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Berlin, Germany September 2008

Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2008 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance © 2008 International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Publication in whole or in part is allowed in all countries provided that attribution is given to the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam

President: J. R. Cooper School of Engineering and Materials Science Queen Mary, University of London Mile End Road London E1 4NS, England Executive Secretary: Dr. R. B. Dooley Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 2904 South Sheridan Way, Suite 303 Oakville, Ontario, L6J 7L7, Canada email: bdooley@structint.com This release contains 9 pages, including this cover page.

This release has been authorized by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) at its meeting in Berlin, Germany, 7-12 September 2008, for issue by its Secretariat. The members of IAPWS are: Argentina and Brazil, Britain and Ireland, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United States of America, and associate member Switzerland. This release replaces the “Revised Release on the IAPS Formulation 1985 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance,” issued in 2003. Further information concerning this release and other documents issued by IAPWS can be obtained from the Executive Secretary of IAPWS or from http://www.iapws.org.

range of validity of the equation. pressure. A discussion of the background. and validation of this formulation is presented in Ref.5 Estimated uncertainty 2. Nomenclature T denotes absolute temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 ρ denotes density p denotes pressure μ denotes viscosity Reference constants The reference constants used in this formulation for temperature. Introductory Remarks This release provides a correlating equation for the shear viscosity of pure water substance over an extensive range of fluid states.2 Contents 1. 5. Section 3 concerns the industrial application of the viscosity correlation. and estimates of the uncertainty of the correlation.6 Correlating equation 2. while the reference constant for viscosity has no physical significance.4 Range of validity 2. and density agree with presently accepted values of the critical temperature.2 Reference constants 2.7 Critical enhancement 2.2. development. 2. and Section 4 presents selected values of the correlation at specific state points to enable computer verification of an implementation of the correlation.1. 1. 2. .8 Simplified use outside the critical region Recommendation for Industrial Application Computer-Program Verification References 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 6 8 8 8 9 3. pressure. Section 2 of this release contains the correlating equation. 2. [1].3 Dimensionless variables 2.1 Nomenclature 2. Introductory Remarks Recommended Correlating Equation 2. Recommended Correlating Equation 2. and density of water recommended by IAPWS [2]. 4. necessary constants.

the extrapolation of the dilute-gas portion of Eq. the extrapolation behavior of Eq. when the state point under consideration is defined by pressure and temperature or by other thermodynamic variables instead of density and temperature. (9).15 K Tm(p) ≤ T ≤ 433. (10) but within the range of validity of the IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use [5. (10) is physically reasonable up to at least 2500 K.6] should be used to determine the densities used as input to Eq.6]. (10) outside the range of validity given above: • For vapor states at temperatures below the triple-point temperature of 273.16 K and pressures less than or equal to the sublimation pressure.4]. the IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use [5. (10). (10) is in fair agreement (within 5 %) with available data down to 250 K. the viscosity calculation is dominated by the dilute-gas term. Eq. (10) is physically reasonable.16 K ≤ T ≤ 1173.064 MPa μ* = 1.0 kg·m−3 p* = 22. Range of validity Equation (10) below is recommended for computation of the viscosity for all thermodynamically stable fluid states in the following ranges of pressure p and temperature T: 0 pt 300 MPa 350 MPa 500 MPa < ≤ < < < p < pt p ≤ 300 MPa p ≤ 350 MPa p ≤ 500 MPa p ≤ 1000 MPa and and and and and 273. IAPWS makes the following statements about extrapolation of Eq. Dimensionless variables temperature: density: pressure: viscosity: T* = 647. For most applications.4.3 reference temperature: reference density: reference pressure: reference viscosity: 2.3.15 K Tm(p) ≤ T ≤ 373. In addition. [3. • At high temperatures.15 K Tm(p) ≤ T ≤ 1173.15 K (9) In Eq. and this behaves in a physically reasonable manner down to at least 250 K.00 × 10−6 Pa·s T = T/T* ρ = ρ/ρ* p = p/p* μ = μ/μ* (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 2. • For the metastable subcooled liquid at atmospheric pressure. . Tm is the pressure-dependent melting temperature and pt is the triple-point pressure as given in Refs.096 K ρ* = 322.15 K Tm(p) ≤ T ≤ 873. • For stable fluid states outside the range of validity of Eq.

[7].17 % at 293. The formulation reproduces the ISO recommended value of the viscosity at 20 oC (293. Estimated uncertainty of the correlating equation.15 K) and standard atmospheric pressure within the number of digits given in Ref. ρ ) . Thus the viscosity at any state point can be expressed as μ ± δ where δ is the applicable value in Figure 1.15 K at atmospheric pressure in Ref.15 to 313. 2. it also agrees with all values from 288. Figure 1.15 K. ρ ) × μ 2 (T .5. (10) The first factor μ 0 of the product represents the viscosity in the dilute-gas limit and is given by .6. [7] within the stated uncertainty of 0.4 Estimated uncertainty The uncertainties in this formulation are summarized in Figure 1. Correlating equation The viscosity is represented by the equation μ = μ 0 (T ) × μ1 (T . 2. they can be considered as estimates of a combined expanded uncertainty with a coverage factor of two.

(12) ⎠ j =0 ⎢ i =0 ⎝ T ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ with coefficients Hij given in Table 2.72102×10−3 -4.08374 -2. .67752 2.241605 The second factor μ1 represents the contribution to viscosity due to finite density: i ⎤ ⎛1 ⎞ 6 − 1⎟ ∑ H ij ( ρ − 1) j ⎥ . Coefficients Hij for μ1 (T .57040×10−1 1. μ1 (T . The third factor μ 2 represents the critical enhancement of the viscosity.89837×10−1 -2.61913×10−1 2.98452×10−2 8. ρ ) i 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 5 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 0 3 4 3 5 j 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 Hij 5.22531×10−1 9.25372×10−2 6.20094×10−1 8.99115×10−1 1.20573×10−1 -2.88797 1.72479×10−1 -4.57399×10−1 -3.26613 1.81378×10−1 -9. 3 Hi ∑Ti i =0 with coefficients Hi given in Table 1.50895×10−2 -1.89555×10−1 2.93264×10−4 Note: Coefficients Hij omitted from Table 2 are identically equal to zero. ρ ) = exp ⎢ ρ ∑ ⎜ ⎡ 5 Table 2.20462 0. μ 0 (T ) = (11) Table 1. Coefficients Hi for μ 0 (T ) i 0 1 2 3 Hi 1.35673×10−3 -5.6366564 -0.06851×10−1 -7.5 100 T .

⎪2 arctan w . Although exactly at the critical point the viscosity is infinite. For 0 ≤ ξ ≤ 0. 245. This allows simplification for certain calculations (see Sections 2. the enhancement term contributes an amount greater than 2 % of the full viscosity only within the following boundaries: 645. The function μ 2 is defined over the entire range of states by: μ 2 = exp(xμ Y ) .91 K < T < 650. the enhancement is always less than the uncertainty in the formulation. ⎝ 2 ⎠ (19) . (16) with 2 ψ D = arccos⎡(1 + q Dξ 2 ) −1 ⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ (17) and with the function L(w) given by ⎧ 1+ w ⎫ .77 K. outside this region.8 and 3). for q Cξ > 1 ⎪ ⎪ ln L( w) = ⎨ 1 − w ⎬. (14) where xμ is the critical exponent for viscosity and the function Y is defined for two ranges of correlation length ξ.7 Thus. qCξ (q Dξ ) ⎜1 − q Cξ + (qCξ ) − ⎟ 5 504 ⎝ ⎠ (15) while for ξ > 0.3 kg·m−3 . the critical enhancement is significant only within the boundaries specified by Eq.8 kg·m−3 < ρ < 405. (13). (13) 2.6 Critical enhancement The critical enhancement is only significant in a very small region in density and temperature around the critical point. for q Cξ ≤ 1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (18) The variable w is defined by q ξ −1 w= C q Cξ + 1 1 2 ⎛ψ ⎞ tan⎜ D ⎟ .3817016416 nm Y= 1 1 1 sin (3ψ D ) − sin (2ψ D ) + 12 4q C ξ (qCξ )2 − ⎡ 5 2⎤ ⎢1 − 4 (q Cξ ) ⎥ sin (ψ D ) ⎣ ⎦ (qCξ )3 1 3/ 2 ⎧⎡ 3 ⎫ 2⎤ 2 ⎨⎢1 − (q Cξ ) ⎥ψ D − (q Cξ ) − 1 L( w)⎬ ⎦ ⎩⎣ 2 ⎭ .3817016416 nm Y= 1 765 5⎛ 2 (qDξ )2 ⎞ .

239 0. Critical-Region Constants Constant Value 0.1 nm 0. 1 . ρ ) R ⎥ T ⎦ ⎣ ⎛ ∂ρ ⎞ ς =⎜ ⎟ . are provided in Table 3. ρ ) − ς (TR .13 nm 0. (20) in terms of Δχ (≥ 0) which is defined by ⎡ T ⎤ Δχ = ρ ⎢ς (T . The formulation should be used with caution in this very small region.068 xμ − 1. (14)–(19) is a function of the correlation length ξ: ⎛ Δχ ξ = ξ0 ⎜ ⎜Γ ⎝ 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ν γ . μ 2 .06 1.9 nm q C1 − qD1 1. Table 3. (21) may not occur exactly at Tc and ρc as it should.630 1. ⎜ ∂p ⎟ ⎝ ⎠T (21) (21a) When Δχ calculated by Eq.5 ν γ ξ0 Γ0 TR Due to the numerical implementation of the equation of state. calculated values of μ 2 may behave unphysically at points extremely close to the critical point (approximately within 0. it must be set to zero for calculations to proceed. Therefore. 1 The constants needed to compute the critical enhancement. the calculated singularity in the first derivative in Eq. (21) is less than zero.01 kg·m−3 of ρc on the critical isotherm).7 The critical enhancement of viscosity given by Eqs.

i =0 . Computer-Program Verification The following tables are provided to assist the user in computer-program verification. Recommendation for Industrial Application 2.15 1173. Sample points for computer-program verification of the correlating equation. a1 = 1. 3.217245 47. Table 4. 3 ( ) where a0 = 457. This discontinuity is less than 0.9].15 873.735100 1437.538324 217.802262 77. a2 = −3. should be used to determine the density for use in Eq. (10).8 Simplified use outside the critical region Because the critical enhancement is insignificant except in a small region around the critical point (described approximately by Eq.43032446173023×10−6. (14). (13).15 1173.883622 14.68077273385305. and a3 = 1.430195 44.15 373. except for points close to and inside the near-critical region described by Eq. When IAPWS-IF97 is used to calculate densities. the error introduced by the use of the different thermodynamic formulation is smaller than the uncertainty of the viscosity correlation. Eq.15 433. Eq.15 433.649467 307.15 873. known as IAPWS-IF97.154608 If a calculation is performed that uses the critical enhancement.15 298. (10) should be simplified by setting μ 2 =1.0051 % for single-phase states outside a region near the critical point bounded by the equation i T (1 K ) = ∑ ai ρ (1 kg ⋅ m −3 ) . complexity and computing time may be reduced by omitting the critical enhancement for applications outside this region. T (K) 298.685358 32.8 For industrial uses where greater computing speed is needed.15 873. the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam [8.95895935062.619287 35. (10) when the state point is defined by the temperature and pressure or other state variables.(13)). In addition. provided the point is within the range of validity of IAPWS-IF97. 4. Eq. near the critical point but omits it far from the critical point. The viscosity calculations are based on the tabulated temperatures and densities. with μ 2 =1.15 1173.15 2 ρ (kg·m−3) 998 1200 1000 1 1000 1 100 600 1 100 400 μ (μPa·s) 889. 2 This can be done by setting μ 2 =1.24405775203984×10−3.640433 64. some discontinuity is inevitable.

M..337589 647. Release: Values of Temperature. J.. D. Ref.3817016416 nm so Y is evaluated with Eq.35 372 5.03665871 45. and T. (10). J. A. Ref. J. available at http://www. Sample points for computer-program verification of the correlating equation. Wagner. Revised Release on the Pressure along the Melting and Sublimation Curves of Ordinary Water Substance. M. J. V.35 222 1. R.org (September 1996). I. Šifner. in the region near the critical point. Trübenbach. W. International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Phys. R. R. Kruse. O. in preparation. (15). Eng. K. 5. A. available at http://www. J. I. Data. A. Eq. W. Pruß. Mareš. Wagner. Chem. Sato. R. Chem. Release on the IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use. L. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Tanishita. Takaishi.09190440 42. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] . Laesecke.876244 1. Metaxa.228143 647. International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. J. Sengers.436256 * Correlation length ξ < 0.35 422 1. Data. M. Kijima. Gas Turbines & Power 122.35 122 0. Vogel. Pressure and Density of Ordinary and Heavy Water Substances at their Respective Critical Points.603768 1. Chem. W.iapws. J.. available at http://www. Wagner. T (K) ξ (nm) μ (μPa·s) ρ (kg·m−3) μ2 647. Kretzschmar.00375120 31. J. Stöcker.iapws. Riethmann.266522 1. Ref.35 322 16. Perkins. Oguchi.35 272 5.309247 1. and A. G. Friend. available at http://www. E. Viscosity of Water.688204 647.org (August 2007).org (September 2008). 387 (2002).520677 647. I. R. ISO/TR Technical Report 3666: 1998(E). Assael. A. H.03416789 36.. J. H. Mareš. Phys. Willkommen. Geneva.00596332 49. Cooper. Y.-J. and Th. 150 (2000).iapws. and K.590209 1. Data 31.961579 647. Phys. Revised Release on the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam. International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam.00000289* 25.org (September 1992).571405 1. International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam.iapws. Dittmann.9 Table 5. Miyagawa. in preparation. Feistel. References [1] Huber.

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