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A Seminar Report Submitted To Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY By Y.MUNNI CHARISHMA (0873027) Under the guidance of Ms.J. Niharika Department of Information Technology
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY SRI PADMAVATHI MAHILA VISVAVIDYALAYAM (WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY) TIRUPATI-517502(A.P.), INDIA 2011-2012
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SRI PADMAVATI MAHILA VISVA VIDYALAYAM (WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY) TIRUPATHI-517502(A.P.), INDIA
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled
is the bonified record of work carried-out by
Y.MUNNI CHARISHMA (0873027)
in the Department of
SRI PADMAVATI MAHILA VISVA VIDYALAYAM, TIRUPATI.
in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. The contents of Seminar Report have not been submitted to any other University/institute for the award of the Degree or Diploma.
(J.NIHARIKA) Staff-in charge Date:
(DR.S.JYOTHI) Head of the Department
I am greatly indebted to our guide/staff-in-charge MS.J.NIHARIKA for taking keen interest in our Seminar reports and providing invaluable guidance in all the possible areas of improvement.
I express my sincere thanks to the Head of the Department, Information technology, DR.S.JYOTHI for extending support and encouragement to us in all the stages of the Seminar Report.
I would like to heartily thank the Director, School of Engineering & Technology, PRO F. C.ESWARA REDDY for extending the facilities for carrying out the Seminar Report.
We are also thankful to our teaching and Non-teaching staff for their cooperation and help in this regard.
etc.. necklace. In the next age of computing. voicemail. bracelet.) will work with mobile embedded intelligence. The combination of microcomputer devices and increasing computer power has allowed several companies to begin producing fashion jewellery with embedded intelligence i. there will be an explosion of computer parts across our bodies. It can be frustrating trying to keep with all of the passwords and keys needed to access any door or computer program. computerized ring that will automatically unlock doors and log on to computers. Even the devices we use are protected by passwords. and voice communication. wearable computers that allow you to communicate by ways of e-mail.e. Digital jewellery. jewellery adorns the body. 5 . but many of today's mobile devices can still be a bit awkward to carry around. Digital jewellery can best be defined as wireless. This paper enlightens on how various computerized jewellery (like ear-rings..ABSTRACT Mobile computing is beginning to break the chains that tie us to our desks. Basically. and has very little practical purpose. ring. This paper discusses about a new Java-based. rather than across our desktops.
3. 6. 7. 5. INTRODUCTION WHAT IS DIGITAL JEWELLERY DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES THE JAVA RING FINANCIAL STATUS ADVANTAGES CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 11 16 21 37 39 41 43 Title 6 . 2.CONTENTS Chapter page No 1. 8. 4.
...........................................................................................................................................................14 3..........................................................................4 Types of I Button’s available in the market ................LIST OF FIGURES 2..................................................................12 2...........................................13 2....1Digital Jewellery cell phone......................1 Digital Watch.......................................................30 5....1 Prototype of stainless steel java ring.................................2 Blue Dot receptor .........................................................1 Alphanumeric or graphic Display Types.......................21 4..........................2 IBM’S Magic Decoder Ring.............................................................3 Prototype Bracelet Display..................................................17 4.....................................................3 Structure of I Button .................................................................................2 Complete HIOX necklace.................29 4.........................16 3...26 4..5 Types of Blue dot receptor’s available in the market ..40 7 .....18 4....................
INTRODUCTION 8 .
1 Digital Jewellery The latest computer craze has been to be able to wear wireless computers. The other key factor of this concept market is to stay fashionable at the same time. business cards. health insurance card. They can also solve a common dilemma of today's wired world . By the end of the decade. They have the potential to be all-in-one replacements for your driver's license.the forgotten password. and loose cash. and account information. corporate security badge. credit cards. identification. The combination of shrinking computer devices and increasing computer power has allowed several companies to begin producing fashion jewellery with embedded intelligence.CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1. keychain. The whole concept behind this is to be able to communicate to others by means of wireless appliances. The Computer Fashion Wave. "Digital Jewellery" looks to be the next sizzling fashion trend of the technological wave. we could be wearing our computers instead of sitting in front of them. "Digital jewellery" is a nascent catchphrase for wearable ID devices that contain personal information like passwords. 9 .
WHAT IS DIGITAL JEWELLERY? 10 .
They have the potential to be all-in-one replacements for your driver’s license. Instead of one single device. This prototype proved to be the most flexible accessory released ever. Touch pad. “Digital jewellery” can help you solve problems like forgotten passwords and security badges. identification. This made this prototype to be made as soon as possible. and account information. Together. Each piece of jewellery will contain a fraction of the components found in a conventional mobile phone. cell phones will be broken up into their basic components and packaged as various pieces of digital jewellery. Antenna. corporate security badge. The various components that are inside a cell phone: Microphone. to perform the functions of the above components without interruption signals. and Battery. What Is Digital Jewellery Digital jewellery is the fashion jewellery with embedded intelligence. 11 . Receiver. “Digital jewellery” is a nascent catchphrase for wearable ID devices that contain personal information like passwords. 2. Display. and loose cash. possibly with Blue tooth wireless technology. business cards. credit cards. cell phones will take a totally new form. IBM has developed a prototype of a cell phone that consists of several pieces of digital jewellery that will work together wirelessly.CHAPTER-2 2. health insurance card. key chain. appearing to have no form at all. the digitaljewellery cell phone should work just like a conventional cell phone. Circuit board.1 Digital Jewellery and Their Components Soon. They can also solve a common dilemma of today’s wired world – the forgotten password.
Users will talk into the necklace's embedded microphone.Fig 2.1: Digital Jewellery Cell phone Here are the pieces of computerized-jewellery phone and their functions: • Earrings . this wrist display could also be used as a caller identifier that flashes the name and phone number of the caller. 12 . It can also be programmed to flash different colors to identify a particular caller or indicate the importance of a call.Perhaps the most interesting piece of the phone. • Necklace .Equipped with a video graphics array (VGA) display. this "magic decoder ring” is equipped with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that flash to indicate an incoming call. • Bracelet .Speakers embedded into these earrings will be the phone's receiver. • Ring .
In the coming age of ubiquitous computing. This Track Point ring will be very valuable when monitors shrink to the size of watch face. you'll wear the display like a pair of sunglasses or a 13 . the keypad and dialing function could be integrated into the bracelet. This flashing alert could also indicate the urgency of the e-mail. displays will no longer be tied to desktops or wall screens. which looks something like a black-pearl ring. or else dumped altogether -. The same ring that flashes for phone calls could also inform you that e-mail is piling up in your inbox. (Track Point is the little button embedded in the keyboard of some laptops). in the same way that the TrackPoint button on a laptop is used.With a jewellery phone. The mouse-ring that IBM is developing will use the company's Track Point technology to wirelessly move the cursor on a computer-monitor display. Fig 2. Instead. IBM Researchers have transferred Track Point technology to a ring.it's likely that voice-recognition software will be used to make calls.2: IBM's magic decoder rings will flash when you get a call. On top of the ring is a little black ball that users will swivel to move the cursor.
2 Technical Specifications of Digital Jewellery Digital jewellery devices consist of a screen or display for information. an audiovisual or other 'display' could consist of a speaker. or other informational aesthetic. Researchers are overcoming several obstacles facing these new wearable displays. or dot matrix LEDs. a sensor of some kind (such as a temperature driven EL display). most likely consisting of 7-16-segment. or other technologies such as electroluminescent material (EL) or others. So too. the most important of which is the readability of information displayed on these tiny devices. A micro controller that is a surface mounted device (SMD) on a printed circuit board (PCB) with resistors (R) and capacitors (C) are the internal 'guts' of the jewellery. Fig 2. LCDs.3: Prototype of bracelet display developed by IBM 2. a single flashing light. 14 . which could become an optional display.bracelet.
DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES 15 .
and other LEDs devices to LCDs. as can the alternative display for LCDs (liquid-crystal-displays) also be used.1: Alphanumeric or graphic Display Types Digital Jewellery can be made in many different sizes and shapes with a variety of materials ranging from plastic and metal to rubber and glass. as often found in watches. 16 . 16-segment. for instance. and other displays. This could range from LED 7-segment. Fig 3.CHAPTER-3 DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES The digital jewellery display. every alphabet and number system has found representation within the electronics realm and 'dot-matrix' (a matrix of single LEDs) is used to display Chinese and Japanese and other character sets. They utilize electromagnetic properties and electronics to display information through a screen or display of some kind. OLEDs. dot matrix. which are all driven by the self-contained jewellery devices themselves.
2: Complete HIOX necklace showing all 26 letters of the Roman alphabet extended in 4-dimensional space-time. FIG:Programmable HIOX ring with 16.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC BEADS 17 .Segment LED Display 3.3.1 Basic Prototype of the Digital Jewellery Fig 3.
The closest comparison to this model is that of 'beads' which are strung together to make a custom necklace or bracelet. including beads with a piezo element (4). and a solar panel on the outside (1). another bead may have an internal resistor (2). The number of data pins on the microcontroller needs to be enough to easily program the display layer plus the switches without overly complex and advanced coding Methods. with other options available in a variety of bead configurations which compose a circuit. One bead may be a capacitor on the inside. or rechargeable battery (5) as part of the modular jewel circuit. voltage regulator. 18 . crystal. which feed power into a programmed microcontroller bead which drives an external screen (3). with interchangeable electromagnetic component systems or devices.
FIG: The key to the device's ability to work effectively is a balancing of electronic components within the circuit with a light-duty processing and limited power consumption reqired for the (d) display layer. 19 .
THE JAVA RING 20 .
It can be frustrating trying to keep with all of the passwords and keys needed to access any door or computer program. Even the devices we use are protected by passwords.CHAPTER-4 THE JAVA RING It seems that everything we access today is under lock and key. Dallas Semiconductor is developing a new Java-based. computerized ring that will automatically unlock doors and log on to computers. 21 .
called an iButton. Fig 4. 16 milli.1: Prototype of stainless steel java ring.2: Blue Dot receptor The Java Ring is a stainless-steel ring. a real-time clock and a Java virtual machine. 32 KB of ROM. which is a piece of software that recognizes the Java language and translates it for the user's computer system.6 inches) in diameter that houses a 1-million-transistor processor.meters (0. The ring has 134 KB of RAM. 4.FIG.1 The Postal Security Device of Dallas 22 .
4. Dallas Semiconductor also has been designing. the Crypto iButton is expected to win the FIPS 140-1 security certification by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An agreement between Dallas Semiconductor and RSA Data Security Inc. combines high processor performance and high-speed cryptographic primitives. Postal Service's(USPS) Information Based Indicia Program Postal Security Device Specification. provided the first opportunity to combine two areas of expertise when a secure microprocessor was designed into an iButton the resulting product.For over 10 years. making. As a result of its high security. and other similar applications requiring cryptographic security and high resistance to attack by hackers. including an object-oriented design and a byte code interpreter to interpret and execute Dallas Semiconductor's custom-designed with the E-Commerce Script language. point-of-sale terminals. automatic teller machines. the Ecommerce firmware designed for this application had several points of similarity with Java. provides a paid-up license for anyone using the Crypto iButton to perform RSA encryption and digital signatures so that no more further licensing of the RSA encryption technology is required so far. and exceptional protection against physical and cryptographic attacks of outsiders. This feature. rapid zeroization.A special operating system was designed and stored in the ROM of the Crypto iButton to support cryptography and general-purpose financial transactions -.such as those required by the Postal Service program.2 Components of The Java-Ring The main components of the java ring are following:• JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE(JVM) • 134KB OF RAM • 32KB OF RAM • REAL TIME CLOCK 23 . named the Crypto iButton. High security is afforded by the ability to erase the contents of NVRAM extremely quickly. intended to permit printing of valid U. and selling a line of highly secure microprocessors that are used in satellite TV descramblers. postage on any PC.S. is a requirement for high security devices that may be subjected to attacks by hackers. While not a Java virtual machine.
the Crypto iButton can execute Java with a relatively large Java stack situated in NVRAM. High security is offered by the ability to erase the content of NVRAM extremely quickly and easily.which is used by the system which is connected to the java ring via ring reader. This process is called rapid-zeroization.This non-volatile random access me. 4.2 RAM Java ring contains a 134kb of the non-volatile random access memory. we will see an explosion of computer parts across our bodies. and the lithium energy preserves the complete state of the machine while the Java Ring is disconnected from the reader. Program and data is being stored in this non-volatile random access memory . but many of today's mobile devices can still be a bit awkward to carry around. The Crypto iButton also provides an excellent hardware platform for executing Java because it utilizes NVRAM for program and data storage. rather than across our desktops. Mobile computing is beginning to break the chains that tie us to our desks. applets are the small application that is designed to run on the another application system. With 6 kilobytes of existing NVRAM and the potential to expand the NVRAM capacity to as much as 128 kilobytes in the existing iButton form factor. The java virtual machine is the piece of software that recognizes the java language and translate the byte code . Digital jewellery. will be the evolution in digital technology that makes computer elements entirely compatible with the human form. 24 . The NVRAM iButton’s memory can be erased or rewritten as often as necessary without wearing out. designed to supplement the personal computer.mory offers high read/write speed and also provides a temper resistance through an instantaneous clearing of all memory when tempering is detected. In the next age of computing.• IBUTTOON • BLUE DOT RECEPTOR 22.214.171.124 Java Virtual Machine Java ring is programmed with java application program and applets that communicate with the host application on the networked system. This memory acts as conventional high-speed RAM when the processor is executing.
The prototype shows a detail of the internal construction of the Crypto iButton. With the addition of continuously running lithium powered timeof-day clock and the high-speed large-integer and modular exponentiation engine . If any attempt is made to penetrate into these barriers.A special kind of operating system called Ecommerce operating system which is based on java and JVM is stored in the ROM. As in standard Java.0 implementation and also for the design of "plus portions" that take advantage of the unique capabilities afforded by the Crypto iButtons NVRAM.3 ROM The java ring contains 32kb of ROM . This barrier substrate and triple-layer metal construction techniques employed in the silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM. Applets can be loaded and unloaded from the Java iButton as often as needed. 4. 25 . Dallas Semiconductor became a Java Soft license.0 specification was proposed. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. the Java iButton contains a garbage collector that collects any objects that are out of scope and recycles the memory for future use. ROM. As the Java Card 2. This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory. The silicon die containing the processor. It is stored in ROM because it is not supposed to be altered by the user.Therefore no requirement to deal with persistent objects in a special way objects persist or not depending on their scope so the programmer has complete control over object persistence. such as the ability to support a true Java stack and garbage collection. The agreement called for the development of a Java Card 2. All the applets currently loaded in a Java iButton are effectively executing at zero speed any time the iButton is not in contact with a Blue Dot receptor.2. NVRAM data is being immediately erased by itself. The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of special features expressly designed to prevent private keys and the other confidential information from being becoming available to hackers. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker. This operating system handles all the operation which is happening in the iButton.
External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. The real time clock will continuously running up to more than 10 years by the energy provided the lithium backup. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means.2. In addition. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor.In addition. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby to obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys for security. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and hence. thereby obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys that are available till now. 4. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz.4 Real Time Clock In the java ring real time clock gives the exact time of the day. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. 26 . A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the timeof-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock.
If any attempt is made to penetrate these barriers. the processor itself is 27 .5 IButton Fig 4. Figure 4. ROM. In addition. The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of special features that are being expressly designed to prevent private keys and other confidential information from becoming available to hackers.1 shows a detail description of the internal construction of the Crypto iButton. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker.3 Structure of IButton The jewel of the java ring is the java iButton .4. This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. The silicon die containing the processor. This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal construction techniques employed in silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM.2.It contains the one million transistor processor single chip trusted microprocessor with powerful java virtual machine (JVM) housed in a rugged and secure stainless steel case. the NVRAM data is being immediately erased.
The iButton was invented and is still manufactured exclusively by Dallas Semiconductor mainly for applications in harsh and demanding environments.5. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles.driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. there are currently no contactless iButtons: they require physical contact with a reader to function. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor.35mm x 3.1mm . Among the simplest iButton are memory devices which can hold files and directories that can be read and written like small floppy disks. An iButton is a microchip similar to those used in smart card but housed in a round stainless steel button of 17. Like a smart card. and store e-cash (for purchases both in stores and 28 .89mm in size (depending on the function). IButton have only a single active electrical contact on the top surface and with the stainless steel shell serving as ground. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock. have an electronic ID (for physical access to buildings). There are iButtons that can measure temperature (for food storage and transport). an iButton does not have an internal power source. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain the information that can ultimately reveal the secret encryption keys. It requires connection to a reader in order to be supplied with power and to receive input and send output. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. It is originally called the touch memory devices they were later renamed as “iButton’s packaged” like batteries. Unlike some smart cards. Every iButton product is manufactured with unique 8 byte serial number and carries a guaranty that no two IButtons have same number.
4 Types of I Button’s available in the market 4. or dog tag and also a variety of accessories that are used daily by the human being. but can only retain the F5 version iButtons. The DS1402D-DR8 Blue Dot receptor cable can touch any iButton for reading. key chain. For e-commerce and personal ID usage.0/Open Card standards in addition to proprietary software. 29 . ring. For e-commerce applications.6 Blue Dot Receptor The read/write operation in the java ring is done by the blue dot receptor provided by the RS232 serial port adapter.via the web). iButtons can be mounted on a range of personal accessories watch. the iButton can support Java Card 2. Key Features:• Coiled cable for connecting iButtons to 1-Wire networks • Convenient. iButtons have an advantage over conventional smart cards in term of durability and longevity. The stainless steel casing gives iButton a far greater ability to survive in a range of temperatures. off-the-shelf connectivity. The DS1402D-DR8 is a part of the DS1402 series. Fig 4.2. It is a 1Wire network cable designed to connect any serial or USB 1-Wire port adapter that has a RJ11 jack with up to two iButtons simultaneously.
1-Wire network cables range from software protection and access control to asset management and the major thermal monitoring through handheld computers. serial or parallel port 1-Wire adapter to any iButton. 1-Wire RJ-11. The cables are designed to connect any USB. For hands-free operation the iButton canbe snapped into the Blue Dot and remain there. but can only hold the F5 version iButtons. A company's policy may. the iButton probe cables and the Blue Dot receptor cables can touch any iButton. DS9097U. The receptor itself easily affixes to any accessible spot on the front of the PC. The user can elect a quick information transfer with a momentary touch of the iButton to the Blue Dot.• For momentary (F3/F5 Micro Can) or dwelled contact (F5 Micro Can only). serial or a parallel-port 1-Wire adapter. Touch-and-Hold Probe. require both an employee and a supervisor to authenticate access to sensitive information stored on a network server. for example. The DS1402D Blue Dot Receptors are iButton reader/probes that would provide a convenient pipeline into the PC for an iButton-to-PC communication. The DS1402 series incorporates four basic types of connectors. and DS9490R). iButton. The DS1402 series of 1-Wire network cables provides connectivity for the iButtons. 30 . The DS1402BR8 is the only cable that connects to the DS1401 iButton Holder. and Blue Dot™ Receptor. IButton and 1-Wire are registered trademarks of Dallas Semiconductor Corp. The receptor's cable connects to a USB. Application of DS1402-series.Each receptor contains two Blue Dots to accommodate instances where multiple iButtons are required for a transaction. Both. • Adhesive pad for mounting on objects. • Supports for up to two iButtons at once. • Can be used with any EDS host adapter equipped with a RJ11 jack • Can be used with any Dallas Semiconductor port adapter of series (DS9097E. whichever type of port you wish to use.
Information is transferred between iButton and a PC with a momentary contact.Fig 4. Postal service has approved the cryptographic iButton as a Postal Security Device to be used in its PC Postage program 31 . To do that one presses iButton to the Blue Dot receptor. if the profile is authentic means user is authentic to open the door the applets president in the ring instruct the door to open. All information of the user is stored in the java ring.3 Working of Java Ring Since java ring is programmed with the applets and the programming is done according to our application and this will specific for the specific user. User simply has to press the signet of the java ring against the blue dot receptor and the system connected to the receptor performs the function that the applets instruct it to.java ring has the user profile and the same profile is present in the door embedded system also. at up to 142K bits per second. when the user press the signet of the java ring against the java ring reader which is embedded at the handle of the door the data is transferred from the ring to door system. The Blue Dot sticks to any convenient spot on the front of a PC and is cabled to the serial or parallel port in the back. a $15 pipeline into PC.5 Types of Blue dot receptor’s available in the market 4.
so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. The silicon die containing the processor. In addition. The barrier substrate and the triple layer technique effectively deny access the unauthorized access to the NVRAM confidential data.4 Security in Java Ring The java ring provides very high degree of security for the confidential data that is stored in the NVRAM memory. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain information that could ultimately reveal the secret encryption keys. ROM.that allows individuals to download postage off the Internet and print it from their own printers. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. 4. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. In the worst case if any unauthorized access penetrates the barrier the security processor detects it and immediately the data which is written in the NVRAM. If any attempt is made to penetrate these barriers. This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory. the NVRAM data is immediately erased. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of the special features expressly designed to prevent private keys and other confidential information from being becoming available to hackers. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in 32 . This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal construction techniques that are employed in the silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM.
what you are allowed to do. This will create a new business for rental car companies competing for business travelers in the saturated airport rental car market. Often in very harsh environmental conditions. Logging into your personal computer and providing security in your car.each has individualized settings. In this potential market. but no faster or farther than.g. a ring given to a mechanic or wallet allows that person to see the dashboard and drive 40 miles per hour within the one block radius. You connect the Java ring to a ring receptor in the car. as maintenance record carriers on the sides of Ryder trucks. The IButton memory devices have been deployed in vast quantities as rugged portable data carriers. Turkey. 4.air reservations.bus. rail.the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock.4.5 Application of Java Ring The java ring is used initially as a rugged portable data carriers. Sun representatives are also talking to the automakers.1 Security through Java Ring in a Car The Sun concept car's security is based on a Java ring that contains a profile of the user. based on your profile. Billing device. In a family where both the husband and wife drive the car. who are developing the automated rental cars. It is used for many real world application e. 33 . Among the largescale uses that are as transit fare carriers in Istanbul. for opening the door. and the car knows. vehicle location. For example. and all of the other functions are being done via wireless communication. The net result of this is a very inexpensive rental car for local use by residents and tourists. often in harsh environmental conditions. a driver can use his or her ring to access a vehicle and simply leave it when done with ought a lock. so that when they enter the car. in the e-banking application for getting the balance in your account. vehicle monitoring. their environments are configured to the profiles on their rings. The Java rings are authorized through the Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) so that no onecan steal a person's ring and run off with the car. 4.
They are worn as earrings by cows in Canada to hold vaccination records.since passwords are short or can be guessed. the bank server interacts with the security infrastructure that is installed at the bank. • It is also possible to use a tag on the key ring or a watch instead of a ring. Therefore an authentication scheme is started at user side that asks the user to push her Java Ring on the Java Ring reader. The bank’s security infrastructure demands that is the user must authenticate him/her-self to get the permission. since billing and privacy is based on it. sinceonly password can be forgotten. Since all bank data must be treated confidential. • It is easier for the administrators to maintain the security infrastructure. It is more secure than using passwords. before it responds to the application present. After the authentication process on the Java Ring. the bank knows the identity of the user and that he/she is really the one. Then the bank service can send the confidential and personalized data to the e-banking application that displays the current account balance.and as mailbox identifiers that are inside the mail compartments of the U. Postal Service's outdoor mailboxes. • • A very easy and a very convenient way for users. so that he/she can authenticate him/her-self in every situation. A few important facts can be stated about the use of the Java Ring: • Authentication is most crucial to most applications. 34 . This demonstration shows how an e-banking application (Jini client) tries to connect to any bank server (Jini service) to retrieve the current account balance of that user. Inside the Java Ring resides a Java interpreter that executes cryptographic routines to perform that task. • A ring is a personal thing that the user and only the user carries along him/her anytime and anywhere.S. and they are used by agricultural workers in many areas as rugged substitutes for timecards. he/she pretends to be.
35 .4.6 Highlights of Java Ring • Runs Java better (plus portions enhance Java Card 2.0). Careful attention to physical security(rapid zeroization) Durability to stand up to everyday use High memory capacity (up to 134K bytes NV SRAM) Retail connectivity to 250 million existing computers (less if designed-in before manufacturing) • • • • • Highly secure through the rapid zeroization method and auto erasing program on forcible access to the data.
FINANCIAL STATUS 36 .
CHAPTER-5 FINANCIAL STATUS 1.00 3.Earrings.Diamond Bracelets from $20.00 5.Rings.pendants from $20.Necklaces from $20.00 37 .Gold Bracelets from $20.watches from $17.00 2.00 4.
ADVANTAGES 38 .
CHAPTER-6 ADVANTAGES 1. As Computing Devices are embedded it is not necessary to carry Cells or Computers. hence it is easy to carry everywhere.So java ring is designed to providesecurity.It Provides Security for example JAVA RING is used to lock or unlock doors or computers.as we use passwords and keys to lock our doors and computers we don't need to remember all those passwords and carry all those keys. 2. 39 .
CONCLUSION 40 .
wearable computers or phones while remaining fashionably sound.CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSION Fig 5. The Java iButton.1: Digital Watch The basic idea behind the digital jewellery concept is to have the convenience of wireless. 41 .
bracelets. wallets. so the user can select a variation that suits his or her lifestyle. It is hoped to be marketable soon. With its stainless steel armor. it offers the most durable packaging for a class of products that likely will suffer heavy use and abuse as personal possessions. Charging capabilities and cost are just a sample of the problems that lurk. watchbands. The iButton form factor permits attachment to a wide variety of personal accessories that includes rings. however. several bugs remain.therefore. key fobs. is simply the most latest and most complex descendant of a long line of products that have proven they to be highly successful in the marketplace. BIBILIOGRAPHY 42 . and necklaces.
Blue tooth Connect without Cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman .COM 2. REFERENCES: 1. WWW.how stuff works .com 43 . 3. Cellular and mobile communications by LEE.IBM. WWW. Mobile Communications by Jochen Schiller . 2.CHAPTER-8 BIBILIOGRAPHY BOOKS: 1.