International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No.

1, 2012

Content-Based Publish/Subscribe with Motion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Mrs. S. Vasundra, Associate professor, Department of CSE, JNTUACEA, ANANTAPUR. Prof. A. Damodaram, Professor of CSE and Director SCDE, JNTUHCE, HYDERABAD. Dr. B. Sathyanarayana, Professor & Chairman BOS, Department of CS & T, S.K. University, ANANTAPUR.

ABSTRACT Publish-subscribe middleware designing poses several challenges in Mobility. The most evident is that the topology of the system, usually assumed static by existing systems, now becomes dynamic and undergoes continuous reconfiguration as the mobile nodes move. Depending on the mobility scenario, this may have different impact. At the other extreme, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) define the most radical mobility scenario, where no assumption is made about the dynamic topology of the systems and the networking infrastructure itself is assumed to be mobile. The impact of mobility in this case is disruptive and no longer limited to the clients dwelling at the outer edge of the system, since the intermediate nodes in-charge of routing and other network functions are now assumed to be mobile. Moreover, most applicative scenarios for MANETs actually blur the distinction between end nodes and intermediate ones, assuming that all the network nodes possess the functionality required to cooperate to enable routing. As a consequence, networking protocols must be rethought from the ground up to accommodate the new deployment assumptions, as witnessed by the appearance of entirely new routing protocols. The publish-subscribe model holds the potential to become the most fundamental importance in mobile computing, but only if the technology supporting it embodies the mechanisms and algorithms necessary to cope with the dynamicity of this environment. We evaluate the Improved ODMRP with motion detection (IOMD) for content-based publish/subscribe system in mobile Ad-Hoc networks and show preliminary experiment results. We extended ODMRP (On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol) using aggregated summaries of content-based subscriptions in Bloom filters expression for the dynamic construction of an event dissemination structure. ODMRP’s mesh topology gives extra reliability. We describe experimental results including comparison with regular ODMRP and mobility simulation.

Keywords: Publish/Subscribe, Multicasting, ODMRP, Bloom Filter, Mobility, Motion Detection, Ad Hoc Network 1. INTRODUCTION Networking technologies and products now enable a high degree of connectivity across a large number of computers, applications, and users. In these environments, it is important to provide asynchronous communication for the class of distributed systems that operate in a loosely coupled and autonomous fashion, and which require operational immunity from network failures. Various middleware products that are characterized as messaging have filled this requirement, message oriented middleware (MOM), message queuing, or publish-subscribe. In recent years, the publish-subscribe paradigm has emerged as a promising and effective way to tackle many of these issues. The implicit and asynchronous communication paradigm that characterizes publish-subscribe supports a high degree of decoupling among the components of a distributed application. In principle, it is possible to add or remove one component without affecting the others. Only the dispatcher, the element in-charge of collecting subscriptions and routing messages, needs to be aware of the change. Clearly, this form of decoupling would is desirable in a scenario where the set of available components undergo continuous change as in the mobile one. Nevertheless, much of the potential of the publish - subscribe model still remains to be unleashed by publish- subscribe systems. Indeed, many of the available distributed publish-subscribe middleware exploit a dispatching network arranged in a tree overlay for increased scalability, but whose design usually does not tolerate any form of topological reconfiguration. Therefore, paradoxically, these systems cannot be exploited precisely in those application scenarios where decoupling would be most beneficial. Content-based routing (CBR) provides a powerful and flexible foundation for distributed applications. Its communication model, based on implicit addressing, fosters decoupling among the communicating components, therefore meeting the needs of many dynamic scenarios, including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). As Mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic collection of

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nodes with rapidly changing multi-hop topologies that are composed of wireless links. The combination of mobile devices and Ad-Hoc networks allows the creation of highly dynamic, self-organizing, mobile peer-to-peer systems. In such systems, mobile hosts continuously change their physical location and establish peering relationships with each other based on proximity. Asynchronous communication is essential to support such MANET environments. There have been efforts to create efficient multicast communication for MANETs. Maintaining group membership and efficient delivery of the packets to all members is challenging. To achieve improved one-to-many communication systems in MANET environments, eventbased middleware must be introduced. Distributed applications exploiting publish-subscribe middleware are organized as a collection of autonomous components. The clients interact by publishing messages and by subscribing to the classes of messages they are interested in. The core component of the middleware, the dispatcher, is responsible for collecting subscriptions and forwarding messages from publishers to subscribers. This scheme results in a high degree of decoupling among the communicating parties. These ideas have been recently popularized by wealth of systems, each interpreting the publish-subscribe paradigm in a different way. A first point of differentiation is the expressiveness of the subscription language, drawing a line between subject-based and contentbased systems. In the first case, subscriptions contain only the name of a class of messages usually called subject, channel, or topic chosen among a set of pre-defined classes. Instead, in content-based systems the selection of a message is determined entirely by the client, which uses expressions (often called filters) that allow sophisticated matching on the message content. Several tree-based routing strategies can be found in the literature, with the most basic ones shown and compared. The simplest approach is message forwarding in which a broker to all the others along the dispatching tree forwards a published message. Instead, subscriptions are never propagated beyond the broker receiving them. This broker stores these subscriptions in a subscription table that are used to determine which clients, should receive incoming messages. Message forwarding may generate high overhead since messages are sent to all brokers regardless of the interest of the clients attached to them. An alternative strategy, called subscription forwarding, limits this overhead by spreading knowledge about subscriptions throughout the system. When a broker receives a subscription from one of its clients, it not only stores the associated filter in the subscription table as in message forwarding, but also forwards it to all the neighboring brokers. During this propagation, each dispatcher behaves as a subscriber with respect to its neighbors. Consequently, each of them records the filter associated with the subscription in its own subscription table and re-forwards it to all its neighboring dispatchers except the one that sent it. This process effectively sets up routes

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 for messages through the reverse path followed by subscriptions. Our interest lies in examining the impact of application specific mobility models on multicast routing performance [11]. For our study we use a set of mobility models that represent a range of application-based mobility patterns. We examine the performance of publish/subscribe in ODMRP and Improved ODMRP with motion detection (IOMD) under mobility models. Our results show that mobility patterns do affect multicast routing performance. We also investigate the special case of high density and high traffic rate. 2. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORKS One way of achieving multicast communication in MANET is to implement it on top of the MAC layer, therefore tackling mobility and link disruptions directly at the network layer. Alternatively, one can rely on some underlying multihop unicast mechanism providing point-to-point communication and let this deal with mobility and reconfigurations. We notice how the second approach creates a layer of indirection hiding many aspects related to reconfiguration. Instead, we want to retain control of mobility, to tailor the broker tree reconfiguration to our needs. Inevitably, this implies removing any intermediate layer between the topology maintenance mechanism and the network itself. The messaging system in MANET should be self organized, because the topology of a mobile P2P system has to constantly adjust itself by discovering new communication links and also needs to be fully decentralized due to the lack of a central access point. In many mobility models, each node moves independently from the others. Often, the speed and direction are chosen randomly, as with Brownian motion [9], Random GaussMarkov [18], Random Waypoint [15], and Random Direction [12]. Several models restrict the direction in which nodes may move. For example, Hu and Johnson use a Column model, based on a design suggested by Sanchez [3], in which nodes move with randomly selected velocities within a column formation [9]. Tian et al. explore graphbased mobility, designed to model the constraints of realworld locations, such as trains connecting cities. In this model, vertices in a graph represent possible destinations and edges represent paths on which nodes can travel. Likewise, Davies uses a City Section Mobility model, where several parts of a city are modeled as streets with their speed limits [4]. When a node has to move from one point to another, it selects the shortest path possible with the given street constraints. Recent work by Jardosh et al. incorporates the use of obstacles in defining mobility patterns [10]. In this work, obstacles are placed in a field and then paths to the obstacles (i.e. doorways into buildings) are computed using a Voronoi Diagram. Nodes choose a destination

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randomly and then move along the designated paths using a shortest-path computation. Group-based mobility models introduce dependency among the mobile nodes. Johansson et al. propose a Disaster Area scenario, in which individual groups consisting of rescue agents intercommunicate with each other [14]. Hu and Johnson use a pursue model, again suggested by Sanchez, in which nodes follow a group leader by trying to intercept it [9]. Hong et al. develop a Reference Point Group Mobility model, which is a generalization of the pursue model [7]. In this model, each node belongs to a group with a logical center, and a node’s velocity is defined as the sum of the velocity of the center its own random velocity. By adjusting the movement of the logical center, this model can be used to produce various real-life groupbased scenarios, such as disaster management, a convention center, etc. Finally, several mobility frameworks have been developed to characterize a wide variety of movements. The Mobility Vector model [8] uses a pair of vectors to model smooth changes in direction and speed. They show how various mobility scenarios can be generated from this basic model, including location-dependent movement, targeting, and group mobility. Topic-based addressing is an abstraction of numeric network addressing schemes. With the content-based subscriptions used in SIENA and Gryphon, delivery depends only on message content, extending the capability of event notification with more expressive subscription filters [1]. Common topic-based systems arrange topics in hierarchies, but a topic cannot have several super topics. Type-based subscription provides a natural approach to this if the language offers multiple sub-typing, thus avoiding explicit message classification through topics. This works well with typed languages, but it is complex to deploy this degree of serialization of objects. Moreover, mobile applications may not have the concept of objects or typing. Thus, the combination of hierarchical topics and high speed content filtering could be a more flexible approach for mobile applications. There are efforts to build content-based subscription with distributed hash tables by automatically organizing the content into several topics. Research is also ongoing to structure complex content-based data models [12] and reflection-based filters [7]. XRoute [17] proposes an approach for content based routing of XML data in meshbased overlay networks. We are currently working on efficient distribution of event matching tasks over the network and brokers by establishing the concept of ”approximate matching”. The dynamic construction of event dissemination trees to route events from publishers to all interested subscribers is the most challenging task to support content-based subscription in distributed environments. JEDI proposes variations for event routing among its networked event servers, including

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 the flooding and match-first approaches. With the hierarchical approach, event servers are organized in a tree. This approach may lead to a large routing table at the tree root. Routing strategies in SIENA use two classes of algorithm: advertisement forwarding and subscription forwarding. They prune the propagation tree by propagating only those paths that have not been covered by previous requests. 2.1 Publish/Subscribe System Currently available publish-subscribe middleware differ along several dimensions among which the most relevant are the expressiveness of the subscription language, the architecture of the dispatcher, and the forwarding strategy [8],[16]. The expressiveness of the subscription language draws a line between subject-based systems, where subscriptions identify only classes of messages belonging to a given channel or subject, and content-based ones, where subscriptions contain expressions (called predicates) that allow sophisticated matching on the message content. We guess that the typical scenarios of pervasive computing, where a potential large number of components need to interact very flexibly, justify the latter choice with respect to the more conservative, less expressive, and less scalable solution of subject-based filtering. To apply content based publish/subscribe in large scale networks, most advanced middleware adopt a distributed dispatcher, where a set of brokers are interconnected in an overlay dispatching network and cooperatively route subscriptions and messages sent by components are attached to them. Middleware that exploit a distributed dispatcher can be further classified according to the interconnection topology of brokers and the strategy exploited for message dissemination. The simplest approach is message forwarding in which brokers are connected to form a un-rooted tree. Publishers send messages to their associated broker, which forward them to all the other brokers by following the tree topology. Moreover, each broker keeps track of the subscriptions coming from the software components directly attached to it in a local subscription table, which are used to determine the components, that should receive incoming messages. This solution inevitably results in high overhead as all messages are sent to all brokers, regardless if an attached component has subscribed. 2.2 Multicast Multicasting has traditionally been used as transport for messaging systems. However today’s multicast schemes are not scalable to support large groups. Thus, several Application-Level Multicast Routing Protocols (ALMRPs) have been designed. Most ALMRPs use tree based routing for logarithmic scaling with respect to receiver numbers: as the node connectivity changes, the tree structure changes accordingly. Narada [13] and many subsequent designs can

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best be understood as two layered protocols: a protocol that maintains a mesh of hosts, and a multicast routing protocol on top of this mesh. Other examples are Bayeux/Tapestry [19] and CAN [15]. The multicast service model is less powerful than that of a content- based network, and there is currently no optimal way of using or adapting the multicast routing infrastructure to provide a content-based service. For wireless networks, the most natural communication type is broadcasting. The dynamic topology of the network makes it difficult to maintain a multicast group, e.g., providing better bandwidth utilization and less host/router processing, and resolving unknown receiver addresses. There are several multicast routing protocols [6] for MANET. DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicasting Routing Protocol) builds a source-Based tree. AODV (Ad-hoc OnDemand Distance Vector Routing Protocol) builds a corebased tree. CAMP(Core Assisted Mesh Protocol) builds a mesh interconnection of hosts. ODMRP applies an ondemand routing technique to avoid channel overhead and improve scalability (see Fig. 1). It will attempt to create a group of forwarding nodes between the source and the multicast receivers. These forwarding nodes re-broadcast any packet they receive to reach all interested multicast receivers. The multicast mesh is created through a replyresponse phase that is repeated at intervals to keep the routes to the multicast receivers fresh. With the concept of forwarding group, only a subset of nodes forwards multicast packets (scoped flooding). ODMRP provides a richer connectivity among multicast members using a mesh-based approach. It supplies multiple routes for one particular destination, which helps in case of topology changes and node failure. ODMRP takes a soft-state approach to maintain multicast group members. Nodes need not send any explicit control message to leave the group. It can work with any unicast protocol. See more details of ODMRP in [4]. ODMRP supports optimized data dissemination mechanisms with context awareness, including location, network topology, network capabilities (e.g., bandwidth and stability), and mobility. To support publish/subscribe systems it is crucial to construct the event dissemination structure dynamically. We optimize the construction by defining an interface to apply the context from a publish/subscribe system to ODMRP. The context consists of subscriptions and message advertisements. We further extend the definition of context to conditions set by the middleware. The interface is generic; to supply data to be attached to ODMRP packets and indicate how to process them. Our proposal is conceptually similar to Active Networks, which allow users to inject customized programs into the nodes of the network. Content-based subscriptions at a broker node are aggregated and summarized into a compact data format in Bloom filters [3], and the event publisher broker node operates multicast grouping by examining the propagated subscriptions, applying K-means

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 clustering and other methods. This dynamic group construction is one of the difficult challenges. Contextawareness allows both middleware and network layer components to exploit information, providing an efficient and dynamic event routing mechanism for better performance. ODMRP applies an on-demand routing technique to avoid channel overhead and improve scalability as in Fig 1. ODMRP results from incorporating FGMP(Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol) with an on-demand scheme. It attempts to create a group of forwarding nodes between the source and the multicast receivers. These forwarding nodes re-broadcast any packet they receive, to reach all interested multicast receivers. The multicast mesh is created through a reply-response phase that is repeated at intervals to keep the routes to the multicast receivers fresh. The concept of a forwarding group implies that only a subset of nodes forwards multicast packets (scoped flooding).

Figure –1 Multicasting Operation of ODMRP

ODMRP provides a richer connectivity among multicast members using a mesh-based approach. It supplies multiple routes for one particular destination, which helps when the topology changes or nodes fail. ODMRP takes a soft-state approach to maintain multicast group members. Nodes need not send any explicit control message to leave the group. However, there are issues to be considered, for example an increase in senders leads to control overhead. The messaging system in MANET should be selforganizing. This is because the topology of a mobile P2P system has to constantly adjust itself, by discovering new communication links, and also needs to be fully decentralized due to the lack of a central access point. In such environments it is best to create a routing table on demand, as in ODMRP. According to simulation studies, [8], ODMRP performs well with regard to throughput and control packet overhead. ODMRP is simple and scalable, by avoiding the drawbacks of multicast trees such as intermittent connectivity and frequent tree reconfiguration. We therefore selected ODMRP for the underlying data dissemination mechanism. It is also an appropriate substrate for various on-demand multicast protocols for MANET.

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 ODMRP improves its performance using mobility and location information. Many contexts are within the network, and are outside the scope of middleware. On the other hand, the semantic contexts from the upper layers should be used to build efficient communication by the network layer component. Here, there is a need to exchange contexts among applications, the middleware tier and the network layer, to build an optimized data dissemination structure. 2.3 Bloom Filters Bloom filters [2] are compact data structures for probabilistic representation of a set in order to support membership queries. Especially when space is an issue, a Bloom filter may be an excellent alternative to keep an explicit list. Bloom filters allow false positives but the space savings often outweigh this drawback when the probability of an error is made sufficiently low. Burton Bloom introduced Bloom filters [20] in the 1970s, and ever since they have been very popular in database applications. Bloom introduced Bloom filters in conjunction with an application to hyphenation programs. Most of the words can be hyphenated appropriately by applying a few simple rules. Some words, say around ten percent, require a table lookup. To avoid storing all the words that can be handled via the simple rules, Bloom suggests using a Bloom filter to keep a dictionary of words that require a lookup. False positives here cause words that could be handled via the simple rules to require a lookup. Bloom filters were also used in early UNIX spell-checkers [McIlroy 82, Mullin and Margoliash 90]. Rather than storing and searching a dictionary, a Bloom filter representation of the dictionary was stored. A false positive could allow a misspelled word to be ignored. In early systems, where memory was a scarce and valuable resource, the space savings of a Bloom filter offered significant performance advantages. When packets are being sent through a multicast tree, the router associates multicast addresses with interface lists. One way to think of this is that each multicast address corresponds to an associated list of interfaces, or connections; if a packet associated with a multicast address comes in one interface of the list associated with an address, it should be forwarded through all other interfaces on the list. Instead of keeping a list of interfaces for each address, there can be a Bloom filter of addresses associated with each interface. When a packet with a multicast address arrives on one interface, the Bloom filters for all the other interfaces are checked to see if packets with that address should be forwarded along that interface. This avoids the need entirely to store addresses at the router. Parallelization can be used to speed the check of each packet against all interfaces. Handling the removal of an address from an interface is not discussed, but one can imagine using a counting Bloom filter to handle deletions from the Bloom filter accordingly. In [4] Bloom introduced a method according to which a vector V containing m bits, initially all set to 0, is used to compact the information in a set A = {α1, α2,…, αn} by hashing each value into V. In general k independent hash functions, h1, h2,…, hk can be used for each element of A producing k values, each varying from 1 to m and setting the corresponding bit in vector V. It is obvious that a specific bit can be set to 1 many times. MD5 [17] can be used to produce the values for the hash functions. To check if an element b belongs to set A the same k hash functions are applied on b and the bits of V in positions of h1(b), h2(b),.., hk(b) are checked. If at least one of these bits is 0, then b does not belong to A. Else, it is conjectured that b belongs to A although this may be wrong (this is referred to as a "false positive"). By tuning k and m we control the probability for false positives, which is given by PFP = (1 e -kn/m ) k , where n is the number of stored values, m is the size of the bitmap, and k is the number of hash functions.

Figure 2: A Bloom filter with 4 hash functions

In our approach, we used Bloom filters to summarize the names of the subscription attributes and the values of string attributes. Changes in the set of subscriptions must be supported (because existing subscriptions can be updated or deleted). This can be done by keeping for each location l in the bit vector, a count c(l) of the number of times that the bit is set to 1. Initially all the counts are set to 0. For every element a which is inserted or deleted, the counts c(h1(a)), c(h2(a)), …, c(hk(a)) are incremented or decremented accordingly. Bloom filters summarize large sets of information with little storage, with a controllable number of false positives. In fact, bloom filters have been employed for summarizing web cache contents [10]. The size of the bit map implementing the filter is typically equal to the product of n with a value called the load factor, which is used to decrease the probability of false positives. 2.4 Mobility Models Mobility plays a fundamental role in mobile networks. It influences the network behavior in a stronger manner than wireless connections do, since the latter can use the same communication protocols only experiencing lower

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 throughput rates. However, mobility makes protocols such as TCP and IP unfeasible for this kind of network. Therefore, architectures designed for mobile networks must understand how mobility influences their protocols. Mobility is considered as the amount of total movements performed by nodes in the network. It is also related to how dynamic a network is. In particular, low mobility intensity leads to a more static scenario, while high mobile intensity leads to a more dynamic scenario. 2.4.1 Random based Mobility Models: In random based mobility models, the mobile nodes move randomly and freely without restrictions. The destination, speed and direction are all chosen randomly and independently of other nodes. The different types are discussed below: (a) Random Waypoint Mobility model: The Random Waypoint model is the most commonly used mobility model in research community. At every instant, a node randomly chooses a destination and moves towards it with a velocity chosen randomly from a uniform distribution [0,V_max], where V_max is the maximum allowable velocity for every mobile node. After reaching the destination, the node stops for a duration defined by the 'pause time' parameter. After this duration, it again chooses a random destination and repeats the whole process until the simulation ends. Figures – 3 and 4 illustrate examples of a traveling pattern showing the movement of nodes for Random Mobility Model.
Figure –4 Travelling patterns showing the movement of nodes Random point group mobility

3. IMPROVED ODMRP WITH MOTION DETECTION FOR PUBLISH/SUBSCRIBE SYSTEM IOMD is a mesh-based multicast routing protocol. A mesh structure (an arbitrary sub-network) is established on demand to connect group members, providing richer connectivity among multicast members. By building a mesh, packets can be efficiently delivered to multicast receivers in the case of node movements and topology changes. In addition, drawbacks of multicast trees can be avoided as intermittent connectivity, traffic concentration, frequent tree reconfiguration and non-shortest path in a shared tree. IOMD is based on a new source routing approach, in which the source route accumulates in the reply packet. During mesh establishment, IOMD uses the Forwarding Group (FG) nodes concept. The FG is a set of nodes responsible for forwarding multicast data between any member pairs. This scheme can be viewed as a “limited scope” flooding within a properly selected forwarding set. The key innovation of IOMD is to handle effective criteria in selecting FG nodes in order to achieve a compromise between the number of the selected nodes, the availability and the stability of the selected paths. 3.1 Event Messaging

Figure –3 Travelling patterns of mobile nodes using Random walk mobility model

(b) Group Mobility Model: Random point group mobility can be used in military battlefield communication. Here each group has a logical centre (group leader) that determines the group’s motion behavior. Initially each member of the group is uniformly distributed in the neighborhood of the group leader. Subsequently, at each instant, every node has speed and direction that is derived by randomly deviating from that of the group leader. Given below is example of traveling patterns, showing the movement of nodes for Random Point Group Mobility Model. The scenario contains sixteen nodes with Node 1 and Node 9 as group leaders.

In the publish/sub model, subscribers typically receive only a subset of the total messages published. The process of selecting messages for reception and processing is called filtering. There are two common forms of filtering: topicbased and content-based. In a topic-based system, messages are published to "topics" or named logical channels. Subscribers in a topic-based system will receive all messages published to the topics to which they subscribe, and all subscribers to a topic will receive the same messages. The publisher is responsible for defining the classes of messages to which subscribers can subscribe. In a content-based system, messages are only delivered to a subscriber if the attributes or content of those messages match constraints defined by the subscriber. The subscriber is responsible for classifying the messages. Some systems support a hybrid of the two; publishers post messages to a

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topic while subscribers register content-based subscriptions to one or more topics. Traditionally, publish-subscribe communication is achieved by means of event notification messages that propagate through the network to reach all matching subscribers [5]. Publishers define the content of each event at publication time, while subscribers define subscription filters that operate on this content. The middleware determines which subscribers should receive a given event by means of a matching process that applies the filters associated with existing subscriptions to the content of every newly published event.

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 3.3 Routing with Improved ODMRP and Motion Detection

Figure - 5 IOMD with Bloom Filter

3.2 Mobility and Motion Detection Mobility poses several challenges to the design of publish-subscribe middleware. The most evident is that the topology of the system, usually assumed static by existing systems, now becomes dynamic and undergoes continuous reconfiguration as the mobile nodes move. Depending on the mobility scenario, this may have different impact. At the other extreme, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) define the most radical mobility scenario, where no assumption is made about the dynamic topology of the system and the networking infrastructure itself is assumed to be mobile. The impact of mobility in this case is disruptive, and no longer limited to the clients dwelling at the fringes of the system, since the intermediate nodes in-charge of routing and other network functions are now assumed to be mobile. Moreover, most applicative scenarios for MANETs actually blur the distinction between end nodes and intermediate ones, assuming that all the network nodes possess the functionality required to cooperate to enable routing. As a consequence, networking protocols must be rethought from the ground-up to accommodate the new deployment assumptions, as witnessed by the appearance of entirely new routing protocols. Again, publish-subscribe faces similar problems, demanding significant and radical changes to the behavior of the dispatching infrastructure. For instance, subscription information can no longer be associated permanently to the link where it came from, because the subscriber can move and become connected through a route involving a different set of links. Moreover, as in networking scenario, the distinction between infrastructure and application nodes becomes blurred, effectively introducing a different application model where all client hosts are also brokers. The publish-subscribe model holds the potential to become of fundamental importance in mobile computing, but only if the technology supporting it embodies the mechanisms and algorithms necessary to cope with the dynamicity of this environment.

Consider two nodes 1 and 2 whatever be the nodes, (source node, intermediate node, receiver node), when they move away from each other, our protocol works. As when they move towards each other, there rises no problem. When the nodes move apart, the link between them becomes weaker and it breaks. This is the major problem in MANETs. Here we use ODMRP for mesh formation. Each forwarding node sets an FG_FLAG on for the next hop for the particular receiver. It is easy to handle the mobility when we change the FG-FLAG, when the node moves from one point to another point. Consider node 2 has moved out of range of node 1 and has entered the transmission range of node 3. Then we set FG-FLAG at node 1 off and set FG-FLAG at node 3 on, the route change is over and this requires no additional overhead. We are not going to depend on External Dependencies like GPS. As a pure MANET does not depend on any external infrastructure. We form the mesh using ODMRP routing mechanism. We consider the energy with which the packet is received at the destination or intermediate node. If a link breakage is detected, the receiver is going to take action and follows Receiver-Join mechanism. As IOMD protocol works on Receiver-Join procedure, there is no need for periodic refresh of routes as in ODMRP. This reduces the overhead. As the new route is formed even before the previous route fails, the packet delivery ratio is much better than ODMRP. IOMD does not depend on any external dependencies. Independent of the node that is moving (intermediate node, source node or receiver node), the route reconstruction activity is taken effectively. IOMD estimates the mobility of the node efficiently using the remaining energy in the packet received. Each node records the energy values with which the data packets are arriving at it. Each receiver node and intermediate node in the mesh sets a time interval. If the node does not receive the data packet within three consecutive time intervals, they consider themselves detached from the route. Here we estimate the time in which the link is going to break. The distance between the nodes is directly proportional to the received energy of the packet.

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d α ∂Er
Where ∂Er is the rate of change of Energy in the packets. And d is the distance between the nodes. Once we find out the rate of change of distance, the speed V2 is known.

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 complement the existing explicit sender-receiver message addressing. Pub/sub is a sibling of the message queue paradigm, and is typically one part of a larger messageoriented middleware system. In all experiments, we have chosen the Random Waypoint (RWP) as the mobility model. Although it has well-known drawbacks [19], [3], it is still the most commonly used and studied mobility model. We ran experiments with different speeds and pause times. Each combination of the seven configurations listed on Table 1, each with different speeds and pause times was run for 33 different instances. Mobility intensity is affected by two different parameters in RWP: speed and pause time. We ran experiments with different speeds and pause times. RWP defines the nodes’ speed based on a random distribution in a range between a minimum and a maximum speed. Higher values for this parameter incur in faster movements and, consequently, in a higher mobility intensity. Intervals are represented by the mean speed, which varies from 5 m/s to 50m/s. The proposed work is evaluated using Glomosim Simulator. It is a scalable network simulation environment for mobile ad-hoc networks, developed at UCLA Parallel Computing Laboratory. Glomosim has the capabilities to simulate thousands of mobile nodes without disregarding the details in the lower layer protocols. It is built using a similar layered approach and standard APIs is used between the different simulation layers. This will allow for rapid integration of models developed at different layers by different people. The experiment evaluates Average Delivery Ratio and Control Overhead at different mobility scenarios. The Table-1 represents the simulation parameters need to do the simulation for 1 source and 20 receivers.

V2 = ∂d / ∂t
When the distance d is increasing, the nodes 1 and 2 become alert. When the distance d crosses the threshold level (we took 230m as the transmission range of the nodes is taken as 250), the route reconstruction procedure is started. If any one of the moving nodes (1 and 2) is the receiver node, it initiates the Receiver-Join Procedure. If both are the intermediate nodes, they send Receiver-Join-Init packet to the corresponding receiver node piggy backed to a data packet. On receiving the Receiver-Join-Init packet, the receiver initiates the Receiver-Join procedure. In the Receiver-Join Procedure, the receiver initiates a ReceiverJoin packet and broadcasts it for the multicast source. The intermediate nodes rebroadcast the Receiver-Join packet. Upon receiving the Receiver-Join packet, the source node changes the route to the receiver to the best route through which the Receiver-Join packet is received. The source sends the data packets directly to the route. The intermediate nodes in the new route upon receiving the first data packet, sets the FG-FLAG on to the particular receiver. Thus the route is changed even before the previous route fails. We named this mechanism as Improved ODMRP with Motion Detection as (IOMD) Protocol. This mechanism requires very less overhead compared to ODMRP. As the packet loss will be less, IOMD achieves better packet delivery. 4. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS A subscriber subscribes to a queue by expressing interest in messages enquired to that queue and by using a subject- or content-based rule as a filter. This result in a set of rulebased subscriptions associated with a given queue. At runtime, publishers post messages to various queues. The queue (in other words, the delivery mechanisms of the underlying infrastructure) then delivers messages that match the various subscriptions to the appropriate subscribers. Nodes Events support declarative definitions for publishing events, detection, and run-time publication of such events. This feature enables active publication of information to end-users in an event-driven manner, to complement the traditional pull-oriented approaches to accessing information. Advanced Queuing supports a queue-based publish-subscribe paradigm. Nodes queues serve as a durable store for messages, along with capabilities to allow publish and subscribe based on queues. A rules-engine and subscription service dynamically route messages to recipients based on expressed interest. This allows decoupling of addressing between senders and receivers to

Table –1 – Simulation Parameter Parameter Configuration Values Simulation Area 1200m X 800m No. of Nodes 50 Traffic Type CBR Traffic Resource 3 Packet Size 512 bytes Emission Rates 4 pkts/sec Mobility RWP 5,10,20,30,40,50 Mobility Speed (Meter/Sec)

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4.1 CONTROL OVERHEAD

International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 particular application is a good predictor of throughput, with greater amounts of link changes indicating worse performance. Even when the number of link changes is small, low node density and low spatial dependence can also degrade throughput. We evaluate the control overhead and message delivery ratio of IOMD publish/subscribe and ODMRP, and also the complexity of subscription, efficiency of global subscription aggregation, reliability of different mobility patterns, compared with original ODMRP for content-based subscriptions with Bloom filters. IOMD Publish/Subscriber improves performance when the mobility is high. The obtained result confirms that IOMD stability and scalability at higher mobility in compare to ODMRP. In future work, we intend to continue the evaluation of IOMD Protocol to prove protocol scalability. REFERENCES [1] Antonio Carzaniga, David S. Rosenblum, and Alexander L.Wolf, “Design and evaluation of a wide-area event notification service”, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 332–383, 2001. [2] Guruduth Banavar, Tushar Chandra, Bodhi Mukherjee, Jay Nagarajarao, Robert E. Strom, and Daniel C. Sturman, “An efficient multicast protocol for contentbased publish-subscribe systems”, in Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, ICDCS, Washington, DC, USA, 1999, p. 262, IEEE Computer Society. [3] C. Bettstetter, G. Resta, and P. Santi. The node distribution of the random waypoint mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks. Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 2(3):257–269, July-Sept. 2003.

Figure –6 Control Overhead

Fig 6 shows the control overhead of the systems at different mobility speed. Control Overhead computed with Total Control Packets Transmitted summation of total number of transmitted control packets from all nodes during simulation time. The Improved ODMRP publish/subscriber improves performance when the mobility is high. The obtained result confirms that IOMD stability and scalability at higher mobility in compare to ODMRP. 4.2 Message Delivery Ratio

Figure – 7 Message Delivery Ratio

Fig 7 shows the throughput of messaging systems with different event dissemination mechanisms. The throughput is measured when all messages are delivered to the targetsubscribing brokers. The Improved ODMRP publish/subscriber improves performance when the mobility is high. The obtained result confirms that IOMD stability and scalability are at higher mobility when compared to ODMRP. 5. CONCLUSIONS Distributed content-based publish-subscribe embodies a communication model providing the necessary component decoupling, flexibility, expressiveness, and scalability to deal with these characteristics at the application level. We find that mobility patterns can significantly affect the performance of a multicast routing protocol. Our results show that the number of link changes imposed by a

[4] F. Bai and A. Helmy. A survey of mobility models in wireless adhoc networks. Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. [5] R. Baldoni and A. Virgillito. Distributed event routing in publish/subscribe communication systems: a survey. DIS, Universita di Roma" La Sapienza", Tech. Rep, 2005. [6] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.C. Hu, and J. Jetcheva. A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols. In Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking, page 97. ACM, 1998. [7] P. Costa and G. Picco. Semi-probabilistic content-based publish-subscribe. In INTERNATIONAL

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International Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012 CONFERENCE ON DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS, volume 25, page 575. Citeseer, 2005. [8] Y. Huang and H. Garcia-Molina. Publish/subscribe in a mobile environment. Wireless Networks, 10(6):643{652, 2004. [9] Cristiano G. Rezende, Bruno P. S. Rocha, and Antonio A. F. Loureiro.Publish/subscribe architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. In ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC ’08), Fortaleza, Brazil, March 16-20, 2008. [10] H. Yongqiang, G. M. Hector, “Publish/Subscribe in a Mobile Environment,” MobiDE 2001. [11] S. Bhola, R. Strom, S. Bagchi, Y. Zhao, and J. Auerbach. Exactly-once Delivery in a Content-based Publish-Subscribe System. In Proc. of the Int. Conf. On Dependable Systems and Networks, pages 7{16, 2002. [12] R. Chandra, V. Ramasubramanian, and K. Birman. Anonymous gossip: Improving multicast reliability in mobile ad-hoc networks. In Proc. 21st Int. Conf. On Distributed Computing Systems, pages 275{283, 2001. [13] F. Bai, N. Sadagopan, and A. Helmy. IMPORTANT: A framework to systematically analyze the Impact of Mobility on Performance of RouTing protocols for Adhoc Networks. In IEEE INFOCOM, 2003. [14] C. Bettstetter. Smooth is Better than Sharp: A Random Mobility Model for Simulation of Wireless Networks. In ACM MSWiM, July 2001. [15] Jiuliang Xu, Hongyu Wang, "A Conditioned Broadcasting Approach for On-Demand Ad Hoc Routing Protocols," Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, IEEE 18th International Symposium on, pp:1-5, Sept. 2007. [19] M. K. Aguilera, et al. Matching events in a contentbased subscription system. Proc. ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp 53–61, 1999. [20] G. Banavar, et al. An efficient multicast protocol for content-based publish/subscribe systems. Proc. International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp 262–272, 1999. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Mrs. S. Vasundra is the Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapur. She joined as a faculty of CSE Department in the year 1999. She has published 20 papers in various International and National Conferences and published papers in 3 international Journals. Her areas of interest include Wireless Networks, Computer Networks, Information Security, Data Structures, Design and Analysis of Algorithms etc Dr. Avula Damodaram is the Professor of Computer Science and Engineering and Director of School of Continuing & Distance Education, JNTUH. He joined as faculty of CSED, JNTUH in the year 1989. Since then he has served the university in distinguished capacities such as Professor, Head of the Department, Vice Principal and Director UGC ASC. He has successfully guided several Ph.D. scholars. His areas of interest include Computer Networks, Mobile Computing and Software Engineering. Dr. Damodaram has published 35 technical papers in National and International journals and presented 45 papers at different National and International conferences.

[16] Nian Mei,Wang Neng,"A Dynamic Counter-Based Forwarding Scheme for ODMRP," Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, International Conference on, pp.1-4, Sept. 2006. [17] S.J Lee W. Su and M. Gerla, “On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) for Ad Hoc Networks,” Internet-Draft, draft-ietfmanetodmrp-02.txt, Jan. 2000. [18] Sung-Ju Lee, Su, W., Hsu, J., Gerla, M., Bagrodia, R.,"A performance comparison study of ad hoc wireless multicast protocols," Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Volume 2, pp:565-574 vol.2 Mar. 2000.

Dr. B. Sathyanarayana is currently working as Professor and Chairman BOS, Department of Computer science and Technology, Sri Krishna Devaraya University, Anantapur. 7 research scholars got their degrees under his guidance and 7 scholars are doing research under his guidance. He has published nearly 20 papers in various National and International Journals and published papers in 10 International and National level Conferences. His areas of interests include Wireless Ad hoc Networks, Image Processing, Computer Networks, Network Security and cryptography etc

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