had sex with at least one person other than their partner. Research evidence Similarities: Kurdek and Schmitt (1986) measured love and liking and found no significant differences in married. affordability and anonymity). heterosexual cohabiting.revisionworld. and with work colleagues.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Evaluation of cultural research • Research conducted in different cultures is likely to suffer from observer bias and the use of imposed etics (such as the use of Western questionnaires to assess attitudes).. chat rooms) or playing games (e. ‘Understudied’ relationships Gay and lesbian relationships Kitzinger and Coyle (1995) suggest that research on gays and lesbians has gone through three phases: • heterosexual bias – heterosexuality is more natural than homosexuality • liberal humanism – homosexual and heterosexual couples are basically similar • liberal humanism plus – there are special characteristics of gay and lesbian relationships. They also found that a lack of power equality was more a factor in the breakdown of lesbian and gay relationships than heterosexual marriages.

• Can explain media influences • Can explain influence of coercive home environments.deindividuated behaviour is unrestrained. cognitive processes involved). acting on primitive impulses. shouting at it and hitting it with a hammer). Suggests that aggression is externally caused.revisionworld.http://www. Zimbardo (1969) suggested that: • individuated behaviour is rational. a favourite hero or heroine on TV • the child identified with the model. Bandura (1977) suggested that there are four steps in the modelling process.. Actions must be remembered (i. (1961. if children watched someone else behave aggressively towards Bobo-the-doll (punching it. Research evidence Bandura et al. • Motivation. imitation requires skills. • Internet relationships encourage vulnerable individuals to be seduced emotionally and sexually. 1989). • Can account for cultural and individual differences between people. Evaluation • Research findings may be due to demand characteristics in an unfamiliar social situation (the children had to look for cues of what to do with Bobo). consistent with personal norms . leads to antisocial acts. Pro. and may replace real-life relationships. • Attention. Research evidence Zimbardo (1963) repeated Milgram’s (1963) obedience experiments with participants either wearing a 66 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . If a person (model) is prestigious or similar you will pay more attention.. for example same sex • live models were more effective than a film or a cartoon • the person had low self-esteem. 1963) showed that. Imitation depends on direct and indirect reinforcements and punishments.and Anti-Social Behaviour ATURE A D CAUSES OF AGGRESSIO Social psychological theories of aggression Social learning theory (SLT) We learn both aggressiveness and how to express aggression through direct reinforcement (conditioning theory) and indirect reinforcement (social learning).e. • Oversimplified. Vicarious reinforcement is not enough.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Deindividuation The presence of a crowd (or group) leads individual members to feel anonymous and act according to a different set of rules than they would normally. they were more likely to be aggressive and to imitate specific actions when they were placed on their own with the doll (after being mildly frustrated). for example. • It explains the fact that people imitate specific acts of violence. children model their behaviour on this (Patterson et al. Parents solve disputes ggressively. Other findings and later variations found that imitation was even more likely if: • the model was rewarded • the model had high status. • Retention.. often they are punished. • Reproduction. People are not consistently rewarded for aggression. the latter are ultimately more complex and satisfying.co. • Environmental determinism.

Evaluation • Can explain feelings of aggression expressed by a whole group. They caused greater harm to a partner in the cold water condition. Temperature: Baron and Ransberger (1978) linked collective violence in the US and heat. Those who remained anonymous were more likely to steal some money and/or extra chocolate when briefly left alone (i. Runciman (1966) distinguished between two forms of relative deprivation: • egotistic deprivation – derived from comparison with other similar individuals • fraternalistic deprivation – derived from comparisons with other groups. Geen and Berkowitz (1967) frustrated their participants using insoluble 67 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM ..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Pain: Berkowitz et al. • Can explain why some well-off members of minority groups continue to feel relative deprivation (fraternalistically rather than egotistically). when socioeconomic conditions were improving for Blacks. They also had increased expectations. Research evidence Abeles (1976) interviewed over 900 poor Blacks living in the US to find out why. up to a point. the house owner asked some of the children to give their names. Frustration-aggression hypothesis Environmental stressors may increase frustration.http://www. (1984) studied prison populations and found as density increased so did disciplinary problems and death rates. (1969) found that unpredictable noise has a ‘psychic’ cost because it required attention. Relative deprivation theory The gap between what one has and what one feels one deserves leads to feelings of relative deprivation and aggression. an individual can elect whether to behave autonomously. Lack of control: Glass et al..co. they showed greater task persistence. whereas constant noise can be ‘tuned out’. ostensibly to control the noise. a pathological response to overcrowding in rats.revisionworld. Noise led to frustration. Evaluation • In some instances deindividuation leads to increased pro-social behaviour . (1939) suggested that frustration always leads to some form of aggression and aggression is always the result of frustration.e. behave anti-socially). Co et al. Research evidence Frustration triggers aggression. people become lethargic. Diener et al. (1969) found that when some participants were given a button. oise: Glass et al. • As with obedience. there were still so many urban riots. (1979) placed participants’ hands in cold or warm water. The respondents felt they were still worse off when compared with White counterparts whose incomes had also increased. Effects of environmental stressors Research evidence Overcrowding: Calhoun (1962) described ‘behavioural sink’. Donnerstein and Wilson (1976) found angered participants gave greater shocks except when they had a control button. (1976) observed the behaviour of over 1000 children on Halloween. Dollard et al. name tag (individuated) or in a hood (deindividuated). When it becomes very hot. The latter gave more shocks.

morals and social norms. Lenny Skutnik. altruism is selfish at the levels of the genes. such as loud music. (1989) proposed the empathic joy hypothesis.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. empathy.http://www. (1991) found those lowest in empathic concern were keenest to hear about their successful altruistic act. This is called kin selection (because one’s kin are being favoured) and is referred to as ‘apparent altruism’ because it is actually selfish behaviour. Those who were led to believe that a placebo drug they took led to empathetic concern offered to take the shocks whereas those who had been led to believe that they would feel distress were more likely to leave. • This explanation combines biological and social factors (physiological arousal and learned responses to cues). The negative-state relief model (Cialdini. that we help another because empathy leads to shared feelings of joy. • Smith et al. level of shocks were higher when a gun was close to the shock machine.revisionworld. puzzles. Evaluation • General levels of arousal may be a better explanation (arousal-aggression hypothesis) since environmental stressors are physiologically arousing. 68 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . it increases the survival of the genes. The behaviour of the bystander. even though an altruistic act may decrease reproductive potential. However. If the participant then watched an aggressive film and the confederate used a name from the film (‘Kirk’ as in Kirk Douglas) then the number of shocks given to the confederate was greater.. • Some events are physiologically arousing but lead to positive behaviour. 1987) Altruists act because of a desire to reduce their own negative state of distress which has been created through empathising with the victim.co.. The empathy-altruism hypothesis (Batson et al. like altruism. Cues also trigger aggression. supporting the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Stressors may amplify mood (density-intensity hypothesis). 1981) People are more motivated to help when they feel empathy for a victim rather than just seeing the distress. However. Berkowitz and LePage (1967) showed that when students received electric shocks from a confederate and then were given the opportunity to do the reverse. Altruism and Bystander Behaviour EXPLA ATIO S OF ALTRUISM Biological and psychological altruism • Biological altruism: The principle of natural selection predicts that individuals should behave selfishly to promote their own survival and reproduction. Batson claims that empathy is an innate trait. Evaluation • Developmental evidence suggests that children do become more altruistic as their empathy develops. Batson et al. • Psychological altruism: Altruism in humans is influenced by personal choice. Research evidence Batson et al. (1981) asked female students to take the place of ‘Elaine’ who was receiving mild electric shocks.. who drowned while saving passengers from an aircrash in the Potomac River illustrates all of these.

with two other participants this dropped to 12%. whether alone or in a group. Explanations of bystander behaviour Bystander intervention is pro-social behaviour at minimal cost to the helper. Pluralistic ignorance Clark and Word (1972) arranged for a maintenance worker to walk through a room with a ladder while participants were filling out a questionnaire. (ii) see but not be seen (diffusion plus social responsibility). Why did no one act. relatively unambiguous) and was less easy to ignore. In ambiguous or novel situations we look to others to tell us what to do. Latané and Darley (1968) asked participants to fill out a bogus questionnaire in a room which filled with smoke. • We may only feel distress when we are attached to the other person. In a field experiment on the New York subway Piliavin et al. This may be because the costs of helping were low and not helping were high. Later a crash is heard.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (iv) neither see nor be seen by onlookers (diffusion plus social responsibility plus audience inhibition).http://www. (1969. She was fatally stabbed despite the fact that at least 38 people heard her screams. the more likely help would be given. I can’t move’ everyone offered help. The various studies by Latané and Darley were the result of questions asked after the tragic death of Kitty Genovese.e. The empathy– altruism model suggests that people are not always motivated to behave selfishly. Lerner and Lichtman (1968) found participants would voluntarily receive electric shocks in place of their partner if told the other girl was scared or that she would leave the experiment unless she was the control. (iii) not see but be seen (diffusion plus audience inhibition).co. The likelihood of help was least in condition (v) and most in (vi). that participants were less prepared to help a student who was receiving shocks if this wouldn’t help them to reduce their own sad feelings. therefore this model cannot explain all altruistic behaviour. When participants thought they were the only listener. it was also clearly an emergency and the victim could be seen (i. Evaluation • There is evidence that people do not always act out of self-interest. even to phone the police? Diffusion of responsibility Darley and Latané (1968) arranged a conversation over an intercom between students. They found. One confederate said he suffered from seizures and later appeared to collapse. The more passengers in the immediate vicinity of the victim. with four bystanders 31% helped. (1969) demonstrated a reversal of the diffusion of responsibility effect. whereas only 30% helped in the ambiguous situation when nothing was heard after the crash. Characteristics of the victim Piliavin et al. If the participant was alone 75% reported the emergency within six minutes. 85% helped. if there was one bystander 62% helped. If this was followed by ‘Oh my back.. as predicted. Evaluation • Laboratory studies may not represent real responses.. Each non-responding bystander is communicating: ‘It’s OK. above) found that when the victim carried a cane 95% of bystanders helped within 10 69 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .’ Evaluation apprehension Latané and Darley (1976) tested all three explanations by observing participants’ willingness to help a victim when they could (i) see the victim and be seen by other bystanders (diffusion of responsibility). Research evidence Cialdini et al. It is worth noting that participants couldn’t actually see if anyone else was helping.revisionworld. no action needs to be taken. (1987) misinformed participants about the effects of a placebo drug – saying it would ‘fix’ their mood.

held a belief in a ‘just world’. 5 Implement the decision.g. or his attractiveness (presence of an ugly facial birthmark) also altered the likelihood of helping.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.g. 1 Physiological arousal. • People may not have the time for such apparently logical decisions and are more likely to act impulsively. e. Arousal: cost-reward model (Piliavin et al. needing an allergy injection). Darley and Latané (1968. At any stage the decision may be ‘no’. Evaluation • This model is a rather mechanistic approach to behaviour. potential harm) and benefits of helping (e. • Doesn’t explain why people are helpful. If the experimenter was dressed in a suit he got the dime back 77% of the time.. effort. Models of Bystander Behaviour The decision model (Latané and Darley. driven by arousal.g. if he appeared drunk help came in 50% of the trials. social approval. Bickman (1974) left a dime in a telephone box.. 2 Interpret it as an emergency (ambiguity). (1991) found that helpers at the scene of a traffic accident were likely to have a high internal locus of control. observers were more likely to do the same for another driver 5 minutes down the road. 3 Evaluating the consequences of helping. above). (1969. Evaluation 70 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .revisionworld.g. self-esteem). and were less egocentric than non-helpers. Bryan and Test (1967) showed that where a man stopped to help a stranded woman motorist. a person needs an insulin injection) than non-emergencies (e. Darley and Batson (1973) showed that students who were rushing to a lecture were less likely to help a man moaning and many said it was because they had not noticed. e. consider costs of helping (e. 4 Decide what type of help to give. Shotland and Huston (1979) found that people were more likely to help in emergencies (e. Characteristics of the helper Piliavin et al. Varying the race (Black or White) of the victim. This is social learning. 2 Labelling the arousal.g. The primary motive is the need to reduce the arousal created by seeing someone in distress.co.http://www.. as personal distress or empathetic concern .~ 3 Decide whether to take personal responsibility (diffusion of responsibility). 1969) The decision to help is based on a cost-benefit analysis. if he was wearing unkempt work clothes there was a 38% return rate. seconds. Bierhoff et al. 1968) The factors which lead a person to decide whether or not to help in an emergency: 1 otice something is wrong.g. above) found that men were more likely to help than women. were more able to empathise.

Many studies of a culture are actually studies of a national group. we learn different social norms for behaviour.http://www. Mexico) were in between the two extremes. above). Explaining cultural differences Social norms and social learning In different cultural settings. In America.revisionworld. Normally we are inhibited about behaving in certain ways. We model our own behaviour on others. The others (India. • Arousal has been shown to be an important component.. the lawyer for a 15-year-old who shot his neighbour in the course of a burglary claimed that the boy’s sense of reality had been distorted through excessive exposure to television. Cultural Differences in Pro-social Behaviour Identifying cultural differences National differences Whiting and Whiting (1975) measured altruism in six countries and found 100% of Kenyan children behaved altruistically compared with 8% of American children. Bandura et al. Those who had warm relations with parents who were concerned about moral issues and the parents acted on this were more likely to behave altruistically. • This model does not explain selfless behaviour.co. For example..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Philippines. See Bryan and Test (1967.or anti-social manner from observational learning and vicarious reinforcement (social learning theory). or when there is an audience. These new social norms may alter our behaviour. Japan. 71 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Individualist versus collectivist societies Nadler (1986) found that children raised on kibbutzim (collectivist society) were more likely to seek help on an anagram task than those raised in Israeli cities (individualist society). Rosenhan (1970) showed that helpfulness is learned from parents. This is especially likely if the observer identifies with the characters. Gender differences Eagly and Crowley (1986) concluded from past research that men are more likely to help when the situation involves some danger. Explanations Of Media Influence EXPLA ATIO S OF MEDIA BEHAVIOUR Imitation We learn to behave in a pro. It is important to distinguish between a culture and a nation. Disinhibition effect The media present social norms about what behaviours are common and acceptable. Childrearing practices Children learn pro-social behaviour through parents and the media.’s research (see page 28) shows that children imitate specific acts and general levels of aggression increase. People are more helpful in rural locations. Korte and Kerr (1975) found that 70% of the stamped postcards dropped in small towns around Boston were posted as compared with 61% of those dropped in Boston itself.

Later. Model Exam Question 72 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .g. Stereotypes All media need to communicate a great deal of information in a relatively short time. Gunter (1986) found that people who watch a lot of television hold more stereotyped beliefs. Desensitisation Exposure to violence may desensitise us so that we tolerate it more easily in real life.revisionworld. those boys who had instructions via a walkie-talkie and had watched the violent film were most violent. Displacement effect A media bias would be less harmful if it was sufficiently counterbalanced by experience of the real world.. people who are more aggressive may choose to watch anti-social programmes and/or are more influenced by them. read or listen to.co. Cognitive priming Cues presented in the media may later trigger pro. Drabman and Thomas (1975) showed young children a film which was either violent or non-violent but exciting. and may be positive or negative. (1986) found that children who watch far more television than average perform less well at school.or anti-social thoughts and feelings. Gerbner and Gross (1976) found that people who watch a lot of television rate the outside world as being more dangerous and threatening than it actually is (deviance amplification).. For example.http://www. Alternatively. so they use standard cultural stereotypes such as foreigners playing ‘baddies’. during a game of hockey. to one group of boys while another group watched a programme about a motocross team. suggesting that the use of stereotypes on television does have an influence.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. children) who have a more simplistic cognitive style and tend to use stereotypes may prefer to watch more television. overweight people depicted as ‘jolly’. people (e. When the confederates started hitting each other. people who spend a lot of time watching television or reading books have less time for real interactions. The value of television and all media is related to what you actually watch. and is a resource much used by schools. The participants were then asked to monitor the behaviour of two younger children via a TV link. Such stereotypes may or may not reflect reality. involving a walkie-talkie. and wolves as big and bad. the children who were exposed to the violent film were slower to call for help. social and intellectual development. Keith et al.Josephson (1987) showed a violent TV programme. Evaluation • There are important individual differences. Sesame Street provides preschool children with carefully considered material to promote emotional. Stimulation hypothesis Television is an ideal medium to present educational information. However.

revisionworld.http://www..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. 73 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .co..

Media influences on anti-social behaviour Correlational studies Robinson and Bachman (1972) found a positive correlation in adolescent self-reports of the number of TV hours watched and amounts of aggressive behaviour. Charlton (1998) has documented the effects of Western TV on St Helena and as yet observed no increase in violence. (1992) followed 400 Dutch secondary school pupils over a period of three years. and found that positive correlations between watching television violence and aggressive behaviour disappeared if initial levels of aggression were taken into account.. Longitudinal study Huesmann et al. More typically pro-social programmes include conflict resolution. e. This may be better for older children. The amount of television violence watched at a young age was correlated with later aggressiveness (measured by the number of criminal convictions by the age of 30) and also with the amount of violent TV watched. Paulson (1974) reported mixed effects of a Sesame Street programme that showed pro-social resolutions of anti-social behaviours. Sprafkin et al. (1975) showed TV episodes to 6-yearolds. These children remembered much of the pro-social information contained in the programmes.co. Wiegman et al. 2 Pro-social conflict resolution. Social Psychology Model Answer Media Influences on Pro & Anti-social Behaviour Media influences on pro-social behaviour Friedrich and Stein (1973) studied American preschool children. atural experiments In Williams’ (1985) study of Canadians who had their first exposure to TV (the residents of ‘Notel’) it was found that levels of aggression increased physically and verbally.g. after which they had the chance to help some distressed puppies. and requires someone to discuss the conflict with the child.. 1 Pro-social behaviour only. They became even more helpful if they role-played pro-social events from the programmes. (1977) looked at the effect of violent and non-violent films on Belgian and American male juvenile delinquents. 74 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Those children who watched a boy rescuing a puppy spent longer helping than those who watched a programme where no helping was involved. Lovelace and Huston (1983) suggested three types of pro-social programming. Evaluation • Messages presented in an artificial environment may not generalise to real-life and are situation-specific. 3 Conflict without resolution. who watched episodes of a pro-social television programme called Mister Rogers’ Neighbourhood. and they behaved in a more helpful and cooperative way than did children who watched other television programmes with neutral or aggressive content.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Aggression increased on some measures in the ‘violent-film’ group but on other measures increased only in those who were naturally high in aggression. • Children may model the anti-social behaviours that are resolved instead of the resolution. This suggests that watching violent TV may be a cause of aggression and also an effect.revisionworld.http://www. Field experiments Parke et al. (1984) related the amount of television watched and levels of aggressiveness in some young children with the same information when the children were older. This shows that they imitated specific acts they had seen.

(24 marks) Studying Psychology at University What do Psychology Graduates do? Between 15 and 20 % of psychology graduates work as professional psychologists. (12 marks) (l)Discuss explanations of media influences on anti-social behaviour. (12 marks) (b) Evaluate the theory of attribution that you described in part (a) in terms of research evidence.http://www.Gained from discussion and group work 75 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . (24 marks) (d) Discuss two ways in which prejudice and/or discrimination might be reduced. (24 marks) (j) Describe two research studies related to bystander behaviour. Skills from a Psychology Degree Employers like Psychology Graduates. (24 marks) (i) Critically consider one social psychological theory of aggression.. (24 marks) (f) Describe one theory related to the maintenance of relationships..revisionworld. (12 marks) (c) Discuss the nature of social representations in social perception. Communication . police. (12 marks) (g) Evaluate the theory related to the maintenance of relationships that you described in part (f) (12 marks) (h) Discuss cultural and sub-cultural differences in relationships. but only after pursuing further training. colleges and universities. with reference to ‘understudied’ relationships. Essay Practice Questions (a) Describe one theory of attribution.co. NHS etc) Of the remainder.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. (24 marks) (e) Discuss research studies related to interpersonal attraction. (12 marks) (k) Assess the value of these studies for understanding altruism and/or bystander behaviour. about a 1/10 teach and research in schools. Even if you never intend to pursue Psychology further than an inital degree you will gain wide ranging skills that can be transferred to many areas of employment. 1/3 of psychology graduates go into business 1/3 enter the public services (armed services.

bps. A good place to do this is the British Psychological Society's website. to carry out research and to analyse data Independent Learning .revisionworld. umeracy .org..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.Any Psychology degree will involve Students carrying out their own research Professional Psychologist Training It takes a long time to become a Psychologist and training places are fairly limited so you will need a good A Level profile and a good initial Psychology degree. www. How to become a Psychologist Complete a degree course that is accredited by the British Psychological Society.bps. Make sure that the degree awards graduates with the Graduate Basis for Registration (GBR).As with most degrees. Analysis and Critical thinking.co. What do Professional Psychologists do? Professional Psychologists work in a number of areas including: Clinical Counselling Education Forensic Health Neuropsychology Occupational Sport and Exercise Teaching and Research If you think that you would like to become a Professional Psychologist you will need to find out more about what each of these areas involve.org.. After completing your initial Psychology degree you would then pursue society accredited postgraduate training specialising in your chosen area of psychology.uk 76 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .A Psychology degree requires that you look critically at research Information Technology . This would take a minimum of 3 years. Psychology Students have to manage their own time and to engage in independent learning Research Skills. A full list of these degrees can be found on the British Psychological Society's website.Psychology Students will use IT to present your work.http://www.A Psychology degree would involve some number crunching. www.

Problems Applying Research There are many problems making research applicable to everyday life. You must identify applications of the research 2. Identifying Applications When looking at Psychological research you should try to consider whether the research has practical applications.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. It helps us to understand how children learn by demonstrating the influence of imitation.http://www. Observations If people know that they are being watched their behaviour may not be natural 77 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . You must consider whether there are any factors within the research that limit it's practical applications. It helps to explain how eyewitnesses' memories can be distorted through leading questions. This means that behaviour displayed in a laboratory may not occur in everyday life. A Participant may realise the researcher's aim and this may change their behaviour.revisionworld. It also serves as a warning of the effects of exposing children to aggression.This study has practical applications. Bandura's Aggression Study .co. Questioning People may not give trueful answers because they want to create a socially desirable image. Issues and Debates Applications to Everyday Life When evaluating psychological research you may have to assess whether the research has applications to everyday life.This study has practical applications. Higher potential for demand characteristics. again making behaviour artificial and less applicable to everyday life.. Applications to everyday life = Can real life behaviour be explained using the research? Assessing whether research has practical applications 1. Laboratory Studies Laboratory studies are low in ecological validity because laboratories are artificial environments. Themes. Examples Loftus and Palmer's Study on Eyewitness Testimony ..

co. Generalisability In order to generalise results to everyday life the sample size must be large enough and representative of the particular cultural.. Observations lack control so establishing cause and effect is difficult.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.http://www. This means that the results are more useful. 78 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . political and social context Ecological Validity What is Ecological Validity? Ecological Validity refers to whether a psychological method/technique corresponds to its equivalent in an everyday natural setting Generally Research that takes place in realistic settings has high Ecological Validity Research that takes place in artificial settings or that features artificial tasks has low Ecological Validity Why is Ecological Validity Important? When research has high ecological validity it means that behaviour recorded within the research can be applied to everyday life. High Ecological Validity What makes Research high in Ecological Validity? When it is conducted in the field When participants do not know that they are being observed When participants are behaving naturally When tasks/settings are natural.revisionworld..

Studies with High Ecological Validity Piliavin (Subway Samaritans) This experiment has high ecological validity because it is set in the field (the New York Subway) and participants do not know they are in an experiment. subjected to a lack of privacy or even subjected to embarrassment. Sometimes. What problems do Psychologist's face conducting ecologically valid research? Recreating a natural/realistic environment is subjective. pain and anxiety. Studies with Low Ecological Validity Tajfel (Minimal groups) This experiment measures prejudice through an artificial task (allocating points to matrices) It ought to be pointed out that both this experiment benefitted from being artificial. It established that prejudice occurs simply through the creation of an in-group and an out-group.revisionworld. but field experiments lack control.. 79 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Bandura (Aggression) Again this experiment is artificial. Low Ecological Validity Most Psychologists try to avoid carrying out a study that is low in ecological validity. This would normally be considered unusual behaviour! Ethics The Ethical Dilemma: How far should Psychologists go in the pursuit of knowledge? Psychologists continually seek to gain a greater understanding of human behaviour and experience for the benefit of people. Not letting Participants know that they are in an experiment/study is unethical. A child is exposed to an adult being aggressive towards a large BOBO doll. What is realistic? The most ecologically valid research is conducted in the field.http://www. conducting research on human beings can involved participants being deceived. It can be applied to many aspects of human life in order to enhance human welfare. Research can be used to control and understand deviant behaviours.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.Rosenhan (Sane in insane places)Again this study is high in Ecological Validity because it is set in a real life hospital and the hospital staff do not know they are being observed.co.. however. Creating a study that is both scientific and ecological valid is challenging. Creating a realistic environment could be expensive.

This is most likely to lead to participants trying to please experimenters by giving them the results that they are looking for. Ethical Guidelines The following Ethical Guidelines have been laid down by the British Psychological Society in order to protect participants in psychological research Consent . Confidentiality .revisionworld. Debriefing . This is known as conforming to demand characteristics. Deception.Researchers must debrief the participants before they leave the setting. One participant even suffered a seizure. 80 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .Researchers should inform all participants of the objectives of the research. Demand characteristics are aspects of research that give away the researcher’s expectations. In order to gain these shocking results Milgram subjected his partipants to extreme tension. Debrief does not provide a justification for unethical aspects of the research Withdrawal -Researchers must make it clear to the participants that they have a right to withdraw from the experiment at any time during the research.Researchers must only observe partipants in environments that people would expect to be obseved by strangers or with prior consent.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Do the Ends Justify the Means? Milgram’s Obedience Experiments Milgram’s research demonstrated the power of an authority figure.. This research helps us to understand many historical events as well as serving as a warning to the dangers of corrupt authority figures. Participants were ordered to electrocute another participant.Researchers must keep all information obtained from the participants confidential. Some claim that Milgram’s research was so definite and so influential to the understanding of obedience that it virtually closed down the field for further research on obedience. thus results lack validity. Protection.Researchers should not withhold or mislead the participants if they are likely to object to this deception during debrief. unless agreed otherwise.co. Problems Adhering to Ethical Guidelines Consent .Researchers must protect partipants from any physical or emotion harm Observations . His research demonstrated that given the right environmental conditions people will obey an authority figure to the point that they are willing to subject another human being to serious physical harm. In the process of obeying Participants suffered from extreme tension..http://www.If Participants fully understand the researcher’s objectives this could change their behaviour.

Physiological Psychologists believe that behaviour comes from the body.. this is known as determinism. Milgram would have found it very difficult to research the extent to which participants would obey an authority figure without deception and without subjecting Participants to any level of discomfort..Avoiding protection and deception limits Psychological research. Behaviourists believe that behaviour comes from the environment. this is known as free will. Social Psychologists believe that behaviour comes from the influence of other people. Who believes in free will? Humanistic Psychologists believe that all human beings have direct control over their own behaviour. Who is deterministic? To some point. There are a range of drugs. Benefits of Free Will and Determinism Benefits of Free Will Promoting Free Will encourages self responsibility and a feeling of control over our lives. Benefits of Determinism Assuming behaviour is deterministic means that it can be tested scientifically. Problems with Free Will and Determinism Problems with Free Will The notion of free will is incompatible with Psychology’s status as a science. Most of Psychology tries to identify the factors that determine behaviour.Sometimes this is not possible when research is carried out on a large number of people in a public setting.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Debriefing.revisionworld. most Psychologists are deterministic. Piliavin’s study on helping behaviour used the public on the New York Subway who were unaware that they were in an experiment and whom moved on after the experiment took place.co.http://www. Protection and Deception . Free will v Determinism Some Psychologists believe that people are free to choose how to behave. illnesses and conditions that will control people’s behaviour Problems with Determinism 81 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Science assumes cause and effect. Some Psychologists believe that all behaviour is caused by other physical factors.

does this mean that aggressive people are not responsible for their own actions? Taking a deterministic stance on life is not good for you. An Individual Explanation . where people know their behaviour is being investigated. Explanations offered by Psychologists You will sometimes need to be able to identify whether a Psychologist is making an individual explanation or a situation explanation. Clearly human beings are very complicated and it is unlikely that there is one determining factor controlling behaviour. Determinism is controversial.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. The determining factors in a study. Individual Explanation = Something about the person is used to explain behaviour. The allocation of roles (Prisoner or Guard) The presence of an aggressive role model The diagnosis of a multiple personality disorder Individual and Situational Explanations When explaining behaviour Psychologists usually offer either an Individual Explanation or a Situational Explanation. are likely to be different from real life determining factors. if aggression is deterministic. for instance.http://www. Our behaviour is likely to be controlled by a complex relationship between many variables making isolating one variable in a study very difficult. A Situational Explanation . Situational Explanation = Something about the situation is used to explain behaviour.A person falls off his bike because there is a hole in the road. is often unnatural and affected by the strange environment.A child is aggressive because they have some sort of anti-social personality. Examples An Individual Explanation. For instance. Determinants of Behaviour.A person falls off his bike because he hasn't got a very good sense of balance.revisionworld.co.A child is aggressive because they have copied other aggressive children. 82 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . People's behaviour in a laboratory. A Situational Explanation . When an individual feels that they have no control over their lives they are shown to feel more stress.. Factors that are suggested as determinants of behaviour in the following studies Study Milgram’s Obedience Study Zimbardo’s Conformity Study Bandura’s Aggression Study Thigpen and Cleckley’s case of Multiple Personality Determinants of Behaviour The presence of an authority figure..

There are many types of bias and prejudice. This means you can not simply ask people to explain their behaviour. Problems deciding between Individual and Situational Explanations. For instance it would be unethical to take two people with similar personalities and expose them to various distressing situations and watch how they respond. valid and meaningful results psychologists must conduct research that is free from bias..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.revisionworld. You can not take away all of an individuals past experiences and personality even in the most controlled experiment. People are often unable to tell you whether their behaviour comes from them self or the situation. Is Psychological Research Biased? In order to produce scientific.Situational. Raine explains his Participants' aggression through a lack of activity in the parts of the brain associated with violence. Explanations offered by the following Psychologists Milgram's Obedience Study ..co.Situational. Behaviour is likely to come from both the individual and the situation When researching whether behaviour comes from the individual or the situation it is very difficult to separate the two factors. Raine's Murderers' Brains Study. Researching whether it is the individual or the situation controlling behaviour could lead to some ethical problems.Individual. Thigpen and Cleckley's Multiple Personality Study . Zimbardo's Prison Study .Individual. Thigpen and Cleckley explain Eve White's strange behaviour through the diagnosis of a Multiple Personality Disorder. E. Deregowski's perception studies were ethnocentrically biased as Deregoski concluded that Africans 83 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Zimbardo explains conformity through the allocation of roles given to the participants.http://www. but psychology has faced the following criticisms: Gender Bias Cultural Bias Cultural Bias Ethnocentric Bias The tendency to interpret human behaviour from our own cultural stance/standards.g. Milgram explains obedience through the presence of an authority figure.

There is a lack of researchers from a range of cultures Researchers are sometimes unable to suspend their own biases which could lead to bias in the interpretation of results or even an abuse of the results to fuel prejudice.g.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.revisionworld. tests that benefit one gender and the use of psychology to reinforce prejudiced attitudes.co. This has been termed Scientific Racism.g. Researchers being unable or unwilling to suspend prejudiced attitudes leading to misinterpretation of results.. The use of unfamiliar and alien materials could have a significant effect on participants' performance. Conclusions.. E. Cross Cultural research is difficult to conduct as researchers still struggle to suspend their own biases. Historically most research has involved male participants Equal Opportunities Legislation. Gould’s “A Nation of Morons” documents Yerk’s IQ testing that was conducted in an unfair way that meant that Africans had a poorer IQ. Causes of Cultural Bias Most researchers are white Europeans and white north Americans. Most participants are white Americans and white Europeans. therefore. Generalising findings ascertained from one culture to another culture. who couldn’t perceive depth in a picture featuring Western depth cues lacked education.http://www. This research was then used to influence government policy. Most of the research on helping behaviour involves white Americans. can not be generalised to other cultures as factors affecting helping behaviour may be culturally determined. Gender Bias Gender Bias in Psychology The tendency to hold prejudiced views based on gender that may influence the interpretation of research and the formation of hypotheses Generalising results from one gender to another Causes of Gender Bias Fewer female psychologists in senior research positions. changing attitudes and the growth of women in the field has meant that gender bias in psychology is becoming less frequent and less of a problem. Examples of Gender Bias in Psychology 84 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Cross Cultural research is expensive. E. time consuming and faces language barriers.

g. Humanistic Psychology does not try to have sound theories or hypotheses.. Some claim that Bowlby and Freud’s research has been constructed to reinforce male dominance and female inferiority. controlled. Psychoanalysis tends to explain an individual’s behaviour after an event which isn’t very useful in predicting behaviour. Does Psychology have a Subject Matter? To have a Subject Matter. Tajfel. objective. fair. Humanistic Psychologists argue that each individual is unique and they would rarely try to predict human behaviour. (Milgram. Arguments For Psychological Theories being Sound Cognitive. Kohlberg) Is Psychology a Science? What is a Science? A Science consists of: Sound theories and hypotheses A Subject Matter Rigorous Methodology ( e. Freud’s penis envy suggests that women are sexually inferior to men. replicable) Are Psychology's Theories and Hypotheses Sound? Sound Theories are : Easy to Understand Formulated as Predictions Useful Arguments Against Psychological Theories being Sound Some Psychology doesn’t predict anything. 85 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Asch. constructed as predictions and have practical uses. Many important and influential psychology experiments use only male participants. there must be some agreement about what is studied..http://www.revisionworld. Bowlby’s Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis could be interpreted as suggesting that women should stay at home and look after their children rather than pursue career opportunities. Zimardo. Social and Physiological Psychology have sound theories that are easy to understand. Sherif.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. how it is studied and some shared basic assumptions.co.

Arguments For Psychology having a Subject Matter Most Psychologists would agree that their subject matter is the mind and behaviour. They also tend to agree how living organisms function. Arguments Against Psychology having a Subject Matter Many people would argue that Psychologists do not share assumptions and methods. Control groups are often used. like other scientific research. There are many conflicting approaches to studying behaviour. These control groups are not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable providing a comparison group and a higher level of control Against Many Psychologists would argue that the use of rigorous methodology is unsuitable for the study of the human mind. The use of more qualitativ. Some Psychologists use unscientific methods to conduct research.. Psychological experimental research. Psychometrics Psychometric tests measure psychological abilities and/or characteristics. can lack scientific rigour.personality Psychological abilities. Some Psychological research has been criticised for lacking validity and from being subject to experimenter bias. involves the manipulation of one variable (the independent variable) and the measure of another variable (the dependent variable) to establish cause and effect.e methods such as the case study. 86 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.intelligence. They use objective methods that are free from bias.http://www.co. Social and Physiological) attempt to conduct research in controlled laboratory environments. Most people would agree that Biology is a science and therefore it must have a subject matter.g. Is Psychological Methodology Rigorous? For Many Psychologists (Behaviourist. Physiological Psychologists believe that behaviour is a result of our physiology whereas Social Psychologists would explain behaviour through the influence of other people.. E.revisionworld. Biologists agree to study living organisms and they study their subject matter through doing experiments. Cognitive. Their procedure is standardised. Psychological characteristics .

paranoia and depression. IQ tests are used to measure intelligence. Psychometric Tests in Psychological Studies Many psychological studies use psychometric tests. Gould (Review of IQ testing) IQ Tests . Psychometric tests are used in a variety of settings such as in job interviews. Strengths They are fairly easy to administer . Weaknesses Validity Problems Problems within the test itself. They enable people to predict future behaviour/ability.revisionworld. Sometimes Psychometric tests don't actually measure what they set out to measure. Once you have purchased the test very little materials/personnel are needed.. 87 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. Below are some examples of tests used in well known studies: Hodges and Tizard (social and family relationships) Rutter B Test – This test identifies psychiatric problems such as anxiety. This is particularly useful in a job interview setting. They can be used in a variety of professional settings.co. Personality Test– This test highlighted the differences in personality between the alters. They provide quantitative information about a person's abilities and characteristics allowing comparisions between people to be drawn.Gould reviews IQ tests used by Yerkes. Memory Tests – Memory tests showed that Eve White had a good memory and Eve Black had a reasonable memory. Rorschach Test . They are cheap to conduct. Thigpen and Cleckley (A case of multiple personality) IQ Tests – IQ tests showed that Eve White had a higher IQ than Eve Black.They mostly come in a questionnaire format.This test identified Eve White’s anxiety and obsessive compulsive traits.http://www.

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Participants do not always give truthful responses. For instance, participants may choose to give socially desirable responses in a personality test. People may get better through practice which could mean, for instance, that participants would have an artificially high intelligence test score. Some tests are biased towards one group of people. For example, Yerke's IQ tests favoured Native Americans by measuring cultural information rather than IQ. Reliability Problems Mood can affect people’s scores. For example, if somebody was feeling tired they might not try as hard. This coud mean that the test produces different results when used at different times.

Qualitative v Quantitative
Psychologists collect information about people using both qualitative and quantitative measures. Qualitative Measures - The information gathered will not contain any numbers, but instead will feature descriptions. Quantitative Measures - Information gathered will be numerical.

Methodology
The methods below feature predominately qualitative or quantitative measures. There are exceptions; it is possible that an experiment could collect descriptions of behaviour and a case study could involve the collection of numerical data. Qualitative Methods Interview Unstructured observation Case study. Quantitative Methods Experiment Questionnaire Correlation Structured observation.

Qualitative Strengths and Weaknesses
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Strengths Can be used to answer questions about what motivates behaviour rather than simply counting behaviours Rich in detail Can be used to collect rich information on rare conditions/cases Weaknesses Open to interpretation/subjectivity Difficult to analyse Time consuming to collect

Quantitative Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths Easy to collect Easy to analyse/make comparisons Weaknesses Lacking in detail Simply recording numbers of behaviours does not address what motivates behaviour.

Reductionism V Holism
Reductionism is explaining complex human behaviour in a simplistic way usually by focusing on one single factor. Holism is explaining complex human behaviour by looking at how a number of factors interact to produce that behaviour Examples A reductionist explanation for aggression is that the perpetrator has copied the behaviour and a holistic explanation would be that this behaviour has come from an interaction between a number of development and biological factors.

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Examples of "reducing behaviour"
Most of Psychology is reductionist. The studies below reduce behaviour to one simple factor. Examples of Reductionism Loftus and Palmer (Eye witness testimony) Problems in eye witness testimony is explained by and reduced to the wording of questions. Tajfel (Minimal groups) This study explains and reduces prejudice to simply the act of putting people into groups Raine (murderers' brains) This study explains and reduces murder to a lack of activity in the parts of the brain associated with aggression.

For and Against Reductionism
For Reductionism Reductionist explanations enable a scientific approach because it makes concepts easier to test in a experimental setting. For instance, if you assume that one factor causes behaviour, it is relatively easy to isolate that one factor and perform controlled tests on the effects of that one factor. Against Reductionism Human beings are very complex and it is very unlikely that all human behaviour can be explained on such a simple level.

Reliability
Reliability is the extent to which a measurement tool is consistent. For a measurement tool to be reliable it would give you the same results if you tested the same person over a long period of time. In an observation reliability is achieved if several observers record the same behaviour.

Assessing Reliability
When assessing whether a study has reliability the following factors should be considered:
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urture Debate This debate is very important in Psychology it concerns the relative importance of the influence of nature or nurture in explaining human behaviour. 1. Is there a standardised procedure/set of instructions? Is the study free from bias? Is there inter-rater reliability? (reliability between researchers) Has inter-rater reliability been tested? Is data interpretation standardised? The ature.. ature = Inherited influences such as our genes and physiological make-up urture = How life has influenced us through our experiences This debate can be applied to many aspects of human life. The social learning theory suggests that we learn through observation and imitation.http://www..revisionworld. Are people born clever or do they become clever through hard work and good teaching? 2. Are criminals born with a tendency to commit crime or do they commit crime because they have lived an impoverished life? Evidence for ature Twin and Adoption studies indicate that identical twins reared separately share many inherited similarities. Evidence for urture Some Psychologists regard the mind as a blank slate at birth and therefore all knowledge and understanding is ascertained through life experience. Operant and classical conditioning techniques demonstrate that behaviour can be easily influenced 91 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . There are genetic links to various conditions that influence behaviour such as schizophrenia There is a wealth of research demonstrating the link between hormones and aggression Biochemical theory of gender identity suggests that we acquire our gender identities through genetic and hormonal factors rather than through socialisation.co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.

Developmental .Psychologists taking this approach believe that behaviour is controlled by the innate aggression and sex drives. health and social behaviour.. The Approaches Stance on ature. Environmental Psychologists have conducted a weatlth of research that demonstrate the influence of the environment on people’s performance..Social psychologists have identified the profound influence of other people and social phenomena such as conformity and group behaviour on our behaviour. how can you isolate all “nurture” influences. 92 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . When establishing relationships between parents and children you still can not conclude that nature is having an influence because it could be that similarities are down to the way in which children are brought up. Psychologists taking this approach believe that behaviour can be explained via innate influences such as hormones and genetic influences Psychoanalysis .http://www. Control .urture Ethical Restrictions -It would be ethically challenging to rear two identical twins separately in order to establish the relative influence of nature and nurture.This area of psychology explores the impact of a wide range of social and environmental influences on human behaviour. by the environment.Psychologists looking at development have explored many developmental factors. For example.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. They do recognise that society restricts these drives and that these drives are controlled via the ego and the supergo urture Behaviourism . drug and alcohol abuse can affect the way in which our brains function. Problems Investigating ature.urture ature Physiological/Biological.Behaviourists believe that human behaviour is learnt Humanism .The environment can change the way our bodies work. For example.Controlled experiments are virtually impossible. Social . but recognises that experience shapes these abilities. such as child rearing practices and the influence of role models. An Interaction between ature and urture Cognitive . Nurture can affect Nature! .Cognitive psychology looks at innate cognitive abilities.revisionworld.co. all of which have shaped human behaviour.

. Social Desirability. Internal Validity Whether the results can be attributed to the independent variable External Validity Whether the results can be generalised to different environments. again making behaviour artificial and less applicable to everyday life. Validity Validity is the extent to which a measure/test measures what is is intending to measure. Behaviour displayed in a laboratory may not occur in everyday life. Validity Problems Psychologists seek to make research as valid as possible.revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. People may not give trueful answers because they want to create a socially desirable image 93 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Conclusions Some research shows that nature is paramount whereas other research shows the profound influence of nurture. Order effects. Answer Any 2 of the following problems: Ecological validity. demand characteristics or experimenter bias) Whether the artifical nature of the test is affecting participants behaviour. As with many debates there is also a wealth of research and a widely accepted believe that human experience is made up of an interaction between both nature and nurture influences. Demand characteristics. A Participant may realise the researcher's aim and this may change their behaviour. but they face a number of validity threats: Whether a test really measures what it claims to measure Whether the participant's behaviour is coming from factors other than the independent variable.http://www.co. (Ecological validity) QUESTIO S Quiz 1 Question 1 Identify 2 problems Psychologists face making their research applicable to everyday life..

This highlights the importance of not exposing children to aggression. Question 3 What practical application does Loftus and Palmer's study on eye witness testimony have in a criminal/courtroom scenario? Answer Loftus and Palmer's study warns us that leading questions can distort a person's memory. political and social context Question 2 What two things should be considered when assessing the extent to which research has practical applications? Answer 1. Generalisability. 94 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Observer Effect. Answer It warns us that children copy behaviour.revisionworld. This research is useful in parenting and censorship laws.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Question 4 Describe a practical application of Bandura's research on imitation of aggression. Professionals working with eye witnesses have to be careful not to alter eye witness testimony's through leading questions. Observations lack control so establishing cause and effect is difficult. In order to generalise results to everyday life the sample size must be large enough and representative of the particular cultural. The research's practical applications of the research 2. Whether there are any factors within the research that limit it's practical applications. Question 5 Identify a practical application of Hodges and Tizard's research on social relationships. If people know that they are being watched their behaviour may not be natural Level of Control...co.http://www.

The participants were told that they were electrocuting another participant.http://www.co. In the process of obeying Participants suffered from extreme tension. Participants were ordered to electrocute another participant. Withdraw . Quiz 2 Question 1 What is the name of the ethical guideline that advises that researchers should inform all participants of the objectives of the research? Answer Consent Question 2 What is the name of the ethical guideline that advises that researchers should not withhold or mislead the participants if participants are likely to object to this deception during debrief? Answer Deception Question 3 Which ethical guidelines does Milgram break in his obedience study? Answer Protection . Even when they pleaded to stop they were told that they must continue..revisionworld.The participants were not told of their right to withdraw. Deception . It highlights the importance of attachment to a care giver at a young age.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.Milgram subjected his participants to extreme tension. Answer This research is useful to social workers. One participant even suffered a seizure.. 95 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .

Answer Debriefing Quiz 3 Question 1 What is the difference between an individual explanation and a situational explanation? Answer An individual explanation is when something about a person is used to explain behaviour and a situational explanation is when something about a situation is used to explain behaviour Question 2 Is the explanation below an individual or a situational explanation? Milgram explains obedience through the presence of an authority figure. Question 4 Describe the ethical guideline concerning observational research. Question 5 Identify which guideline is difficult to follow because of the reason below? When research is carried out on a large number of people in a public setting participants are unaware that they are in an experiment and they may moved on after the experiment takes place.co.revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm..http://www. Answer 96 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Answer Researchers must only observe participants in environments where people expect to be observed by strangers or with prior consent..

. Answer Individual Question 4 Describe 3 problems Psychologists face when they try to establish whether behaviour is a result of individual or situational factors. Researching whether it is the individual or the situation controlling behaviour could lead to some ethical problems. Is she making an individual or a situational explanation? Answer Situational 97 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Behaviour is likely to come from both the individual and the situation When researching whether behaviour comes from the individual or the situation it is very difficult to separate the two factors.. This means you can not simply ask people to explain their behaviour. For instance it would be unethical to take two people with similar personalities and expose them to various distressing situations and watch how they respond.http://www.co.revisionworld. Answer People are often unable to tell you whether their behaviour comes from them self or the situation. Question 5 A teacher claims that a child in her class is aggressive because they have copied another aggressive child in the class.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. You can not take away all of an individuals past experiences and personality even in the most controlled experiment. Situational Question 3 Is the explanation below an individual or a situational explanation? Raine explains his Participants' aggression through a lack of activity in the parts of the brain associated with violence.

co.. Useful Question 4 What makes methodology rigorous? Answer Methodology that is fair. controlled. objective.http://www.revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Quiz 4 Question 1 What 3 things make a science? Answer 1) A Subject Matter 2) Sound theories and hypotheses 3) Rigorous Methodology Question 2 What is psychology's subject matter? Answer The mind and behaviour. Easy to Understand 2. Formulated as Predictions 3. Question 3 What makes a theory sound? Answer 1. 98 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .. replicable.

uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. but instead will feature descriptions.revisionworld..co. Question 5 Is there a consensus of opinion over whether psychology is a science? Answer No Quiz 5 Question 1 What is a qualitative measure? Answer The information gathered will not contain any numbers. Question 3 Interviews usually gather qualitative or quantitative information? Answer Qualitative Question 4 Experiments usually gather qualitative or quantitative information? 99 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Question 2 What is a quantitative measure? Answer Information gathered will be numerical.http://www.

uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm..http://www.qualitative or quantitative? Answer Qualitative Quiz 6 Question 1 What is the term given to the extent to which a measurement tool is consistent? Answer Reliability Question 2 Is a measurement tool reliable if it gives you the same results. Answer Quantitative Question 5 Which type of information can be difficult to analyse .. if you tested the same person over a long period of time? Answer Yes Question 3 Would a standardised procedure increase or decrease a study's reliability? Answer Increase 100 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .co.revisionworld.

co. Question 4 What is inter-rater reliability? Answer Reliability between 2 or more observers Question 5 True or false ? Experiments and questionnaires are usually unreliable...revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Answer False Quiz 7 Question 1 What is the name of the term given to the extent to which a measure/test measures what is is intending to measure? Answer Validity Question 2 What is the term given to whether the results can be attributed to the independent variable? Answer Internal Validity Question 3 101 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www.

What is the name given to the term that means whether the results can be generalised to different environments? Answer External Validity Question 4 What other factors within an experiment could influence the independent variable? Answer Order effects..http://www. Quiz 8 Question 1 Research done in the field is considered high in ecological validity.. True or false? 102 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. True or False? Answer True Question 2 When participants are behaving naturally the research is considered low in ecological validity.co.revisionworld. demand characteristics or experimenter bias Question 5 What is Ecological Validity? Answer When a piece of research is easy to relate to everyday life.

What 2 people consider to be realistic could be different.http://www..co. True or false? Answer False Question 4 Why is creating a realistic environment within an experiment difficult? Answer A realistic environment is subjective.. Question 5 What guidelines would you break if you carried out an observation without the consent of your participants? Answer Ethical Guidelines Quiz 9 Question 1 What is the term given to the belief that people are free to choose how to behave? Answer 103 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Answer False Question 3 When the research setting is natural. the research is considered to have low ecological validity.

http://www. Question 5 What is the factor determining the children's behaviour in Bandura’s aggression study? Answer The presence of an aggressive role model Quiz 10 Question 1 104 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM ... Free Will Question 2 What is the name given to the belief that all behaviour is caused by physical factors? Answer Determinism Question 3 Who believes in free will? Answer Humanistic Psychologists Question 4 What is suggesting to be the determining factor in Milgram’s Obedience Study? Answer The presence of an authority figure.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.revisionworld.co.

Question 4 Why have the following Psychologists been accused of conducting research that is gender biased? Milgram.. Asch.http://www.co..revisionworld.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Question 5 Why was Yerks accused of carrying out ethnocentrically biased research? 105 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Answer All of the Psychologists have carried out important and influential experiments using only male participants. Sherif. Zimardo. Tajfel. What is the term given to the tendency to interpret human behaviour from our own cultural stance/standards? Answer Ethnocentric bias Question 2 What is the term given to the tendency to hold prejudiced or stereotypical views based on gender that may influence the interpretation of research and the formulation of hypotheses? Answer Gender bias Question 3 Is Bowlby's research considered to be ethnocentrically biased or gender biased? Answer Gender Biased. Kohlberg. Bowlby’s Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis could be interpreted as suggesting that women should stay at home and look after their children.

http://www. Question 3 What did Yerkes measure in his famous experiments on the US army? Answer IQ Question 4 Psychometric tests enable people to predict future behaviour.revisionworld. Question 2 What type of psychometric test did Hodges and Tizard use in their study on family relationships? Answer Rutter B Test – This test identifies psychiatric problems such as anxiety. Answer Yerks conducted research in an unfair way that meant that Africans were labelled as having a poorer IQ. True or false? Answer True 106 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM ..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Quiz 11 Question 1 What do Psychometric tests measure? Answer Psychological abilities and/or characteristics. paranoia and depression.co..

.revisionworld.http://www. Question 4 107 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .co. This could mean that the test produces different results when used at different times.. Question 5 Is this a validity or a reliability problem? If somebody was feeling tired they might not try as hard. Answer A reliability problem Quiz 12 Question 1 What is the name of the term given to explaining complex human behaviour in a simplistic way? Answer Reductionism Question 2 What is the name of the term given to explaining complex human behaviour by looking at how a number of factors interact to produce that behaviour? Answer Holism Question 3 How is Raine's study on brain abnormalities in murderers reductionist? Answer This study explains and reduces murder to a lack of activity in the parts of the brain associated with aggression.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.

.http://www..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm. Answer Nature 108 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .revisionworld. Nature is inherited influences such as our genes and physiological make-up and nurture is how life has influenced us through our experiences. Question 2 Does this statement support the nature or nurture stance? There are genetic links to various conditions that influence behaviour such as schizophrenia.co. How is Tajfel's minimal group study reductionist? Answer This study explains and reduces prejudice to simply the act of putting people into groups Question 5 Is the following statement an argument for or against reductionism? Human beings are very complex and it is very unlikely that all human behaviour can be explained on such a simple level Answer Against Quiz 13 Question 1 What is the nature-nurture debate? Answer The debate concerns the relative importance of the influence of nature or nurture in explaining human behaviour.

. Question 3 Does this statement support the nature or nurture stance? Social psychologists have identified the profound influence of other people and social phenomena such as conformity and group behaviour on our behaviour.This is the British Psychological Society's website. All About Psychology . Behaviourists believe that human behaviour is learnt.Written and regularly updated by a lecturer in psychology. Useful LI KS A Level Psychology .revisionworld.Psychology News and Resources for students and teachers of A Level Psychology. There is a wealth of information here about careers in Psychology.Philip Banyard. this website is designed to help anybody looking for informed and detailed information on psychology. 109 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Bluffers Guide to Psychologyde.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.co. Question 5 What is the biochemical theory of gender identity? Answer Biochemical theory of gender identity suggests that we acquire our gender identities through genetic and hormonal factors rather than through socialisation. Answer Nurture Question 4 Does behaviourism support nature or nurture? Answer Nurture. Gerard Keegan's Psychology Site is the first website of its kind dedicated to those studying pre-university psychology in Scotland..http://www. a well known Psychologist/ Chief Examiner/Author has put together the Bluffer's Guide to Psychology.htm . British Psychological Society's website .

DOW LOAD Zone This is where teaching and learning resources can be downloaded and added..http://www. Psychology Teacher . It contains a wealth of research that may be useful when you need to find research relevant to your own coursework. Pass Psychology .Uniview have been providing high quality educational resources to teachers & health professionals for over 15 years.Another good site and for about £10 per year you can access some excellent resources.Info for students of Psychology Psychologymatters .Learning resource for GCSE and A Level Psychology students and teachers Simply Psychology .This site provides excellent revision material for the OCR AS Psychology course.revisionworld. Holah . although degree and GCSE students will also find it useful.co.uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.Psychology tutoring Psychology . You need to be a registered member (FREE) to see these links. DOW LOAD If you would like to download a resource then click on the relevant attachment at the bottom of the page. Uniview .Designed specifically for A level psychology students.This is the American Psychological Association's site.. Some material is avaliable free of charge. Click here to register or log in CO TRIBUTE If you would like to share a resource with fellow colleagues then please click here PSYCHOLOGY DOW LOADABLE TEACHI G RESOURCES Cognitive Psychology (PowerPoint) Comparative Psychology (PowerPoint) Developmental Psychology (PowerPoint) Individual Differences (PowerPoint) Physiological Psychology (PowerPoint) Research Methods (PowerPoint) Social Psychology (PowerPoint) 110 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM . Psychologystuff .

co..uk/level/psychology?q=category/export/htm.. STUDY HELP If you'd like to ask for help with any aspect of Psychology then please visit our study help discussion rooms by clicking here 111 of 111 09/02/2012 3:37 PM .http://www.revisionworld.

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