Contact lens

Contact lenses are small visual devices made with curved pieces of plastic shaped in a way to conform directly to the wearer’s eye. They provide an artificial refracting surface to the human eye and are used to correct vision problems like myopia and hypermetropia. Contact lenses aid in eye focusing in the same manner as spectacles do. A contact lens (also known simply as a contact) is corrective, cosmetic, or therapeutic lens usually placed on the cornea of the eye. Modern soft contact lenses were invented by the Czech chemist Otto Wichterle and his assistant Drahoslav Lím, who also invented the first gel used for their production. 1

Contact lenses usually serve the same corrective purpose as glasses, but are lightweight and virtually invisible—many commercial lenses are tinted a faint blue to make them more visible when immersed in cleaning and storage solutions. Some cosmetic lenses are deliberately colored to alter the appearance of the eye. Some lenses now have a thin surface treatment which is a UV coating; this helps to reduce UV damage to the eye's natural lens. People choose to wear contact lenses for their appearance and practicality. When compared with spectacles, contact lenses are less affected by wet weather, do not steam up, and provide a wider field of vision. They are more suitable for a number of sporting activities. The lenses are made from different types of materials – soft and rigid – and come in a variety of designs and colors. These include disposable, colored, astigmatic, aphakic, presbyopic and keratoconic lenses. The initial fitting and follow up care are important parts of contact lens usage to give maximum benefits of vision, appearance, and comfort and tissue integrity.

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Chapter: 1
a) History b) Concept & theory c) application

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HISTORY
Many people believe that the contact lens is a modern invention, but that's actually not the case. In fact, the origins of the contact lens extend as far back as the early sixteenth century. Even the modern form of contact lenses first emerged several decades ago. Since the very first conception of the principle behind contact lenses, these optical devices have undergone many different changes at the hands of several different inventors and eye care professionals. In fact, contacts have gone from cumbersome and uncomfortable devices made of glass to today's plastic lenses which offer a high level of comfort while providing sharp, clear vision for those with a wide variety of vision problems. A Brief History of Contact Lens Materials Rigid Beginnings The first glass lenses were scleral devices that Muller made in 1887 as a protective shell and Fick made in 1888 for refractive correction. Feinbloom made the first hybrid lens in 1936 by creating a scleral lens with a PMMA hepatic and a central glass zone covering the cornea. Around 1940, the first solid PMMA lenses appeared and remained the primary materials until the late 1970s. Soft Lens Innovations Almost 60 years ago, Professor Otto Wichterle began developing the first hydrogel contact lens in Prague. He first synthesized HEMA and glycol diester in 1954. Their first material, the poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate gel (poly-HEMA-gel), contained about 40 percent water.

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" The Emergence of GP Materials In 1978. 5 . which now feature a GP core and a hydrophilic skirt. Using glass molds. Wichterle met George Nissel. the FDA approved the first rigid gas permeable lens in the United States in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). Within a week he was producing usable lenses and needed a stronger generator. he later began using pure HEMA. a silicone-acrylate material. so in 1961 he began to cast lenses in open. We continue to see hybrid lenses. Wichterle quickly patented this material and technique and called it "xerogel. Dr. However. B&L introduced the first silicone hydrogel lens followed by CIBA in 2001. a mechano set and a generator from his son's bike. Nissel gave him the idea of producing the poly-HEMA without solvent. rotating forms. Dr. Developing Silicone Hydrogel Silicone elastomer lenses appeared in 1981 when the FDA approved the Silsoft lens (Bausch & Lomb). Syntex introduced its Polycon lens. In 1998. he constructed a casting device on Christmas Eve 1961. In 1963. Wichterle produced the first several hundred lenses from a mixture consisting of 80 percent hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) and 20 percent diethylenglycol-methacrylate (DEGMA). turning it on a lathe and later swelling it with water while it maintained its optics. However. the most famous producer of hard lenses and lathing instruments of the time. in 1979 in a much thinner design than the first CAB lenses because of the material's improved stability. This process resulted in irregular lens edges. To maximize the equilibrium content of water in a swollen gel. owned by Dow Corning at the time. development of the silicone elastomer lens dates back to 1956 with Becker. Wichterle initially tried to produce these lenses by using closed polystyrene molds and polymerizing an aqueous monomer solution. a Pittsburgh optician. so he switched to using his gramophone's motor. The SoftPerm Lens (CIBA Vision) and the SynergEyes lens series introduced in 2005 are examples of these material marriages.Dr.

Concept & theory  Lenses made with surfaces of small radii have the shorter focal lengths. erect. If the object distance is smaller than the focal length of this lens. the image is smaller than the object. and larger than the object. The observer is then using the lens as a magnifier or simple microscope. Concave lenses form only virtual. the image is virtual.  The angle subtended at the eye by this virtual enlarged image is greater than would be the angle subtended by the object if it were at the normal viewing distance. If the object distance is greater than the focal length. A lens with a shorter focal length would cause the angle subtended by the virtual image to increase and thus cause the magnifying power to increase. The ratio of these two angles is the magnifying power of the lens.  A lens with two convex surfaces will always refract rays parallel to the optic axis so that they converge to a focus on the side of the lens opposite to the object. a converging lens forms a real and inverted image.  A concave lens surface will deviate incident rays parallel to the axis away from the axis.  The magnifying power of an instrument is a measure of its ability to bring the object apparently closer to the eye. so that even if the second surface of the lens is convex. erect. This is distinct from the lateral magnification of a camera or telescope. the rays diverge and only appear to come to a focus on the same side of the lens as the object. 6 .  If the object is sufficiently far away. and diminished images.

 The cornea makes up about two-thirds of the eye's total power to focus the light precisely on the retina (receiving screen) which is located in the back of the eye.  Optical defects and normal eye vision: Normal Vision Myopic Vision Hypermetropic Vision Astigmatic Vision 7 . By slight modifications in the shape of the cornea. clear functional vision may be restored for a period of time.

The image is in focus if the screen is placed at a particular distance from the lens that depends upon the distance of the object and the focal point of the lens. If the image forms behind the retina for nearby objects. Convex Lens A convex lens curves outward. This causes an image of the object to form on a screen on the opposite side of the lens. i. Concave and Convex lens. Sometimes eye muscles are unable to focus light on the retina.e. Light passing through a convex lens is bent inward. the screen at the back of the eyeball. Convex lenses are prescribed for hypermetropics to assist the eye in making light converge on the retina for nearby objects. 8 . a condition called farsightedness (hypermetropia) results. or made to converge. The lens becomes short and fat when viewing close objects and elongated and thin when viewing distant objects. The lens in the human eye is convex. but unlike a glass lens. it has a thick center and thinner edges. it is elastic so that it can change shape to focus on objects at varying distances.Principle A contact lens works on the principle which is the same as of a lens used in the spectacles.

Unlike convex lenses. it is shaped like two dishes placed back-to-back. which produce real images. or diverges.Concave Lens A concave lens is curved inward. Concave lenses help the eyes to produce a focused image on the retina instead of in front of it. people. or near-sighted. Concave lenses are generally prescribed for myopic. 9 . concave lenses produce only virtual images. Light passing through a concave lens bends outward. A virtual image is one perceived by the visual portion of the brain and appears as a smaller image just in front of the actual object (in this case a shamrock).

Chapter: 2 a) Physical and chemical properties of materials used in manufacturing of contact lenses b) Manufacturing processes 10 .

so it's more comfortable. 6 Hilafilcon B Balafilcon A 59 36 A silicone hydrogel material Provides a high level of oxygen to your eyes and has been surface treated to wet with your tears Light blue tint on the lens and increases the visibility of the lens when not worn on the eye 6. particularly towards the end of the day 4. ionic polymer Hydrophilic polymer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate Hydrophilic copolymer of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate and Nvinyl pyrrolidone CHARACTERISTICS THAT JUSTIFY ITS SELECTION Polymerization process ensures a material that results in a lens with good dimensional stability Methafilcon A 2. 5 5. 3 3.6 70 Makes the lens less likely to dry and curl away from the eye between blinks. 2 MATERIAL WATER CONTEN T (%) 55 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Ultra high molecular weight copolymer of 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylic and methacrylic acid. 1. handling tint-Reactive 11 .Construction materials SR. 7 Tetrafilcon A 43 Hydrophilic random terpolymer of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Nvinyl-2-pyrrolidone and methylmethacrylate joined in a 3-D network of terpolymer chains by divinylbenzene cross-links. NO. 4 Polymacon Hilafilcon A 38.

Hydrophilic. 1 Lotrafilcon B Omafilcon A 33 59 1 1. 8 Galyfilcon A 47 Blue163 dye Hydrophilic lens material 8. It is a remarkable moisture rich element that lies throughout the interior and exterior of the contact lens creating a unique soft silky feel. effective and safe prosthetic SCL De-centres and moves less. 9 Senofilcon 9. used for therapeutic purposes for epithelial healing Vifilcon A 55 12 . Light blue coloured handling tint For daily wear for the correction of visual acuity in not aphakic persons with nondiseased eyes that are myopic or hyperopic and exhibit astigmatism of 2. 1 1 2.00D or less that does not interfere with visual acuity For correction of visual acuity or cosmetic improvement Less susceptible to fungal attack.6 mm Polymer of 2hydroxyethylmethacrylate and 2methacryloyloxyeth yl phosphorylcholine cross linked with ethyleneglycol dimeth-acrylate. Minimizes dryness symptoms associated with exposure to adverse environmental conditions. 110 Dk. Permanently fixed tint using color additive Reactive Blue 4. 1 Phemfilcon A 38 Silicon hydrogel. 1 1 0. soft material Opaque prosthetic soft contact lens.7. base curve of 8.

but practically the values found by different researchers vary somewhat.5) Hefilcon C (57%) Alfafilcon A (66%) (Dk = 32) Omafilcon A (59%) (Dk = 33) Vasurfilcon A (74%) (Dk = 39. Each generic material below is accompanied by a representative Dk number.The Dk (oxygen permeability) of hydrogel contact lenses is a function of the water content. i.9) Tetrafilcon A (43%) (Dk = 9) Crofilcon (38%) (Dk = 13) Helfilcon A&B (45%) (Dk = 12) Mafilcom (33%) (Dk = 4) Polymacon (38%) (Dk = 9) Hioxifilcon B (49%) (Dk = 15) Lotrafilcon A (24%) (Dk = 140) Lidofilcon B (79%) (Dk = 38) Surfilcon A (74%) (Dk = 35) Lidofilcon A (70%) (Dk = 31) Netrafilcon A (65%) (Dk = 34. lower water content materials have lower Dk values and higher water content lenses have higher Dk values.1) Hioxifilcon A (59%) (Dk = 36) Nelfilcon A (69%) (Dk = 26) Hilafilcon A (70%) (Dk = 35) Hilafilcon B (59%) (Dk = 22) Bufilcon A (45%) (Dk = 16) Deltafilcon A (43%) (Dk = 10) Phemfilcon (38%) (Dk = 9) Bufilcon A (55%) (Dk = 16) Perfilcon A (71%) (Dk = 34) Etafilcon A (58%) (Dk = 28) Focofilcon A (55%) (Dk = 16) Ocufilcon B (53%) (Dk = 16) Ocufilcon C (55%) (Dk = 16) Ocufilcon D (55%) (Dk = 19.e.. It is also important to remember that Dk/L (central transmissibility) and Dk/L (average overall transmissibility) are dependent upon lens thickness configuration and are more important than Dk. Dk values are theoretically an absolute for any given material.3) Phemfilcon A (55%) (Dk = 16) Methafilcon A (55%) (Dk = 18) Methafilcon B (55%) (Dk = 18) Vilfilcon A (55%) (Dk = 16) Group2 High Water (>50% H20) Nonionic Polymers Group3 Low Water (<50% H20) Ionic Polymers High Water (>50% H20) Ionic Polymers Group4 13 . Group1 Low Water (<50% H20) Nonionic Polymers Teflicon (38%) (Dk = 8.7) Ocufilcon E (65%) (Dk = 22) Ocufilcon F (60%) (Dk = 24.

hybrid contact lens is the one which incorporates a gas permeable lens with a soft lens skirt. In order to hold the delicate lens in reverse manner. The CNC Lathe turns at nearly 6000 RPM (revolutions per minute) as the cutter remove the desired amount of material from the inside of the lens.  Hybrids.A lathe turned contact lens is cut and polished on a CNC lathe. Rotating moulds are used and the molten material is added and shaped by centrifugal forces.A spin cast lens is a soft contact lens manufactured by whirling liquid silicone in a revolving mold at high speed. The lens starts out as a cylindrical disk held in the jaws of the lathe. The convex (outer) surface of the lens is thus cut and polished by the same process. wax is used as an adhesive.  Spin-cast lenses . The lathe is equipped with an industrial grade diamond as the cutting tool.  Lathe turned .MANUFACTURING . and a small polyester cotton ball turned at high speeds.Molding is used to manufacture some brands of soft contact lenses.  Molding . Most contact lenses are mass produced. 14 . The concave (inner) surface of the lens is then polished with some fine abrasive paste. oil. Injection moulding and computer control are also used to create nearly perfect lenses.

there are a few major manufacturers: Acuvue/Vistakon (Johnson & Johnson)  Ciba Vision (Novartis)  Bausch & Lomb  Cooper Vision  Wesley Jessen  Ocular Sciences  Boston  Smaller manufacturers include:  Bescon  Conóptica  Conta Optic  Daysoft  Marietta Vision  Menicon  SafiLens  UltraVision  Wöhlk/Zeiss Contactlinsen EXAMPLE OF A LENS PARAMETER AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET Material Water content Centre thickness O2 permeability (Dk) O2 transmissibility (Dk/t) Contact angle Spectral and luminous transmittance Refractive index Handling tint Base curve Power range* Modality Asmofilcon A (non-ionic) FDA group 1 ISO 18369-1 40% 0.50D to -13.60mm +6.00D to -6.08mm 129x10-11 161x10-9 centre -3.423 Light blue 8.00D 27° (captive bubble method) 98% 1.30mm. 8.50D in 0.Although many companies make contact lenses.25D steps -6.00D in 0.50D steps Daily wear: fortnightly replacement Extended wear: weekly replacement 15 .

Chapter: 3 a) Uses b) Applications c) Types 16 .

the correction of myopia by deliberate overnight flattening of the cornea.uses CORRECTIVE CONTACT LENSES A corrective contact lens is a lens designed to improve vision. a red-tinted "X-Chrom" contact lens may be used. For those with certain colour deficiencies. In many people. leaving the eye without contact lens or eyeglasses correction during the day. 17 . astigmatism and presbyopia. far (or long) sightedness (hypermetropia). Conditions correctable with contact lenses include near (or short) sightedness (myopia). Contact wearers must usually take their contacts out every night or every few days. it allows some colorblind individuals to distinguish colors better. there is a mismatch between the refractive power of the eye and the length of the eye. Although the lens does not restore normal colour vision. leading to a refraction error. ChromaGen lenses have been used and these have been shown to have some limitations with vision at night although otherwise producing significant improvements in colour vision. depending on the brand and style of the contact. A contact lens neutralizes this mismatch and allows for correct focusing of light onto the retina. Recently there has been renewed interest in orthokeratology.

brown-black. opaque tints that can change your eye color completely.COSMETIC (COLORED) CONTACT LENSES A cosmetic contact lens is designed to change the appearance of the eye. including hazel. 18 . As the name implies. just to help you see it better during insertion and removal. it's meant to enhance the existing color of your eyes. An enhancement tint does change your eye color. If you have dark eyes. Colored contact lenses come in three kinds: visibility tints. green. but some blurring or obstruction of vision may occur as a result of the colour or design. Since it's a very light tint. blue. Usually they are made of patterns of solid colors. amethyst and gray. Color contacts come in a wide variety of colors. These lenses may also correct the vision. enhancement tints and opaque color tints. it does not affect your eye color. violet. or if you drop it. These types of tints are usually best for people who have light colored eyes and want to make their eye color more intense Opaque Color tints are deeper. A visibility tint is usually a light blue or green tint added to a lens. An enhancement tint is a solid but translucent (see-through) tint that is a little darker than a visibility tint. you'll need this type of color contact lens to change your eye color.

most often in horror and zombie movies. cloudy and lifeless. Zooming. these special-effect contact lenses are now widely available for novelty use and can temporarily transform the wearer into an alien or jaguar. 2. 19 .. They may also hamper the vision as the lens has a small area for the user to see through. Jaguar. sclera) and are used in many theatrical lenses. Red Hot. among others. 8. 10. 1. 3. Scleral lenses cover the white part of the eye (i.e. Cat Eye. Black-out. Icefire. Knockout. cosmetic lenses worn to change the color of the eye are far less common. White-out. Due to their size. accounting for only 3% of contact lens fits in 2004. Theatrical contact lenses are used primarily in the entertainment industry to make the eye appear pleasing. 4. Although many brands of contact lenses are lightly tinted to make them easier to handle. As a result they generally cannot be worn for more than 3 hours as they can cause temporary vision disturbances. and 11. Wildfire. 6. 5. these lenses are difficult to insert and do not move very well within the eye. 9. where lenses can make one's eyes appear demonic. 7.Costume or theatrical contact lenses also fall into the category of opaque color tints. Zebra. Long used in the movies (examples are The Man Who Fell to Earth and Twilight). or even to make the pupils of the wearer appear dilated to simulate the natural appearance of the pupils under the influence of various illicit drugs. unusual or unnatural in appearance. Hypnotica.

corneal ulcers and erosion. 20 . anterior corneal dystrophy. A bandage contact lens protects an injured or diseased cornea from the constant rubbing of blinking eyelids thereby allowing it to heal. keratitis. Mooren's ulcer.THERAPEUTIC CONTACT LENSES Soft lenses are often used in the treatment and management of nonrefractive disorders of the eye. Contact lenses that deliver drugs to the eye have also been developed. descemetocele. corneal ectasis. They are used in the treatment of conditions including bullous keratopathy. dry eyes. corneal edema. and neurotrophic keratoconjunctivitis.

or fogging up. 4. presbyopia and aphakia. contact lenses provide better side vision compared to glasses. Extremely hypermetropiac people or those who have had cataracts removed. which can easily happen with spectacles. contact lenses give improved vision for people with damaged corneas due to disease or injury. 6. 5. People not satisfied with their appearance using glasses can opt to use contact lenses for improved appearance. wearing contact lenses prove to be more practical as in the case of those where wearing spectacles pose a problem in their jobs. recurring corneal erosion as well as to increase comfort. Rigid lenses are used to correct irregular corneal trauma. feel better wearing contact lenses as compared to spectacles. 3. The primary use of contact lenses is to correct myopia (short sightedness). In addition to all these. vision and postoperative wound healing. Moreover.APPLICATIONS 1. 21 . getting wet. They can also be used to rectify hyperopia. 2. astigmatism. Contact lenses are not in the danger of slipping off. Soft lenses are used as bandages for conditions like bullous keratopathy. Contact lenses are capable of correcting most of the problems that spectacles can as well as some additional ones that glasses cannot. which in these cases produce uneven vision. Also for sportsmen.

or PMMAs (polymethyl methacrylate). Rigid contact lenses or gas permeable (RPG) which are composed of durable and flexible plastics. HYDROPHYLIC. Rigid lenses offer a number of unique properties. used earlier did not allow oxygen to pass to the eye and have been replaced by the RPGs. One advantage of hard lenses is that. The polymers from which soft lenses are manufactured improved over the next 25 years.are of two types: • • SOFT CONTACT LENS RIGID CONTACT LENS Soft contact lenses are those that are made of hydrophilic plastics and absorb liquid and must be kept moist for softness and easier moulding to the corneal surface. HYDROPHOBIC. The absorption of such compounds by other types of contacts can be a problem for those who are routinely exposed to painting or other chemical processes. PMMA 22 .TYPES Contact lenses. the lens is able to replace the natural shape of the cornea with a new refracting surface. they do not absorb chemicals or fumes. which permit oxygen to pass through to the cornea and are easier to maintain. They are extremely comfortable and are used by majority of contact lens users. This means that a regular (spherical) rigid contact lens can provide good level of vision in people who have astigmatism or distorted corneal shapes as with keratoconus. The original hard lenses. due to their non-porous nature. In effect. primarily in terms of increasing the oxygen permeability by varying the ingredients making up the polymers. when categorized on the basis of the material used .

Chapter: 4 Design and geometrical features 23 .

the lens surface becomes cylindrical. i.DESIGN and geometrical features Lens Design: Lenses are rotationally symmetric.e. 24 . geometrically symmetric or asymmetric front and back surfaces with atoric spherical effect optics Single Vision Lens Design: Single vision designs are the foundation for all of our designs. lenses are made very thin to make a flatter base curve. First and foremost to success for any of our designs is proper fit. Each lens design consists of multiple curves as small as All design controls are available with single vision design except the multifocal controls. the lens does become multifocal. All designs begin with our Multiple Aspheric(atoric) Design concept. if you enter astigmatism. Likewise. the resultant power is spherical equivalent and the design remains 'spherical'. But keeping in mind the thinner people usually avoid choosing toric lens designs. But as soon as you enter an astigmatic over refraction the design becomes a front surface toric. Once you do enter additive power.

Next the proper tear film thickness is optimized across the lens until the designer is satisfied.Multifocal Design: In multifocal designs attention is given to the lens periphery for precise centration. Toric Design Conventionally made toric designs typically cut a lens so that the cylinder is the same power across the entire axis. A toric lens is one in which either or both of the optical surfaces have the effect of a cylindrical lens. usually in combination with the effect of a spherical lens 25 .

Long-term wear of rigid contact lens is associated with decreased corneal keratocyte density and increased number of epithelial Langerhans cells. To avoid any problems. The corneal periphery is duplicated into the periphery of the lens to further enhance centration.Corneal Molding (Ortho K) Design: Corneal Molding (Ortho K) Design is a more comfortable fit with better centration. the proximity of the molding transition zone to the pupil diameter is defined. toric/spherical. which is an important indicator of potential flare or glare. toric/toric. free form (asymmetric)/spherical. Long-term contact lens wear appears to decrease the entire corneal thickness and increase the corneal curvature and surface irregularity. The designer has the option of four peripheral lens design combinations: spherical/spherical. 26 .

as they are not symmetrical around their centre and must not be rotated. Notice how the geometry is off center to accommodate the position of the nipple cone. Each lens is designed to fit the cone. Lenses must be designed to maintain their orientation regardless of eye movement. For example take the cone below (right). Often lenses are thicker at the bottom and this thicker zone is pushed down by the upper eyelid during blinking to allow the lens to rotate into the correct position (with this thicker zone at the 6 o'clock position on the eye). Simply put. These contact lenses have a specific 'top' and 'bottom'. 180 or 360 degrees of the lens.Keratoconus Design The specific keratoconus fits a keratoconic eye. The designer may make adjustments with an effect over 90. free form designs are asymmetric. Freeform Design Free Form design is unlike any other. The resultant lens design (left) shown on the left shows the back surface of the lens. 27 .

30mm Soft contact lenses Diameter: lies between 13 .0.12-1.0mm Edge thickness: lies between 0.0mm Edge thickness: lies between 0.GEOMETRIC FEATURES: Rigid contact lenses Diameter: lies between 8.5 -15mm Center thickness: lies between 0.10 .10 .0.15mm Center thickness: lies between 0.08 -1.30mm 28 .

Chapter: 5 Mechanism and functioning 29 .

If they curve out you need to flip the lens rigid. 30 . if the surface tension between the lens and the finger is too great the lens may turn itself inside out.INSERTION AND REMOVAL Before touching the contact lens or one's eyes. These bacteria keep pathogenic bacteria from colonizing the cornea. It may be noted that although it is easy to tell if you have inserted the lens backwards (as it is usually painful and vision is impaired) you are able to determine the lens's correct position before hand by holding the lens on the tip of your finger and squeezing the bottom of it with two fingers from your other hand. you will know you have it the correct way if the edges of the lens curve inward like a taco. Irrigation may help during this period. a brief period of irritation may ensue as the eye acclimatizes to the lens and also (if a multi-use lens is not correctly cleansed) as dirt on the lens irritates the eye.USAGE. The other hand may be employed to keep the eye open. alternatively it may fold itself in half. which generally should not exceed one minute. The soap should not be antibacterial due to risk of improper hand washing and the possibility of destroying the natural bacteria found on the eye. it is important to thoroughly wash & rinse hands with a soap that does not contain moisturizers or allergens such as fragrances. INSERTION Contact lenses are typically inserted into the eye by placing them on the index finger with the concave side upward and raising them to touch the cornea. Problems may arise particularly with disposable soft lenses. The technique for removing or inserting a contact lens varies slightly depending upon whether the lens is soft or rigid. When the lens first contacts the eye.

This method may cause irritation. moving the lens) it will buckle up (due to the difference in curvature). forming a seal stronger than that of the lens with the cornea and allowing the lens to be removed from the eye. the concave end is raised to the eye and touched to the lens. benzalkonium chloride. Lenses should not be kept in dry air. benzyl alcohol. and other compounds. could risk damage to the eye and may in many cases be difficult. they should be immersed in the liquid solution. DRIED OUT SOFT LENS 31 . and the container should be kept closed when not in use. If the lens is pushed off the cornea (by touching the lens with your forefinger and looking towards your nose. Rigid contact lenses may be removed by pulling with one finger on the outer or lateral canthus. then blinking to cause the lens to lose adhesion. The other hand is typically cupped underneath the eye to catch the lens. which resemble small plungers made of flexible plastic. To counteract minor contamination of the product and kill microorganisms on the contact lens. in part due to the blink reflex.REMOVAL A soft lens may be removed by holding the eyelids open and grasping the lens with opposing digits. CARE It is important to ensure that the product does not become contaminated with microorganisms: the tips of the containers for these solutions should never touch any surface. There also exist small tools specifically for removing lenses. some products may contain preservatives such as thiomersal. making it easier to grasp.

Chapter: 6 Environmental issues and compliance parameters 32 .

determining their mass. plastic. The overall environmental impact of waste generated through the use of contact lens products by the end consumer is insignificant (0. and factoring the data against published indices of the environmental impact of the constituent materials. paper.5%) compared with the amount of waste generated in our everyday life. 33 . Conventional lens wear has the highest impact and planned replacement lens wear (monthly disposable) has the lowest impact. calculating the annual consumption by a typical contact lens wearer.Environmental impact Environmental impact is calculated by sorting the packaging used in the supply of contact lens systems into their constituent materials (liquid. metal and glass).

Summary of compliance of daily wear and extended wear respondents Behaviour of daily wear group High level of compliance Using the correct solution Lenses stored in a lens case Lenses covered with solution during disinfecting Case lid closed tightly Bottle cap closed tightly Case not shared Too many days of wear Overnight wear with lenses prescribed for daily wear only Correct hand-washing Replacement of all solution each day (ie no topping up) Moderate level of compliance Low level of compliance Napping with lenses Monthly replacement of lens case Always cleaning lens case Regular checking of expiry dates Behaviour of extended wear group Using the correct solution Lenses stored in a lens case Lenses covered with solution during disinfecting Case lid closed tightly Bottle cap closed tightly Case not shared Too many days of wear Too many nights sleeping in lenses Correct hand-washing Replacement of all solution each time (ie no topping up) Regular checking of expiry dates Monthly replacement of lens case Always cleaning lens case The areas where improved compliance should lead to reduced risks for significant and serious keratitis are:  Correct adherence to lens wearing schedules (not sleeping in lenses prescribed for daily wear and discarding lenses at the correct interval)  Rub-cleaning and rinsing lenses to clean the lens surfaces and as an aid to disinfection Cleaning the lens case after each use and allowing it to air-dry  Good handwashing before lens handling. 34 .

Chapter: 7 Technological advancement and future scope 35 .

Single vision. After the finishing of designing the patient's one-of-a-kind contact lenses onscreen. The efficient process begins with thousand of data points from the topographer. The idea is simple. With the data. One can make as many design changes as you wish with an easy drag-and-drop approach to adjust any single meridian or combination of meridians.wave contact lens system Wave contact lenses are made using the Wave Contact Lens Software. 36 . the Wave software recommends the starting custom design. Creation of a lens that nearly mirrors the cornea for the most precise and comfortable fit available. geometrically symmetric or asymmetric depending upon the shape of the cornea. front surface multifocal. toric or bi-toric lens or reverse geometry (with or without toric periphery) are all available. seeing the results in the simulated fluorescent map. the Wave software delivers the precise design. Lens designs have multiple aspheric curves as small as 10 microns wide and are rotationally symmetric.

almost any design is possible.THE WAVE SCREEN: Wave's design screen show a complete overview offers a complete overview of the design parameters. With virtually unlimited control of the design. 37 .

computer-assisted lathes.Eccentricity Zero Molding (TM) GVSS .Ortho-k Ortho-K is a non-surgical process which reshapes (flattens by compression) the cornea of the eye using contact lenses to reduce refractive errors (nearsightedness and astigmatism). but it also frees the individual from the distractions caused by perspiration. Among them are: AOK . lens designs have a flat central base curve. 38 . Accelerated Ortho-K uses reverse geometry contact lenses. it is possible to achieve reduction of myopia in a matter of days.Corneal Corrective Contacts EZM . the cornea retains its flattened shape for part or all of the remainder of the day. i.Gentle Vision Shaping System VST -. Ortho-K is also successful for some degrees of farsightedness by steepening the central cornea. Since the amount of corneal flattening can be accurately controlled.Vision Shaping Treatment(TM) (TM) Ortho-K is not only an excellent alternative to the wearing of spectacles. After the contact lens is removed.e. Now. or the myopia will revert to the pretreatment level. and technological advancement in the procedure. with the advent of space-age polymers.Accelerated Orthokeratology CRT . dust. Flattening the cornea reduces the focusing power of the eye. it is possible to bring the eye into correct focus and compensate for the refractive error.Corneal Refractive Therapy (TM) CCC . There are no more blind spots caused by frame or lens edges. wind weather and temperature. A retainer lens must be used each day to maintain the corneal flattening. This high tech version of Ortho-K goes by many names.

the mid periphery is steepened. to drive in a convertible with the top down. This is due to the cells from the central portion moving towards the periphery The flattening or re-shaping improves the vision. to go swimming and skiing. Ortho-K might open new horizons to you. policemen.It is great to wear "regular" fashion sunglasses. to work in the dust. to get up at night or in the morning and see. and to be able to see in cases of emergencies. grass or in the garden. People in occupations that are hindered by the use of glasses or contacts may be good candidates for Ortho-K pilots. As the central cornea is flattened. PROCESS: • • • The central portion of the contact lens fits closer to the eye than a standard contact lens. • 39 . creating a red ring. etc. It does not touch the cornea because there is a tear layer protecting the eye. exerting a gentle pressure. firemen.

it can continue to change shape as time goes by. several surgical procedures have been developed to attempt to accomplish changing the curvature of the cornea. LASIK is less likely to produce scarring of the cornea and has become a hot topic in eye care.LASIK Recently. The individual prescription may continue to vary leading to increased dependence upon eyewear within years to just a few months after the surgical procedure. Since the cornea is soft. It does not stop the progression of myopia in children or adults. 40 . resulting in permanent blurring that even glasses or contacts cannot eliminate. Surgery is not an option for children or those whose vision is changing. Some surgical procedures produce scars causing surface irregularities on the cornea.

41 . Capillary forces pull the pieces into their final position. The prototype does not light up or display information. Then a technique called micro fabrication or 'self-assembly' is used to shape each tiny component. The lightemitting diodes are one third of a millimeter across. The lens will eventually have functional electronic circuits and infrared lights to create a virtual display. A grey powder is sprinkled onto the lens. The device will have the form of a conventional contact lens with added bionics technology.future scope: bionic contact lenses The bionic contact lens is being developed to provide a virtual display that could have a variety of uses from assisting the visually impaired to the video game industry. Engineers have tested the finished lenses on rabbits for up to 20 minutes and the animals showed no problems. The lenses require organic materials that are biologically safe and also use inorganic material for the electronic circuits. It is a proof that it is possible to create a biologically safe electronic lens that does not obstruct a person’s view. The electronic circuits are built from a layer of metal a few nanometers thick.

By using a high degree of automation. The result is a lens edge that is so thin and accurate it assures extreme comfort with every lens 42 .Advanced edge technology Through its new state-of-the-art manufacturing facility based in Hampshire. Sauflon’s high quality aspheric contact lenses are generated using a patented manufacturing process Advanced Edge Technology (AET). It is a UK based company. Sauflon is using the latest automated nano-precision equipment and advanced robotics to produce millions of new aspheric daily disposable contact lenses to exacting standards. reproducible lenses are competitive prices. Sauflon is able to produce extremely high quality. This process applies design and production parameters to the nanometer level of four decimal places. Extreme comfort does not have to cost more now.

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