First aid

Basic s

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 1 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

How to act in the following situations

unconscious

Choke

Shock

Bleed

Burns

Fracture

Carry

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 2 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

How to assess an unconscious person?

> try to get a response > open the airway What was the > check for breathing right thing to do?

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 3 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Check for consciousness
Try to get a response Are you Ok ? Are you hear me?

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 4 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Not responding – Call 506 (clinic)
And Check foreign bodies then Open Airway

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 5 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Check for normal breathing

Look for chest movement. Listen to the victim‘s mouth for breath sounds. Feel for air on your cheek.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 6 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

if breathing . . . . place in Recovery position

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 7 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Recovery position

Tongue Before After

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 8 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

If the victim is not breathing
May Heart Stopped Cardiac Arrest

Start CPR immediately
First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 9 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

If blood which carries oxygen doesn't reach to brain, brain will die
Clinical death: Heart stops Biological death: Brain death

So, Start Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 10 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Compressions
Locate proper hand position for chest compressions Place heel of one hand on center of chest between the nipples

Find the xiphoid process at the yourof the line will fool you ribs Sometimes making the nipples end mark sternum where the meet , put two finger widths above this point. males and because of the different size of breasts in both and place the heel of process should be your mark line in this females, the xiphoid one hand case

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 11 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Using both hands, give 30 chest compressions and two breaths Count 1, 2, 3 … Depth of compressions: 1 .5 to 2 inches for adult

Repeat Cycle and Continue until help arrives or victim recovers

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 12 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

How can I give breaths
Seal the mouth with yours
give two breaths (1 second or longer)

Pinch the nose
If the first two don’t go in, re-tilt and give two more breaths

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 13 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Breathing: Mouth To Nose (when to use)

§

Can’t open mouth Can’t make a good seal Severely injured mouth

§

§

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 14 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Chest Compressions Alert

Do not give compressions over bottom tip of breastbone. When compressing, keep elbows straight and hands in contact with patient’s chest at all times Compress chest hard and fast, but let chest recoil completely between compressions. Minimize amount of time used giving ventilations between sets of compressions.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 15 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Mouth to Mouth Barrier Devices

Masks

Bag Valve Mask

You can use plastic bag if you don’t have any tool

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 16 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Choking
Causes
The tongue is the most common obstruction in the unconscious victim Or due Foreign body (like food, ice, toys, dentures, broken teeth, vomits…) Or may collect liquid in the lungs (Heart diseases)

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 17 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for choking
1. Tell the victim to cough

2. If still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 18 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

à

If unconscious  call for help
and then Open Airway

Checking foreign bodies

Finger sweep

 Check breathing

 No breath  CPR

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 19 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Bleeding

If Adults each have about 6 liters of blood. If an adult loses more than 1.5 liters, his or her life is in danger. Children have much less blood, so it’s even more important to act quickly.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 20 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for bleeding
(Minor cuts & scratches)

clean the cut

raise affected area above the heart and press on wound

cover the cut with a sterile dressing or plaster.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 21 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for bleeding
(Nose bleeding)

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 22 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for bleeding
Severe bleeding
Lay the victim down (fainting), elevate the bleeding area

Remove any obvious loose debris or dirt from a wound
• •

Apply pads and bandages

If bleeding continues place another cloth over the first one

Get medical help (Call 506) and take steps to prevent shock

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 23 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Shock
Acute circulatory failure with inadequate or inappropriately distributed tissue perfusion resulting in generalized cellular hypoxia.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 24 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

pale, cold clammy skin feels like throwing up

fast, shallow breathing

thirst

how to spot shock

restlessness

feels weak and dizzy

blueness around lips or ear lobes

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 25 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Shock treatment
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Treat any cause of shock you identify. Stay calm and reassure the victim Lay down the victim and slightly elevate his legs. Maintain normal body temperature Give nothing to drink Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 26 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Note:
Internal bleeding can also lead to shock. Both problems are caused by a lack of blood flowing to the vital organs. So you deal with both problems in the same way…

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 27 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

FRACTURE
Any Breaking, Bending, Dislocation or Cracking of Bone is called Fracture.

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 28 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Types of fractures
1. Simple Fracture also known as Closed Fracture. In this the bone will be broken & there is no wound in the fracture site

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 29 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Types of fractures cont.
2.

A COMPOUND FRACTURE

pierces through the skin. Serious bleeding may occur with this kind of wound. it is also called as an open fracture

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 30 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Simple Fracture Treatment
This kind of fracture will need ice, pain medication, elevation, and splint for the fracture

.

Note:
Internal bleeding can lead to shock, So you deal with both problems in the same way

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 31 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Compound Fracture Treatment
1. Assess the bone fracture and locate where it is. 2. Do not allow the person to move or be moved so as to avoid making the injury worse, and keep him warm 3. Re-align the fracture if necessary. 4. Clean all wounds. 5. Remove any tight clothing or jewelry to let the blood flow better. Broken bones need more blood to reach them. 6. Make a splint for the fracture 7. Call for help

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 32 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Burns

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 33 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First degree (Superficial)

Second degree (Partial-thickness)

Third degree (Full thickness)

Redness Mild swelling Tenderne ss Pain Effects the epidermis

Blisters Swelling Weeping of Fluids Intense Pain

No pain Nerve endings are dead

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 34 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Estimating the extent of Body Surface Area BSA
Head = 9% Chest (front) = 9% Abdomen (front) = 9% Upper/mid/low back and buttocks = 18% Each arm = 9% (front = 4.5%, back = 4.5%) Groin = 1% Each leg = 18% total (front = 9%, back = 9%)

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 35 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for First Degree Burns
Immerse body part in cold water Give pain reliever and have victim drink water Elevate burned extremity to reduce swelling

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 36 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for Second Degree Burns (<20% BSA)
Follow steps for treating a first-degree burn and:

Apply thin layer of bacitracin ointment

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 37 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

First Aid for Second Degree Burns (>20% BSA)
DO NOT apply cold Give water and Apply thin layer of bacitracin Seek medical attention

First Aid for Third Degree Burns
Cover burn with dry, non-sticking sterile dressing Treat victim for shock Call For help

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 38 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Lifting and Moving Patients
Moving injured victim likely to cause further injury In most cases wait for professional help May have to move victim to protect from danger at scene May have to move victim to flat surface to provide CPR

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 39 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Emergency Moves
Use only if: § Patient faces an immediate danger § You cannot give life saving care because of location or position

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 40 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

One-Rescuer Emergency Drags
Pull/drag patient in direction of long axis of body Don’t drag patient sideways, and avoid twisting neck/trunk Never pull head away from neck/shoulders Risk of spinal injury can be minimized by using a blanket, rug, board, etc Choice of move depends on materials at hand, patient’s condition, and situation

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 41 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Emergency Carries
Used when patient must be moved immediately One or more rescuers may carry patient Method used depends on patient’s size, condition and situation: § Walking assist § Cradle carry § Multiple-rescuer techniques are safer/less stressful

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 42 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Emergency Carries
Moving Victims – If Alone
Unresponsive victim who cannot safely be dragged § Pack strap carry

Responsive victim who can walk with help
§

One-person walking assist

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 43 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Emergency Carries
Lighter victim or child: Cradle carry (responsive or unresponsive victims)
§

Piggyback carry (responsive victim)
§

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 44 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Firefighter’s Carry

Support the patient’s weight on your shoulders while holding the patient’s thigh and arm

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 45 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Moving Victims – With Help
Responsive victim: §Two-person walking assist §Two-handed seat carry

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 46 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Two-Rescuer Extremity Carry
To carry a patient down steps, the forward rescuer grasps patient’s legs under the knees while the rear rescuer reaches under patient’s armpits from behind to grasp the patient’s forearms

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 47 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

Two-Rescuer Assist
Both rescuers position the patient’s arms over their shoulders

Each rescuer grasps the patient’s wrist, with the other arm around the patient’s waist

First Aid DA APRESENTAÇÃO I/ PRESENTATION TITLE | Autor / Author | Data / Date | Pag. 48 de / of nº final January 2012 TÍTULO I Islam Fahmy

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